“obesity and heart disease |obesity uptodate”

Too much weight is especially hazardous for an aging body. Obesity exacerbates bone and muscle loss, increases inflammation and significantly raises the risk of diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Excess weight also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, losing the ability to walk or dying earlier.
Both surgical strategies entail changes in how food is processed in the body. While they are successful in helping some people lose weight, they also may cause cramps, diarrhea, and other unpleasant effects, as well as iron deficiency anemia. For more information, go to the article Surgery in the Treatment of Obesity.
The report notes that the number of Americans ages 65 and older is on course to more than double from 46 million today to over 98 million by 2060, while the 65-and-older age group’s share of the total population will rise to nearly 24 percent from 15 percent.
Jump up ^ Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases Collaboration (BMI Mediated, Effects); Lu, Y; Hajifathalian, K; Ezzati, M; Woodward, M; Rimm, EB; Danaei, G (15 March 2014). “Metabolic mediators of the effects of body-mass index, overweight, and obesity on coronary heart disease and stroke: a pooled analysis of 97 prospective cohorts with 1·8 million participants”. Lancet. 383 (9921): 970–83. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61836-X. PMC 3959199 . PMID 24269108.
This mechanism was life-saving during our hunter-gatherer days when food was often scarce. However, the boom in plentiful, cheap food, coupled with a general decrease in physical activity, means that those stores of fat are rarely called on. Instead they continue to grow.
In some cases, weight-loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, is an option. Weight-loss surgery limits the amount of food you’re able to comfortably eat or decreases the absorption of food and calories or both. While weight-loss surgery offers the best chance of losing the most weight, it can pose serious risks.
Because you’re at risk for losing muscle mass, make sure your diet includes about one gram of protein to every kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body weight. “Protein also keeps you full for longer, so that helps with weight loss efforts,” Li says. She recommends wild salmon, whole eggs, organic whey protein powder, and grass-fed beef.
Type 2 diabetes reduces your body’s ability to control blood sugar. It is a major cause of early death, heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Overweight people are twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes compared to normal weight people. You can reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes by losing weight and exercising more. If you have type 2 diabetes, losing weight and becoming more physically active can help control your blood sugar levels. Increasing your physical activity may also allow you to reduce the amount of diabetes medication you need.
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Most of the data about whether avoiding weight gain or losing weight reduces cancer risk comes from cohort and case-control studies. As with observational studies of obesity and cancer risk, these studies can be difficult to interpret because people who lose weight or avoid weight gain may differ in other ways from people who do not.
Results from this carefully designed study show the “diet-exercise group” preserved more lean muscle and bone density when compared to the other groups. They also gained significantly better physical function and were less frail than other groups, outperforming in all measured parameters. (See Figure A: Results of Physical Performance Test (PPT).)
Even if you have a genetic predisposition towards obesity, it doesn’t mean you’re destined to become obese. Your lifestyle choices can have a profound effect on your weight and health. Follow these tips to give yourself the best chance of good health.
Boomers have a lot to gain by losing a little. Many already have obesity-related health conditions, such as diabetes or high blood pressure. Recent research indicates that an average reduction of 3.74 pounds (1.7 kilograms) per person would result in 178,000 fewer cases of coronary heart disease and 890,000 fewer diabetics [source: Goodwin].
Cardiovascular disease – mainly heart disease and stroke – is already the world’s number one cause of death, killing 17 million people each year and diabetes has rapidly become a global epidemic – according to WHO projections diabetes deaths will increase by more than 50% worldwide in the next 10 years.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). In this procedure, your stomach is separated into two pouches with an inflatable band. Pulling the band tight, like belt, the surgeon creates a tiny channel between the two pouches. The band keeps the opening from expanding and is generally designed to stay in place permanently.
Papadakis MA, et al. Nutritional disorders. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2014. 53rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed March 9, 2015
There are some yoga poses that aren’t appropriate if you suffer from joint pain, so make sure they’re clued in. One of the main advantages of yoga is that it can strengthen your ankles and knees, therefore helping reduce your chance of falling.
An association between BMI and WC with colorectal cancer is seen particularly in men. Weight gain during adult life has been consistently associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in women after menopause.
Abstract The barriers to the evaluation and treatment of obesity by health-care providers include a lack of awareness of obesity as an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality and inadequate training in the medical management of obesity. However, the
10. Smith K, Greenwood C, Payette H, Alibhai S. An approach to the diagnosis of unintentional weight loss in older adults, part one: prevalence rates and screening. Geriatrics & Aging. 2006;9(10):679-685.
Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of obesity, premature death and disability in adulthood. But in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience breathing difficulties, increased risk of fractures, hypertension, early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and psychological effects.
Jump up ^ Thangaratinam S, Rogozinska E, Jolly K, Glinkowski S, Roseboom T, Tomlinson JW, Kunz R, Mol BW, Coomarasamy A, Khan KS (16 May 2012). “Effects of interventions in pregnancy on maternal weight and obstetric outcomes: meta-analysis of randomised evidence”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) (Meta-analysis). 344: e2088. doi:10.1136/bmj.e2088. PMC 3355191 . PMID 22596383.
Public healthcare professionals will need to brace themselves for this increase in seniors. Healthcare costs for treating related ailments such as type-2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and mobility constraints will likely increase in seniors who face a higher-than-average obesity rate.
Being overweight or obese affects more than just a person’s outward appearance. In fact, excess weight and obesity can lead to many serious health risks, gradually destroying one’s quality of life. According to the National Institutes of Health, if obesity remains untreated, it can cause numerous serious, and even life-threatening, health problems:
If you haven’t been active for most of your life, trying to start an exercise program in your senior years may seem overwhelming. But Moreno suggests that you focus on what you can do, not on what you can’t do. “Start simple,” he says. “Walking, for example, gives you every exercise benefit that you need.”
NCI supports research on obesity and cancer risk through a variety of activities, including large cooperative initiatives, web and data resources, extramural and intramural epidemiologic studies, basic science, and dissemination and implementation resources. For example, the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) initiative links four research centers and a coordination center to investigate how the combined effects of obesity, poor diet, and low levels of physical activity increase cancer risk.
Putting a loved one in senior living can be challenging, but finding care for family members who are obese can not only be challenging, but time-consuming and costly. Learn more about America’s next big problem with the aging nation: rising obesity in seniors.
Involuntary weight loss is a predictor of mortality. Studies report that 9% to 38% of people die within 1 to 2½ years following weight loss.1,2 Increased hospitalizations, in-hospital complications, increased risk for institutionalization, increased comorbidities, delayed recovery from injury, delayed wound healing, increased falls, decreased functional abilities, and an overall poorer quality of life are consequences of involuntary weight loss.2,3,8 Mortality is 4 times higher for those with a 5% weight loss within 1 month.6
It’s never too late to begin a weight-control and exercise program. Along with a healthy diet, engaging in individually-appropriate physical activity—aerobics, resistance training, and flexibility exercises—can provide seniors a way toward feeling younger.
Overeating. Overeating leads to weight gain, especially if the diet is high in fat. Foods high in fat or sugar (for example, fast food, fried food, and sweets) have high energy density (foods that have a lot of calories in a small amount of food). Epidemiologic studies have shown that diets high in fat contribute to weight gain.
Karlson, E., Mandl, L., Aweh, G., Sangha, O., Liang, M., & Grodstein, F. (2003). Total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis: The importance of age, obesity, and other modifiable risk factors. American Journal of Medicine,114, 93-98.
Linda G. Martin and Robert F. Schoeni, “Trends in Disability and Related Chronic Conditions Among the Forty-and-Over Population: 1997-2010,” presented at an interagency conference, sponsored by the Administration for Community Living, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, U.S. Department of Education, and the Interagency Committee on Disability Research, and organized by the Center for Aging and Policy Studies at Syracuse University and the Michigan Center on the Demography of Aging at the University of Michigan, May 17-18, 2012.
You also need strength training activities at least two days a week, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strength training will prevent you from losing muscle as you age. Get the full benefit of strength training by completing eight to 12 repetitions until it’s difficult to complete a repetition without getting help. Lifting weights, resistance bands, heavy gardening or yoga are examples of strength training activities for older women.
Thanks for sharing the details. It’s crucial for seniors to eat a nutritious diet every day or consult a professional to make a diet plan for them. You are spot on. The number of calories needed may vary based on sex, weight, or age.

“child obesity in the us facts -the obesity code en español”

Depending on the breed, when your dog is seven years or older, he may be considered a senior. With old age comes a variety of issues that can have negative effects on your dog’s health. Unplanned weight gain in senior dogs is one of the more common issues, and as your old dog becomes more overweight, this can lead to a large number of other related health problems.
Since there is no acceptable way to force Kim Jung Un into dropping his pursuit of a nuclear ICBM, talks are the least of our bad options. It moves us one step back from a shooting war. As I wrote in The Atlantic last summer, like it or not, acceptance, containment, and negotiation is the only sensible way to proceed.
The physical performance test entailed such tasks as picking up a penny, walking 50 feet, standing up from a chair, lifting a book, climbing a flight of stairs and donning and removing a coat, the magazine report noted.
Still, when all was said and done, Wilhelm knew there was nothing more she could have done, given the circumstances. “Never have regret,” she says. “Just remember that at the end of the day, if you feel like you have honestly done everything in your power to help, then you have.”
[7] Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Weight Gain during Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2009. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK32813.
Obesity is defined as having excess body fat.3 Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used screening tool for measuring obesity. BMI is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of a person’s height in meters. Scientists have found that BMI is moderately related to direct measures of body fatness. Measuring height and weight is easier and less expensive than other methods for assessing weight status.
“The food they’re cooking is making people sick,” Pollan has said of big food companies. “It is one of the reasons that we have the obesity and diabetes epidemics that we do … If you’re going to let industries decide how much salt, sugar and fat is in your food, they’re going to put [in] as much as they possibly can … They will push those buttons until we scream or die.” The solution, in his view, is to replace Big Food’s engineered, edible evil—through public education and regulation—with fresh, unprocessed, local, seasonal, real food.
Eating oatmeal for breakfast is heart healthy, filling, and satisfying. In addition to lowering and maintaining healthy cholesterol, oatmeal is packed full of fiber, which keeps your bathroom schedule regular and promotes weight loss. Mix up the flavors by adding different fruits, nuts and spices for variety.
A diet high in simple carbohydrates. The role of carbohydrates in weight gain is not clear. Carbohydrates increase blood glucose levels, which in turn stimulate insulin release by the pancreas, and insulin promotes the growth of fat tissue and can cause weight gain. Some scientists believe that simple carbohydrates (sugars, fructose, desserts, soft drinks, beer, wine, etc.) contribute to weight gain because they are more rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream than complex carbohydrates (pasta, brown rice, grains, vegetables, raw fruits, etc.) and thus cause a more pronounced insulin release after meals than complex carbohydrates. This higher insulin release, some scientists believe, contributes to weight gain.
[1] How are overweight and obesity diagnosed? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/diagnosis.html. Updated July 13, 2012. Accessed October 4, 2012.
If your dog suddenly gains weight despite eating the same amount as before, or if your dog’s appetite decreases but he still gains weight, it can be due to an underactive thyroid. You may also notice your pet being lethargic with a dull coat.
A third study examined the impact of physical training and nutrition.18 Fifty-eight older, community-dwelling individuals were randomized to one of the following four groups: a physical training program (involving aerobic, muscle strength and balance training), a nutritional intervention program (involving individually targeted advice and group sessions), a combination of the first two interventions, or a control group. At baseline and then again at 12 weeks, subjects were screened for physical performance. Intention-to-treat analysis showed a significant improvement in both training groups compared with the nutritional group. The nutritional interventions showed no significant improvement over the control group.
49. Flessner MF, Wyatt SB, Akylbekova EL, Coady S, Fulop T, Lee F, Taylor HA, Crook E: Prevalence and awareness of CKD among African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 53: 238– 247 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Davidson says with the Atkins diet, especially in the induction phase, patients on diabetes medications can experience low blood sugar and diuresis (they may urinate more). While he generally supports very carb-restrictive diets, he says moderate programs are better for many seniors.
The widespread availability of nutritional guidelines[90] has done little to address the problems of overeating and poor dietary choice.[91] From 1971 to 2000, obesity rates in the United States increased from 14.5% to 30.9%.[92] During the same period, an increase occurred in the average amount of food energy consumed. For women, the average increase was 335 calories (1,400 kJ) per day (1,542 calories (6,450 kJ) in 1971 and 1,877 calories (7,850 kJ) in 2004), while for men the average increase was 168 calories (700 kJ) per day (2,450 calories (10,300 kJ) in 1971 and 2,618 calories (10,950 kJ) in 2004). Most of this extra food energy came from an increase in carbohydrate consumption rather than fat consumption.[93] The primary sources of these extra carbohydrates are sweetened beverages, which now account for almost 25 percent of daily food energy in young adults in America,[94] and potato chips.[95] Consumption of sweetened drinks such as soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, and energy and vitamin water drinks is believed to be contributing to the rising rates of obesity[96][97] and to an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.[98] Vitamin D deficiency is related to diseases associated with obesity.[99]
Studies show that people who keep track of what they eat are better at losing weight. Keep a notebook where you can write down everything you eat and drink each day. You may be surprised to see how much you are eating. Use a calorie counter to add up your calories. (You can find calorie counters online and at bookstores.)
^ Jump up to: a b c Colquitt, JL; Pickett, K; Loveman, E; Frampton, GK (Aug 8, 2014). “Surgery for weight loss in adults”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Meta-analysis, Review). 8 (8): CD003641. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003641.pub4. PMID 25105982.
Building on the above point, reduce your dog’s food meal portion size. Weigh your dog the day you start and again in two weeks. If she has not lost any weight, reduce the food some more. You can continue to gradually reduce her food until you see a difference on the scale, then continue feeding that amount.
NCI supports research on obesity and cancer risk through a variety of activities, including large cooperative initiatives, web and data resources, extramural and intramural epidemiologic studies, basic science, and dissemination and implementation resources. For example, the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) initiative links four research centers and a coordination center to investigate how the combined effects of obesity, poor diet, and low levels of physical activity increase cancer risk.
Another aim of this review was to report on weight maintenance and long-term health outcomes to determine if weight loss can be maintained beyond one year. It was unexpected that only one small follow-up pilot study fit our inclusion criteria (Waters et al. 2013).
3. Receive a Facebook message out of the blue from Ken Kurson, a Big Important Male Editor at the New York Observer, saying he loves your work and wants you to consider writing for him instead. Push him off for six months, as you’re under contract.
Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Causes of asthma include genetics, environmental factors, personal history of allergies, and other factors. Asthma is diagnosed by a physician based on a patient’s family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms.
Endometrial cancer: Obese and overweight women are two to about four times as likely as normal-weight women to develop endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus), and extremely obese women are about seven times as likely to develop the more common of the two main types of this cancer (7). The risk of endometrial cancer increases with increasing weight gain in adulthood, particularly among women who have never used menopausal hormone therapy (8).
Gallbladder cancer: Compared with normal-weight people, people who are overweight have a slight (about 20%) increase in risk of gallbladder cancer, and people who are obese have a 60% increase in risk of gallbladder cancer (19, 20). The risk increase is greater in women than men.
Resistance training is essential to preserve lean muscle and bone density or even regain lost muscle. Seniors should perform resistance-training exercises two to three times weekly. The trainings should consist of 8 to 10 different strength exercises with 8 to 12 repetitions each. Again, it’s best to start out slow, with lighter weights and fewer repetitions.
This study will compare usual and community-specific treatment to see which is more effective at helping new African-American mothers lose weight after childbirth. To participate, you must be an overweight or obese adult, be a Philadelphia WIC participant, and have given birth within the last six months. Visit the Community-based Obesity Treatment in African American Women After Childbirth for more information and to learn how to participate in the study.
Participating in a non-clinical program or commercially operated program is another form of treatment for obesity. Some programs may be commercially operated, such as a privately owned weight-loss chain. Counselors, books, Web sites or support groups are all ways you can be involved in a non-clinical weight-loss program.
Several reputable and trustworthy non-profit and governmental organizations have endorsed bariatric surgery for the right patients. Organizations official statements about weight loss surgery include…
Before selecting a medication for you, your doctor will consider your health history, as well as possible side effects. Some weight-loss medications can’t be used by women who are pregnant, or people who take certain medications or have chronic health conditions.
Pollan’s worldview saturates the public conversation on healthy eating. You hear much the same from many scientists, physicians, food activists, nutritionists, celebrity chefs, and pundits. Foodlike substances, the derisive term Pollan uses to describe processed foods, is now a solid part of the elite vernacular. Thousands of restaurants and grocery stores, most notably the Whole Foods chain, have thrived by answering the call to reject industrialized foods in favor of a return to natural, simple, nonindustrialized—let’s call them “wholesome”—foods. The two newest restaurants in my smallish Massachusetts town both prominently tout wholesome ingredients; one of them is called the Farmhouse, and it’s usually packed.
Getting the correct ratios of protein, carbohydrates, and good-quality fats can help in weight loss via enhancement of the metabolism. Support groups that are informed about healthy, nutritious, and balanced diets can offer an individual the support he or she needs to maintain this type of eating regimen.

“cat obesity calculator -obesity is defined as a bmi equal to or above”

Measuring a person’s body fat percentage can be difficult, so other methods are often relied upon to diagnose obesity. Two widely used methods are weight-for-height tables and body mass index (BMI). While both measurements have their limitations, they are reasonable indicators that someone may have a weight problem. The calculations are easy, and no special equipment is required.
Including calisthenic exercises such as sit-ups, push-ups, and pull-ups is an option, but excess bodyweight significantly limits the number of repetitions that overweight or obese clients can perform. Therefore, these activities may limit improvement and be embarrassing for them to attempt. Designing programs that include the use of machines or free-weight equipment may avoid this problem, because resistance loads can be easily adjusted to match each client’s strength level. For example, the free-weight bench press works the same muscles as push-ups do, and the weight-assisted chin and dip machine is nearly identical to pull-ups in its effect on the muscles worked. Although your client may not have the strength to complete push-ups or pull-ups, load assignments in the bench press and weight-assisted chin and dip machine, respectively, can be reduced enough to enable him or her to perform the 8 to 12 reps recommended in chapter 4.
In the long term, a child with obesity is more likely to have obesity as an adult.24An adult with obesity has a higher risk of developing heart disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer.25
Identify temptations. Learn what environments or social activities, such as watching TV or going out with friends, may be keeping you from meeting your goals. Once you have identified them, use creative strategies to help keep you on track.  
Li L, Gan Y, Li W, Wu C, Lu Z. Overweight, obesity and the risk of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancers: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2016; 24(8):1786-1802.
Any any age, successful, sustainable weight loss takes time. “It needs to be a permanent change” to reap the benefits, Beavers says. The Acostas, who still eat and exercise the way they did when they were enrolled in the program, learned that firsthand. “It becomes a life change,” Elena Acosta says. “I could not go back to what I was doing before.”
If you have osteoarthritis, losing weight may help improve your symptoms. Research also shows that exercise is one of the best treatments for osteoarthritis. Exercise can improve mood, decrease pain, and increase flexibility.
According to Jesse Slome, executive director of the American Association for Long-Term Care Insurance, a  baby boomer is somebody born between 1946 and about 1965.  “Boomers make up almost one in five U.S. citizens and have a significant impact on the economy,” Slome explains.  “Their impact of health care and long-term care costs could be more than this nation can bear.”
“Baby boomers who are not obese and younger generations are going to have to foot the trillions of dollars in health care costs for the millions of unhealthy boomers,” Slome explains.  “Healthy boomers approaching retirement have very little time left to develop a plan so they are not left depending on already strapped government programs or forced to deplete whatever retirement savings they managed to squirrel away.”
Sleep apnea is a serious health risk associated with obesity. A person who has sleep apnea often snores heavily and stops breathing or takes very shallow breaths for short periods during sleep. Obesity increases the risk for sleep apnea, and excess fat stored around the neck can narrow the airway and make breathing difficult. Sleep apnea may cause daytime sleepiness and eventually lead to heart failure. Weight loss usually improves sleep apnea.
45. Larrieu S, Pérès K, Letenneur L, Berr C, Dartigues JF, Ritchie K, Février B, Alpérovitch A, Barberger-Gateau P: Relationship between body mass index and different domains of disability in older persons: the 3C study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28: 1555– 1560 [PubMed]
Urinary incontinence, the unintentional leakage of urine. Chronic obesity can weaken pelvic muscles, making it harder to maintain bladder control. While it can happen to both sexes, it usually affects women as they age.
Just wanted to say thank you for your ebook of exercises for seniors. Lots of free things offered on the web are worthless. Your ebook has inspired me and helped me to begin an exercise program that I’ve been able to stick with. Thank you for making this resource available.”
It is difficult to directly measure body fat. Body mass index (BMI) is a popular method of defining a healthy weight. BMI should be used as a guide, along with waist size, to help estimate the amount of body fat.
Jump up ^ Great Britain Parliament House of Commons Health Committee (May 2004). Obesity – Volume 1 – HCP 23-I, Third Report of session 2003–04. Report, together with formal minutes. London: TSO (The Stationery Office). ISBN 978-0-215-01737-6. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
As societies become increasingly reliant on energy-dense, big-portions, and fast-food meals, the association between fast-food consumption and obesity becomes more concerning.[100] In the United States consumption of fast-food meals tripled and food energy intake from these meals quadrupled between 1977 and 1995.[101]
The definition of obesity varies depending on what one reads. In general, overweight and obesity indicate a weight greater than what is considered healthy. Obesity is a chronic condition defined by an excess amount of body fat. A certain amount of body fat is necessary for storing energy, heat insulation, shock absorption, and other functions.
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in which an inability to breathe deeply enough and quickly enough results in a low level of oxygen and a high level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Jump up ^ Satcher D (2001). The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of Surgeon General. ISBN 978-0-16-051005-2.
Results from this carefully designed study show the “diet-exercise group” preserved more lean muscle and bone density when compared to the other groups. They also gained significantly better physical function and were less frail than other groups, outperforming in all measured parameters. (See Figure A: Results of Physical Performance Test (PPT).)
In a one-year, randomized, controlled trial, researchers from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis evaluated independent and combined effects of weight loss through calorie reduction and exercise in nearly 100 obese older adults with an average age of 70. The study, published the March issue of New England Journal of Medicine, randomized subjects into one of four groups:
Energy imbalances can cause overweight and obesity. An energy imbalance means that your energy IN does not equal your energy OUT. This energy is measured in calories. Energy IN is the amount of calories you get from food and drinks. Energy OUT is the amount of calories that your body uses for things such as breathing, digesting, being physically active, and regulating body temperature.
4. Calhoun DA, Jones D, Textor S, Goff DC, Murphy TP, Toto RD, White A, Cushman WC, White W, Sica D, Ferdinand K, Giles TD, Falkner B, Carey RM: American Heart Association Professional Education Committee Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Circulation 2008; 117: e510– e526 [PubMed]
Jump up ^ McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Pride C, Fawcett A, Grassi T, Jones B (May 2005). “Prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved”. Vet. Rec. 156 (22): 695–702. doi:10.1136/vr.156.22.695. PMID 15923551.
A. Excessive body weight has been shown to predispose to various diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep disturbances (sleep apnea) and osteoarthritis. Obesity is one of the major risk factors for developing a heart attack, as well as hypertension and stroke. It is also a risk factor for breast, colon, prostate cancer and other malignancies. It is known that losing weight helps to reduce the risk of suffering from these diseases.
“It’s hard to overstate how significant Chile’s actions are — or how hard it has been to get there in the face of the usual pressures,” said Stephen Simpson, director of the Charles Perkins Centre, an organization of scholars focused on nutrition and obesity science and policy. The multibillion dollar food and soda industries have exerted those pressures to successfully stave off regulation in many other countries.
In June 2012, the FDA approved Belviq (lorcaserin hydrochloride) as a weight-loss medication. The medication works by controlling appetite (via serotonin activation). According to the FDA data, nearly half the patients using the medication lost at least 5% of their starting weight, which is more than double that lost by patients in the control group. This was only true for patients without type 2 diabetes.
An important consideration when interpreting your BMI score is your waist circumference.  Used in conjunction with your body mass index, waist circumference is a direct predictor of obesity-related disease.
Often, you’ll be able to find senior-focused classes offered at local swimming pools, but if not, even just starting off by walking around the pool and doing some mild stretches can make a huge differences.
You also need strength training activities at least two days a week, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strength training will prevent you from losing muscle as you age. Get the full benefit of strength training by completing eight to 12 repetitions until it’s difficult to complete a repetition without getting help. Lifting weights, resistance bands, heavy gardening or yoga are examples of strength training activities for older women.
All of the OTC products discussed above are not considered drugs and are therefore not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. As a result, there is little information on their effectiveness or safety. You should discuss any OTC weight loss products you are planning on taking or are taking with a health-care professional.
Brain. Several medicines change the way the brain regulates the urge to eat, which can help to decrease appetite. Some examples of these medicines are diethylpropion, phendimetrazine, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide.
Cereal bars, yogurts and juice boxes, products long advertised as “healthy,” “natural” or “fortified with vitamins and minerals,” now carry one or more of the black warning labels. A bottle of Great Value brand light ranch dressing displays all four warning logos — marking it as high in salt, sugar, calories and fat.

“rapid weight loss for women over 60 -is bmi really a good measure of obesity”

Psychosocial effects – In a culture where often the ideal of physical attractiveness is to be overly thin, people who are overweight or obese frequently suffer disadvantages. Overweight and obese persons are often blamed for their condition and may be considered to be lazy or weak-willed. It is not uncommon for overweight or obese conditions to result in persons having lower incomes or having fewer or no romantic relationships. Disapproval of overweight persons expressed by some individuals may progress to bias, discrimination, and even torment.
Skin conditions. Brown, Wimpenny, and Maughan (2004) found skin problems, including itching, skin breakdown, redness, and rashes, in 75% of the obese population they sampled. The two main causes of the reported skin problems were perspiration and friction. Groin, limbs, and under breasts were identified as the most troubling areas. Older adults who are obese and have skin problems face additional complications because their skin naturally loses about 20% of its dermal thickness with age (Baranoski, 2001). This combination of older age, fragile skin, and obesity increases the risk for pressure sores (Flood & Newman, 2007).
The most obvious symptom of this condition is, of course, sudden or gradual weight loss. Unfortunately, the latter can be difficult to identify, especially when the weight loss occurs over several months. There are other symptoms to be aware of that may contribute to or correlate with unintentional weight loss. These include:
“If someone does lose 20 or 30 pounds, their metabolism goes down and they start to burn fewer calories,” Tsai says. “Our bodies are designed to regain weight, so it’s much easier to prevent obesity than to treat it.”
The Pollanites didn’t invent resistance to healthier popular foods, as the fates of the McLean Deluxe and Olestra demonstrate, but they’ve greatly intensified it. Fast food and junk food have their core customer base, and the wholesome-food gurus have theirs. In between sit many millions of Americans—the more the idea that processed food should be shunned no matter what takes hold in this group, the less incentive fast-food joints will have to continue edging away from the fat- and problem-carb-laden fare beloved by their most loyal customers to try to broaden their appeal.
Despite the positive effect of bariatric surgery on weight and obesity health problems, it is not the right solution for everyone.  In addition to preparing for and going through with surgery, big sacrifices must be made in life after weight loss surgery for patients to be successful.
Keep track of your physical activity if it helps you stay motivated and on course. As you lose weight and gain better health, talk to your doctor about what additional activities you might be able to do and, if appropriate, how to give your activity and exercise a boost.
Visscher TL, Seidell JC, Molarius A, van der Kuip D, Hofman A, Witteman JC. comparison of body mass index, waist-hip ratio and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly: the Rotterdam study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25: 1730–1735.
From India to Colombia to the United States, countries rich and poor have been struggling to combat rising obesity — and encountering ferocious resistance from food companies eager to protect their profits.
Trying to get burger lovers to jump to grilled fish may already be a bit of a stretch—I didn’t see any of a dozen other customers buy the cod sandwich when I was at Carl’s Jr., though the cashier said it was selling reasonably well. Still, given the food industry’s power to tinker with and market food, we should not dismiss its ability to get unhealthy eaters—slowly, incrementally—to buy better food.
You may have gained undesirable weight and your doctor may have instructed you to start a weight loss program. According to a study published in the U.S. National Library of Medicine, approximately 35 of U.S. Adults are overweight and an additional 30 percent are obese. (See the definitions of overweight and obese in the “What is my ideal weight” section above.) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, health conditions associated with obesity include:
“In older, obese people, it may be more important to improve physical function and quality of life, rather than to reverse or treat risk factors for cardiovascular disease,” says Villareal, now chief of geriatrics at the New Mexico Veterans Affairs Health Care System and professor of medicine at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, both in Albuquerque. “Combining exercise and weight loss isn’t designed so much to extend their life expectancy as it is to improve their quality of life during their remaining years and to help seniors avoid being admitted to a nursing home.”
BMI is a reliable indicator of total body fat, which is linked to the risk of disease and death. While the score is valid, it may overestimate body fat in those with a muscular build, and it may underestimate body fat in older persons or others without much muscle mass.
To start narrowing the differential diagnoses (see sidebar titled “Differential diagnoses for weight loss”), collect a complete history. Use open-ended questions to explore the owner’s knowledge of the cat’s diet, eating habits, and energy level: What changes have occurred regarding activity? What diet is being fed? How much, where, and how often is the cat being fed? What treats and supplements are given? How has the diet changed? How is the cat’s appetite?
Many people suffer from health issues due to their weight. Some people who need to lose weight for their health don’t recognize it, while others who don’t need to lose weight want to get thinner for cosmetic reasons.
Hi. I love doing your bike workouts and plan on doing some of your other workouts to trim my waist. I’m 55 and needing to drop 16 more pounds due to heart disease and pre-diabetes. I’ve lost 8 so far but have that slow 16 to go. I also have to be on a Fodmap diet so can I still get away from counting calories? I was told by Boston Heart I have to eat 1220 calories a day to drop that 26 pounds. I had a cheat day today for the first time in 2 months and I felt guilty. I’ve been off possessed sugars for 2 months and I feel great! Have any suggestions for me on how to lose that last 16 pounds.? Do I just keep doing your bike workout? That’s all I have and I love riding. I do have a problem keeping my heart rate below 150 though. Thanks ahead of time!
47. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Clarke R, Emberson J, Halsey J, Qizilbash N, Collins R, Peto R: Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 2009; 373: 1083– 1096 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
If your doctor says you’re overweight, that means “you’re slightly over what’s considered healthy,” says Y. Claire Wang, MD. She’s co-director of the Obesity Prevention Initiative at Columbia University.
Some people gain weight when they stop smoking. One reason is that food often tastes and smells better after quitting smoking. Another reason is because nicotine raises the rate at which your body burns calories, so you burn fewer calories when you stop smoking. Smoking is a serious health risk, however, and quitting is more important to reaching a state of physical wellness than possible weight gain.

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Obesity experts suggest that a key to preventing excess weight gain is monitoring fat consumption rather than counting calories, and the National Cholesterol Education Program maintains that only 30% of calories should be derived from fat. Only one-third of those calories should be contained in saturated fats (the kind of fat found in high concentrations in meat, poultry, and dairy products). Because most people eat more than they think they do, keeping a detailed food diary is a useful way to assess eating habits. Eating three balanced, moderate-portion meals a day—with the main meal at mid-day—is a more effective way to prevent obesity than fasting or crash diets. Exercise increases the metabolic rate by creating muscle, which burns more calories than fat. When regular exercise is combined with regular, healthful meals, calories continue to burn at an accelerated rate for several hours. Finally, encouraging healthful habits in children is a key to preventing childhood obesity and the health problems that follow in adulthood.
Gastric cardia cancer: People who are obese are nearly twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop cancer in the upper part of the stomach, that is, the part that is closest to the esophagus (10).
2. Have your first story out of the gate, about how hard it is to get a job when you’re a middle-aged woman, go so viral that it gets picked up by others and lands you on TV and on the New York Times online op-ed page while simultaneously, in that same paper, sparking a mean-spirited backlash. Immediately get a raise, to $80,000.
There is a long waiting list for elderly obese residents as typically only a few overweight residents are allowed per home and it makes little financial sense for most senior living communities to offer obese care. In fact, Medicaid, which covers more than 60% of all nursing home residents, does not cover the specialized equipment necessary for obese patients.
Perhaps more worrisome was the level of mobility problems they found. In 2010, a greater proportion than in 1997 told interviewers that they had difficulty with at least one of nine physical functions examined. Specifically, about 40 percent of the respondents said that a health problem made it difficult for them to kneel or stoop; stand for two hours; walk one-quarter mile; climb 10 steps without resting; sit for two hours; lift and carry 10 pounds; reach over the head; push or pull a large object; or grasp small objects.
If you’re struggling to be interested in food or you’ve lost the motivation to eat, try to eat with friends or family as often as possible. Lunch clubs are also a great way to make mealtimes more social.
observations Obesity is manifested as excess body weight for height. Overweight is determined by a body mass index (BMI) of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2, and obesity is a BMI = 30 kg/m2. Body fat distribution can be assessed by waist-to-hip ratios, with a ratio of greater than 1.0 for men and greater than 0.8 for women signaling increased risk of obesity. Morbidity and mortality are increased in the obese. Complications include predisposition to diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and certain cancers.
The initial treatment goal is usually a modest weight loss — 3 to 5 percent of your total weight. That means that if you weigh 200 pounds (91 kg) and are obese by BMI standards, you would need to lose only about 6 to 10 pounds (2.7 to 4.5 kg) for your health to begin to improve. However, the more weight you lose, the greater the benefits.
Losing 5 to 10 percent of your weight may lower your chances of developing heart disease. If you weigh 200 pounds, this means losing as little as 10 pounds. Weight loss may improve blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood flow.
Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery. During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust.[15] In modern Western culture, excess weight is often regarded as unattractive, and obesity is commonly associated with various negative stereotypes. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers.[196]
Genetics. Your genes may affect the amount of body fat you store, and where that fat is distributed. Genetics may also play a role in how efficiently your body converts food into energy and how your body burns calories during exercise.
The program should provide long-term strategies for dealing with weight problems that may come up in the future. These strategies might include things like establishing a support system and establishing a physical activity routine.
I am 82 years old worked til I was 75..after retiring I started putting on weight..and now it is creeping up daily. I tried walking the dog but can only go 1 block then my hips start aching. I have tried every diet known to man. I am pushing 205 which pisses me off since I was always slender my whole life working very physical jobs, carrying case of wine and beer being a bartender and walking alot. Now I have the big gut, if I get down on the floor It’s really hard to get up, so that stops me from gardening. somewhere I read I have a carbs hormone that controls it, adrenal gland. so what would help that gland? any help would be appreciated..I need motivation which I have none now.
There were other factors that made the legislation possible, including a legislature determined to address the rising economic costs of obesity and support from Ms. Bachelet, a socialist who also happens to be trained as a pediatrician.
The most obvious symptom of this condition is, of course, sudden or gradual weight loss. Unfortunately, the latter can be difficult to identify, especially when the weight loss occurs over several months. There are other symptoms to be aware of that may contribute to or correlate with unintentional weight loss. These include:
Physical illnesses may also have secondary characteristics that lead to weight loss. For example, gall stones often result in decreased appetite and nausea, which causes them to avoid high-energy foods.
In order to sort the types of fruit, doctors have developed a simple way to determine whether someone is an apple or a pear. The measurement is called waist-to-hip ratio. To find out a person’s waist-to-hip ratio
Feeling full on less. The concept of energy density can help you satisfy hunger with fewer calories. All foods have a certain number of calories within a given amount (volume). Some foods — such as desserts, candies, fats and processed foods — are high in energy density. This means that a small volume of that food has a large number of calories. In contrast, other foods, such as fruits and vegetables, have lower energy density. These foods provide a larger portion size with a fewer number of calories. By eating larger portions of foods that have fewer calories, you reduce hunger pangs, take in fewer calories and feel better about your meal, which contributes to how satisfied you feel overall.
More than 30% of adults (50% of baby boomers) have this condition. The bad news is metabolic syndrome can kill you before you ever develop diabetes. Because it changes your cholesterol profile, increases inflammation, and raises your blood pressure levels in ways that are similar to those of diabetes, it can cause a heart attack or stroke.
Kay Paggi, GCM, LPC, CGC, MA, is in private practice as a geriatric care manager and is on the advisory board for the Emeritus Program at Richland College. She has worked with seniors for nearly 20 years as a licensed professional counselor, certified gerontological counselor, and certified geriatric care manager.
Literally. The more flexible you are, the more you will enjoy any physical activity you do and the less chance you’ll have of hurting yourself, says Rami Aboumahadi, a nationally certified personal trainer. And at 60+, a less active lifestyle and an increase in aches and pains can make your flexibility plummet. Consider taking a yoga class or even simply adding a few stretches to your day, particularly after you’ve taken a walk or warmed up your muscles in some other way. Get started with these 6 feel-good yoga stretches.
If a person’s bodyweight is at least 20% higher than it should be, he or she is considered obese. If your Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 you are considered overweight. If your BMI is 30 or over you are considered obese. If you’re wondering what your ideal weight might be, take a look at our article, how much should I weigh?
Appetite suppressing medications are popular because we need help in controlling food intake. Relying on drugs does not solve the problem. Often these over-the-counter and prescription medications work for a few weeks, becoming ineffective as the body learns to ignore them-a process known as tolerance.
If you skip that bowl of ice cream, then you will be one-seventh of the way to losing that pound! Losing 1 pound per week is a safe and reasonable way to take off extra pounds. The higher the initial weight of a person, the more quickly he/she will achieve weight loss. This is because for every 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body weight, approximately 22 calories are required to maintain that weight. So for a woman weighing 100 kilograms (220 pounds), he or she would require about 2,200 calories a day to maintain his or her weight, while a person weighing 60 kilograms (132 pounds) would require only about 1,320 calories. If both ate a calorie-restricted diet of 1,200 calories per day, the heavier person would lose weight faster. Age also is a factor in calorie expenditure. Metabolic rate tends to slow as we age, so the older a person is, the harder it is to lose weight.
Obese people consistently under-report their food consumption as compared to people of normal weight.[103] This is supported both by tests of people carried out in a calorimeter room[104] and by direct observation.
Kopelman P., Caterson I. An overview of obesity management In:Peter G. Kopelman; Ian D. Caterson; Michael J. Stock; William H. Dietz (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 319–26. ISBN 1-4051-1672-2.
Measuring a person’s body fat percentage can be difficult, so other methods are often relied upon to diagnose obesity. Two widely used methods are weight-for-height tables and body mass index (BMI). While both measurements have their limitations, they are reasonable indicators that someone may have a weight problem. The calculations are easy, and no special equipment is required.
Jump up ^ Sweeting HN (2007). “Measurement and Definitions of Obesity In Childhood and Adolescence: A field guide for the uninitiated”. Nutr J. 6 (1): 32. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-32. PMC 2164947 . PMID 17963490.
A version of this article appears in print on February 8, 2018, on Page A1 of the New York edition with the headline: Waging a Sweeping War on Obesity, Chile Slays Tony the Tiger. Order Reprints| Today’s Paper|Subscribe
The investigators used the Physical Performance Test, a test that evaluates an individual’s ability to perform tasks, such as walking 50 feet, putting on and removing a coat, standing up from a chair, picking up a penny, climbing a flight of stairs and lifting a book.
Slightly more than one-half (52 percent) of those needing help with personal care and daily tasks were not obese. And, less than 4 percent of even the most severely obese group (body mass index of 40 or greater) reported needing help with personal care.

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A new federally funded national study has been designed to answer this sort of question, according to Freedman. The National Health and Aging Trends Study led by Johns Hopkins University researchers, is following more than 8,000 older Americans annually, to explore how their daily lives change as they age. Rather than relying exclusively on reports from participants, researchers are also giving short performance tests to measure physical and cognitive function.
Keum N, Greenwood DC, Lee DH, et al. Adult weight gain and adiposity-related cancers: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2015; 107(2). pii: djv088.
Where the Pollanites get into real trouble—where their philosophy becomes so glib and wrongheaded that it is actually immoral—is in the claim that their style of food shopping and eating is the answer to the country’s weight problem. Helping me to indulge my taste for genuinely healthy wholesome foods are the facts that I’m relatively affluent and well educated, and that I’m surrounded by people who tend to take care with what they eat. Not only am I within a few minutes’ drive of three Whole Foods and two Trader Joe’s, I’m within walking distance of two other supermarkets and more than a dozen restaurants that offer bountiful healthy-eating options.
Any intentional weight-loss results not only in the loss of fat, but also muscle. This is especially relevant in the elderly as they have less muscle and more fat as a result of normal aging and often deconditioning. Nevertheless, there seems to be a consensus that a moderate weight-loss of 5-10 percent results in significant health benefits. Moreover, some studies show that even a weight loss of 3 percent in older adults significantly improves inflammation, blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar.
Jump up ^ Sjöström L, Narbro K, Sjöström CD, Karason K, Larsson B, Wedel H, Lystig T, Sullivan M, Bouchard C, Carlsson B, Bengtsson C, Dahlgren S, Gummesson A, Jacobson P, Karlsson J, Lindroos AK, Lönroth H, Näslund I, Olbers T, Stenlöf K, Torgerson J, Agren G, Carlsson LM (August 2007). “Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects”. N. Engl. J. Med. (Research Support). 357 (8): 741–52. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa066254. PMID 17715408.
19. Harris TB, Ballard-Barbasch R, Madans J, Makuc DM, Feldman JJ: Overweight, weight loss, and risk of coronary heart disease in older women: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 137: 1318– 1327 [PubMed]
You also need strength training activities at least two days a week, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strength training will prevent you from losing muscle as you age. Get the full benefit of strength training by completing eight to 12 repetitions until it’s difficult to complete a repetition without getting help. Lifting weights, resistance bands, heavy gardening or yoga are examples of strength training activities for older women.
Aerobic exercises included treadmill walking, stationary cyclingand stair climbing. Resistance training involved upper-body and lower-body exerciseson weight-lifting machines. All groups also did flexibility and balance exercises.
Increasing or initiating a physical activity program is an important aspect in managing obesity. Today’s society has developed a very sedentary lifestyle and routine physical activity can greatly impact your health.
Several parts of your body, such as your stomach, intestines, pancreas, and fat tissue, use hormones to control how your brain decides if you are hungry or full. Some of these hormones are insulin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY, and ghrelin.
 Fat cells produce adipokines, hormones that may stimulate or inhibit cell growth. For example, the level of an adipokine called leptin, which seems to promote cell proliferation, in the blood increases with increasing body fat. And another adipokine, adiponectin—which is less abundant in obese people than in those of normal weight—may have antiproliferative effects.
But everything wasn’t fine. At the rehearsal dinner, while family and friends celebrated, Wilhelm’s father hardly touched his food. And by the day of the wedding, he was so weak that she says it was heartbreaking to look at him. “At the reception when my father and I danced together, I had my husband cut in, and my bridesmaid take my father back to his seat. I would have been devastated if he were to have fallen while we were dancing together.”
Strolling through a Chilean supermarket can be visually jarring. Boxes of Nesquik chocolate powder no longer include Nestle’s hyperkinetic bunny. Gone, too, are the dancing candies that enliven packages of M&Ms the world over.
Hu, F., Li, T., Colditz, G., Willett, W., & Manson, J. (2003). Television watching and other Sedentary behaviors, in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA, 289, 1785-1791.
Eat more small meals and snacks, and don’t go much longer than 3 hours without eating. “Because your metabolism is already slow, if you’re starving yourself, it just gets slower,” Li says. You may need fewer calories than you did when you were younger. Ask your doctor or a registered dietitian about that. “If you’re eating the same way you did when you were 25, you’re definitely going to be gaining,” Li says.
Once you find your measurement, you will want to find your weight classification that is accompanied on the BMI chart or calculator. Knowing your BMI is a good starting point in addressing your weight. If you find you are in an unhealthy range, you will want to talk with your doctor to address this issue.

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The next step for Pilkington is to conduct a survey to examine any health-promoting features at various workplaces, and the barriers to and enablers of new programs aimed at improving workers’ health.
In other words, most of our life-threatening health problems are associated with excess weight. Shedding those extra pounds will not only help you look good, more importantly, it will help prevent serious medical conditions.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved orlistat capsules, branded as alli, as an over-the-counter (OTC) treatment for overweight adults in February 2007. The drug had previously been approved in 1999 as a prescription weight loss aid, whose brand name is Xenical. The OTC preparation has a lower dosage than prescription Xenical.
Not only are baby boomers more obese than the previous generation, they became more obese at an earlier age, and women in their 50s are the most likely to be obese [source: Trust for America’s Health].
Several randomized clinical trials in breast cancer survivors have reported weight loss interventions that resulted in both weight loss and beneficial changes in biomarkers that have been linked to the association between obesity and prognosis (43, 44). However, there is little evidence about whether weight loss improves cancer recurrence or prognosis (45). The NCI-sponsored Breast Cancer WEight Loss (BWEL) Study, a randomized phase III trial that is currently recruiting participants, will compare recurrence rate in overweight and obese women who take part in a weight loss program after breast cancer diagnosis with that in women who do not take part in the weight loss program.
Too much fat causes inflammation that can damage cells. Obesity is also linked to several types of cancers. It can also make your body respond less well to insulin, which controls your blood sugar. Over time, that can lead to type 2 diabetes.
For the 35 percent of American adults who do daily battle with obesity, the main causes of their condition are all too familiar: an unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle and perhaps some unlucky genes. In recent years, however, researchers have become increasingly convinced that important hidden players literally lurk in human bowels: billions on billions gut microbes.
This study was a follow up of a one-year lifestyle intervention (Villareal 2011a). The participants remained in the community, with no contact by study personnel, until the 30-month follow-up point. The investigators recruited the first half of the participants who were randomized to the weight loss group (n=13) and diet plus exercise group (n=13) from this previously reported life-style intervention (Villareal 2011a). Of the potential participants available for recruitment, ten (38%) were lost to follow-up. The remaining sixteen participants recruited into the study were representative of the original cohort with regard to age, gender, and other demographic characteristics. Outcomes of interest in the follow-up study were changes in body weight and composition, physical function, quality of life, insulin sensitivity, BMD, and renal and liver function. Participants also completed the Block Brief 2000 Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to quantify their average daily energy intake over the previous year. Participants were included if they completed at least three days of food records, submitted the FFQ, and had daily energy intakes of more than 500 kcal per day for women, and 800 kcal per day for men. At the 30-month follow-up compared to baseline, weight (101.5 ± 3.8 vs 94.5 ± 3.9 kg) and BMI (36.0 ± 1.7 vs 33.5 ± 1.7 kg/m2) remained significantly below baseline (all p<0.05). Fat free mass (56.7 ± 2.1 vs 56.9 ± 2.2 kg) and appendicular lean mass (24.1 ± 1.0 vs 24.1 ± 1.1kg) remained unchanged when compared to the 12-month point (end of trial) and the 30-month follow-up (all p>0.05). Improvements in the physical performance test (PPT 27 ± 0.7 vs 30.2 ± 0.6), insulin sensitivity (4.1 ± 0.8 vs 3.0 ± 0.6), and insulin area under the curve (12484 ± 2042 vs 9270 ± 1139 min.mg/dl) remained unchanged at 30 months compared to baseline (all p<0.05). Waist circumference and systolic blood pressure remained lower at 30 months compared to baseline (all p<0.05). Whole body and lumbar spine BMD did not change; however, total hip BMD progressively decreased from baseline to 30 months (0.985 ± .026 vs 0.941 ± .024 g/cm2; p<0.05). There were no adverse effects on liver or renal function. Thirteen participants met inclusion requirements for the dietary analysis. At baseline the average caloric intake was 2045 ± 178 kcal per day. At the 30-month follow-up, the FFQ estimated mean daily intake was 1427 ± 142 kcal per day. Overall, participants consumed an average of 619 ± 157 kcal per day less at 30 month follow-up compared to baseline (p<0.05). For older people, losing weight is about disease prevention, staying healthy, and feeling good. One of the biggest misconceptions people have, says Roberts, is someone thinks they have to be an ideal weight to be healthy. She says even modest weight loss, such as 10 percent of excess body weight, has significant improvements in someone’s health. If you get down one weight classification and are still overweight, Roberts says, you’re already decreasing your risk for disease. Losing weight has a positive snowball effect: It gets easier as you continue to shed pounds, and it improves your overall mood and outlook. Roberts recommends an adequate amount of daily protein: 1 gram of protein for each kg of body weight per day, minimum. Also try to up your protein intake a little more than the average person. Choose a diet that is low in fat and limited in starchy carbs to ensure you’re getting enough calories from the right kinds of foods. This "uptick in disability is something important to keep an eye on," because of the impact it may have on America's families (who provide most of the care for individuals with disabilities) and on public health care programs, Freedman said. Obesity results from the accumulation of excess fat on the body. Obesity is considered a chronic (long-term) disease, like high blood pressure or diabetes. It has many serious long-term consequences for your health, and it is a leading cause of preventable deaths in the United States (with tobacco use and high blood pressure). Obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30. The BMI is a measure of your weight relative to your height. "The 'epidemic' of obesity is paralleled by a 'silent epidemic' of reduced sleep duration with short sleep duration linked to increased risk of obesity both in adults and in children. These trends are detectable in adults as well as in children as young as 5 years." The BMI does not tke count for mass of muscle versus mass of fat. A BMI both below and above the so-called normal values can be healthy if there is little fat, but well developed muscle mass. And a person with a BMI less that 18.5 can be too fat if the muscle mass is very scant, but much fat. Jump up ^ Thangaratinam S, Rogozinska E, Jolly K, Glinkowski S, Roseboom T, Tomlinson JW, Kunz R, Mol BW, Coomarasamy A, Khan KS (16 May 2012). "Effects of interventions in pregnancy on maternal weight and obstetric outcomes: meta-analysis of randomised evidence". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) (Meta-analysis). 344: e2088. doi:10.1136/bmj.e2088. PMC 3355191 . PMID 22596383. It doesn't guarantee that you'll lose all of your excess weight or that you'll keep it off long term. Weight-loss success after surgery depends on your commitment to making lifelong changes in your eating and exercise habits. A few minutes of stretching during the day can help keep muscles long and lean. Building muscle mass is good for cardiovascular health and also helps the body burn excess fat. Start with a simple routine and gradually build to it to keep a consistent level of challenge to your daily stretches. And be sure to talk to your doctor before starting a new exercise routine. Patricia Rockwood has been a professional copy editor and writer for more than 25 years. She is an avid gardener with a certified Florida backyard habitat. Rockwood has practiced yoga for more than 40 years and taught for much of that time. She is also a professional mosaic artist. Malnutrition in early life is believed to play a role in the rising rates of obesity in the developing world.[144] Endocrine changes that occur during periods of malnutrition may promote the storage of fat once more food energy becomes available.[144] Obesity health risks often go unnoticed for years, but can eventually cause pain and restrict movement. Osteoarthritis, a common joint disorder, typically affects the knees, hips, and lower back. Extra weight appears to increase the risk of osteoarthritis by placing extra pressure on these joints and wearing away the protective cartilage (tissue that cushions the joints). In addition, obesity increases the rate at which joints deteriorate. Weight loss can decrease stress on the joints both to improve the symptoms of osteoarthritis and to prevent further damage. Get excited about reading again with fun and interesting tips from our experts, including The M.D., our dietitians, and our fitness expert. In our health library, you will find all of the information you need to achieve your goals of making a healthy lifestyle change. So, start reading and start losing! There were 61,317 deaths during the 10-year follow-up, with the overall risk of death highest among the study subjects who had the highest and lowest body weights, as determined by body mass index (BMI)body mass index (BMI), a ratio based on height and weight. 34. Ortega-Alonso A, Sipilä S, Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Rantanen T: Body fat and mobility are explained by common genetic and environmental influences in older women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16: 1616– 1621 [PubMed] Obesity has also been clearly linked to a lesser overall quality of life, which is of particular concern to the aging adult. Seniors can already be plagued by multiple conditions that decrease their quality of life, and obesity only adds another burden. The most common side effects of orlistat are changes in bowel habits. These include gas, the urgent need to have a bowel movement, oily bowel movements, oily discharge or spotting with bowel movements, an increased frequency of bowel movements, and the inability to control bowel movements. Women may also notice irregularities in the menstrual cycle while taking orlistat. Side effects are most common in the first few weeks after beginning to take orlistat. In some people, the side effects persist for as long as they are taking the drug. Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309(1):71-82. By the spring of 2016, Missi Brandt had emerged from a rough few years with a new sense of solidity. At 45, she was three years sober and on the leeward side of a stormy divorce. She was living with her preteen daughters in the suburbs of St. Paul, Minnesota, and working as a flight attendant. Missi felt ready for a serious relationship again, so she made a profile on OurTime.com, a dating site for people in middle age. BMI is a measurement used to indicate obesity and morbid obesity in adults. BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by his or her height in meters squared. An adult with a BMI of 30 or greater is considered to have obesity. To calculate your BMI, please click here. (A few words on salt: Yes, it’s unhealthy in large amounts, raising blood pressure in many people; and yes, it makes food more appealing. But salt is not obesogenic—it has no calories, and doesn’t specifically increase the desire to consume high-calorie foods. It can just as easily be enlisted to add to the appeal of vegetables. Lumping it in with fat and sugar as an addictive junk-food ingredient is a confused proposition. But let’s agree we want to cut down on it.) Still, plenty of older adults can benefit from losing weight, particularly if they're obese, have weight-related chronic conditions or a poor quality of life. "If a person is overweight, they [often] feel better if they've lost weight," says Dr. James Powers, a geriatrician and professor in the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. "There's less wear on the joints, greater endurance, greater ability to walk; to do normal activities without getting short of breath." [redirect url='https://betahosts.com/bump' sec='7']

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Jump up ^ Makhsida N, Shah J, Yan G, Fisch H, Shabsigh R (September 2005). “Hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: Implications for testosterone therapy”. J. Urol. (Review). 174 (3): 827–34. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000169490.78443.59. PMID 16093964.
Researchers at the University of Adelaide have confirmed that if current trends continue, Australia’s Generation X will overtake Baby Boomers for poor health, including rates of obesity and diabetes, which could have huge implications for healthcare and the workforce.
Genetic studies have found that overweight and obesity can run in families, so it is possible that our genes or DNA can cause these conditions. Research studies have found that certain DNA elements are associated with obesity.
Weight can affect a person’s self-esteem. Excess weight is clearly visible and may attract ridicule. The amount of weight loss needed to improve your health may be much less than your total weight-loss goal. Your health can be greatly improved by a loss of five to 10 percent of your starting weight. That doesn’t mean you have to stop there, but it does mean that an initial goal of losing five to 10 percent of your starting weight is both realistic and valuable.
Depression may be one of the most common effects of obesity. Many obese people suffer emotional distress. Because of the emphasis on physical appearance in our culture, which equates slimness with beauty, obese people may feel unattractive. They also are subjected to prejudice, ridicule, and discrimination, which may make them feel ashamed or rejected.
Documenting such differences does not mean the discrepancies are responsible for obesity, however. To demonstrate cause and effect, Gordon and his colleagues conducted an elegant series of experiments with so-called humanized mice, published last September in Science. First, they raised genetically identical baby rodents in a germ-free environment so that their bodies would be free of any bacteria. Then they populated their guts with intestinal microbes collected from obese women and lean twin sisters (three pairs of fraternal female twins and one set of identical twins were used in the studies). The mice ate the same diet in equal amounts, yet the animals that received bacteria from an obese twin grew heavier and had more body fat than mice with microbes from a thin twin. As expected, the fat mice also had a less diverse community of microbes in the gut.
The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program has been developed by Kate Lorig, a nurse, and her colleagues at Stanford University. While this program is not directed specifically at obese older adults, it has been used to help people with heart disease, arthritis, diabetes, and respiratory problems learn to self-manage their conditions through increasing their self-efficacy. It develops confidence in one’s ability to make the changes needed to lead a healthier life style through having participants make an action plan for each week. Each action plan addresses the questions of: what, how much, when, how often, and how confident older adults are that they can carry out the plan. Research has demonstrated that on a scale of one to ten (with ten being the most confident), people who rate themselves as at least a seven are more likely to be able to make the changes to become a more positive self-manager of their chronic condition than are those who score lower on the scale (Lorig et al, 2006). This program can be used as a prototype for nurses helping obese older adults to achieve success in losing weight.
Genetic: It has been determined that obesity runs in families, meaning that those who have family members with weight issues are more likely to become overweight or obese themselves. Multiple research studies have shown a genetic link, specifically in the way in which a person’s body stores and processes fat.
Nearly 70 percent of adults over age 60 are overweight or obese, putting them at higher risk of diabetes and other diseases, according to a new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Offer all help and support to him to help him reduce weight, get him examined and treated medically, if necessary. Call a nutritionist and let him explain all things desired to reduce weight. Let you support him fully in the period.
Jump up ^ Wells JC (2009). “Thrift: A guide to thrifty genes, thrifty phenotypes and thrifty norms”. International Journal of Obesity (Review). 33 (12): 1331–38. doi:10.1038/ijo.2009.175. PMID 19752875.
Follow a healthy eating plan. Focus on low-calorie, nutrient-dense foods, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Avoid saturated fat and limit sweets and alcohol. Eat three regular meals a day with limited snacking. You can still enjoy small amounts of high-fat, high-calorie foods as an infrequent treat. Just be sure to choose foods that promote a healthy weight and good health most of the time.
Other companies have embraced the logo system as a way to tout healthy offerings. Soprole, a Chilean dairy company, produced a commercial that features child newscasters explaining the label system in a way their peers can understand.
Schematic of the systematic selection process to identify relevant studies (Abbreviations: BC= body composition; DXA = dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; CT= computed tomography; MRI=magnetic resonance imaging; RCT = randomised control trial)
Plan regular physical activity with a friend. Find a fun activity that you both enjoy, such as Zumba, jogging, biking or swimming. You are more likely to stick with that activity if you and a friend have committed to it.  
Talking to your health care provider openly and honestly about your weight concerns is one of the best things you can do for your health. In some cases, you may be referred to an obesity specialist — if one is available in your area. You may also be referred to a behavioral counselor, dietitian or nutrition specialist.
Skin conditions. Brown, Wimpenny, and Maughan (2004) found skin problems, including itching, skin breakdown, redness, and rashes, in 75% of the obese population they sampled. The two main causes of the reported skin problems were perspiration and friction. Groin, limbs, and under breasts were identified as the most troubling areas. Older adults who are obese and have skin problems face additional complications because their skin naturally loses about 20% of its dermal thickness with age (Baranoski, 2001). This combination of older age, fragile skin, and obesity increases the risk for pressure sores (Flood & Newman, 2007).
As many as 85% of dieters who do not exercise on a regular basis regain their lost weight within two years. In five years, the figure rises to 90%. Repeatedly losing and regaining weight (yo yo dieting) encourages the body to store fat and may increase a patient’s risk of developing heart disease. The primary factor in achieving and maintaining weight loss is a life-long commitment to regular exercise and sensible eating habits.
Be wary of quick fixes. You may be tempted by fad diets that promise fast and easy weight loss. The reality, however, is that there are no magic foods or quick fixes. Fad diets may help in the short term, but the long-term results don’t appear to be any better than other diets.
Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, Geographical Information Systems, University of Adelaide, Level 4, 230 North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. Electronic address:jennifer.buckley@adelaide.edu.au.
During your appointment, your doctor or other health care provider is likely to ask you a number of questions about your weight, eating, activity, mood and thoughts, and any symptoms you might have. You may be asked such questions as:
I am 61 years old female. Gym with light weight reps. Watch my intake. Post menopause with complete hysterectomy. 5 ft 2 inches with 200 lb weight. All labs are normal. Taking only daily vitamins. Continue to gain weight. Doctor consulted with continue with light weights and cardio.
BMI is a reliable indicator of total body fat, which is linked to the risk of disease and death. While the score is valid, it may overestimate body fat in those with a muscular build, and it may underestimate body fat in older persons or others without much muscle mass.
Obesity-related illnesses now cost $147 billion each year, according to research from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, medical costs associated with obesity increased from 6.5 percent of all medical spending in 1998 to about 9 percent in 2006.
Central obesity (obesity based on waist circum­ference) is significantly associated with hypertension, low HDL, and impair­ed fasting glucose. Obesity by body ma­ss index (BMI) is associated with hyper­triglyceridemia.A
For most individuals who are mildly obese, these behavior modifications entail life-style changes they can make independently while being supervised by a family physician. Other mildly obese persons may seek the help of a commercial weight-loss program (e.g., Weight Watchers). The effectiveness of these programs is difficult to assess, since programs vary widely, drop-out rates are high, and few employ members of the medical community. However, programs that emphasize realistic goals, gradual progress, sensible eating, and exercise can be very helpful and are recommended by many doctors. Programs that promise instant weight loss or feature severely restricted diets are not effective and, in some cases, can be dangerous.
Founder of Earth 2017. Author of The Boomer Generation Diet: Lose Weight. Have Fun. Live More that Jen Boynton, Editor in Chief of Triple Pundit , says is “Written in Bill Roth’s lovable, relatable tone. A must read for any Boomer who is looking to jumpstart their health and have fun at the same time. I hope my parents read it. ”
Jump up ^ LeFevre, Michael L. (26 August 2014). “Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults With Cardiovascular Risk Factors: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 161 (8): 587–93. doi:10.7326/M14-1796. PMID 25155419.
Low levels of spontaneous physical activity is a major predictor of adipose tissue accumulation in humans, and total body movement, most of which is related to ambulation, is negatively correlated with fat mass (32).
Melvin Delgado is codirector of the Center for Addictions Research and Services, chair of macro-practice, and professor of social work at the Boston University School of Social Work. He brings almost forty years of practice, research, and scholarship focused on Puerto Rican and other Latino groups in the United States. Bilingual and bicultural, he has focused his professional and academic career on developing urban-based outreach and service delivery models that are culturally competent, stressing participatory democratic principles, and tapping cultural strengths and assets. He is the author of more than twenty books, including Latino Small Businesses and the American Dream: Community Social Work Practice and Economic and Social Development and Social Work Practice with Latinos: A Cultural Assets Paradigm and Social Work Practice with Immigrant and Refugee Youth in the United States.
[4] National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf (PDF, 1.35 MB) . Updated 2017. Accessed October 2017.
Even if you don’t consider yourself a senior just yet, you are still aging. “We start aging when we are born,” says Moreno. So anyone can take simple steps to look and feel better as the years tick by. Dr. Moreno suggests easy changes that you can make at any stage of your life to turn back the hands of time.
Even though medications and diets can help, the treatment of obesity cannot be a short-term “fix” but has to be a lifelong commitment to proper diet habits, increased physical activity, and regular exercise.
Dyslipidemia related to obesity usually includes increased triglycerides, decreased HDL levels, and abnormal LDL composition and plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis and CVD in obese individuals.F
Diagnosis of obesity is made by observation and by comparing the patient’s weight to ideal weight charts. Many doctors and obesity researchers refer to the body mass index (BMI), which uses a height-weight relationship to calculate an individual’s ideal weight and personal risk of developing obesity-related health problems. Physicians may also obtain direct measurements of an individual’s body fat content by using calipers to measure skin-fold thickness at the back of the upper arm and other sites. The most accurate means of measuring body fat content involves immersing a person in water and measuring relative displacement; however, this method is very impractical and is usually only used in scientific studies requiring very specific assessments. Women whose body fat exceeds 30% and men whose body fat exceeds 25% are generally considered obese.

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Clearly, this is not the way to do it. In order to lose 5-10% of your body weight over a six-month period you must, by definition, stick to the diet for six months. Since most of us will stop dieting after one or two months, we need help in order to see the results we desire most.
“At the same age, Gen X males have nearly double the prevalence of obesity: 18.3% compared with 9.4% for boomers. There is a smaller but still significant difference in females, with 12.7% of Gen X women being obese in 2008 and 10.4% of boomer females obese in 1989.
The true impact of overweight and obesity on mortality may be obscured by confounding factors. For example, reverse causation induced by preexisting chronic disease and inadequate control for smoking status can mask the effect of obesity through the excessive death risk caused by these low BMI–associated conditions. In some distinct diseases of the elderly, such as Alzheimer’s disease (8) or Parkinsonism (9), weight loss may precede the time of diagnosis by years, thus causing further false overrepresentation of morbidity and mortality in the low weight range.
There were other factors that made the legislation possible, including a legislature determined to address the rising economic costs of obesity and support from Ms. Bachelet, a socialist who also happens to be trained as a pediatrician.
17. Zhang X, Shu XO, Gao YT, Yang Matthews CE, Li Q, Li H, Jin F, Zheng W: Anthropometric predictors of coronary heart disease in Chinese women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28: 734– 740 [PubMed]
A chart review of 10 000 patients in seven family practice centres in the southeastern United States, where 45 patients (with an average age of 72 years and 30 of whom were women) were identified as having substantial, unexplained weight loss, showed that a comprehensive history and physical examination have the greatest potential for eliciting the cause or causes of weight loss.5 Information about potential physiologic, psychological and social factors (e.g., dementia, immobility, bereavement, low income, social isolation) may prove vital to determining the cause as well as to the outcome (Box 1). All current prescribed and over-the-counter medications should be reviewed.2
One problem with using weight-for-height tables is that doctors disagree over which is the best table to use. Several versions are available. Many have different weight ranges, and some tables account for a person’s frame size, age and sex, while other tables do not.
Kopelman P., Caterson I. An overview of obesity management In:Peter G. Kopelman; Ian D. Caterson; Michael J. Stock; William H. Dietz (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 319–26. ISBN 1-4051-1672-2.
The next step is to study each diet and see how practical it is to include in your current lifestyle and level of activity. Your choice of diet will need to be stuck to for the long term and it must be something that you are comfortable doing. It should fit with your personality.
Psychological factors. For some people, emotions influence eating habits. Many people eat excessively in response to emotions such as boredom, sadness, stress, or anger. While most overweight people have no more psychological disturbances than normal weight people, about 30% of the people who seek treatment for serious weight problems have difficulties with binge eating.
Step 1. A comprehensive medical examination is required, along with a medication regimen review and depression screening. Core laboratory tests are conducted, including an ultrasensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone test, urinalysis, and a fecal occult blood test.
If you find that you need more help than diet and exercise, talk with your doctor. Certain prescription drugs are approved for weight loss. They curb your appetite or prevent your body from absorbing fat. You’ll still need to watch what you eat and be active.
Davidson says people with high cholesterol do better with low-saturated fat diets that call for low-fat dairy sources, lean red meats and fish. It’s important for seniors with high cholesterol to avoid sweet baked goods with trans fats, he says: “We now recognize that trans fats as especially bad among all the fats we can consume.”
Some patients with obesity do not respond to healthy lifestyle changes and medicines. When these patients develop certain obesity-related complications, they may be eligible for the following surgeries.
As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity. Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity.[228] Because childhood obesity often persists into adulthood and is associated with numerous chronic illnesses, children who are obese are often tested for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and fatty liver.[81] Treatments used in children are primarily lifestyle interventions and behavioral techniques, although efforts to increase activity in children have had little success.[229] In the United States, medications are not FDA approved for use in this age group.[227] Multi-component behaviour change interventions that include changes to dietary and physical activity may reduce BMI in the short term in children aged 6 to 11 years, although the benefits are small and quality of evidence is low.[230]
Eating oatmeal for breakfast is heart healthy, filling, and satisfying. In addition to lowering and maintaining healthy cholesterol, oatmeal is packed full of fiber, which keeps your bathroom schedule regular and promotes weight loss. Mix up the flavors by adding different fruits, nuts and spices for variety.
World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Gallbladder Cancer. 2015. Available at http://www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Gallbladder-Cancer-2015-Report.pdf.
Thus McDonald’s silence on the nutritional profiles of its new menu items. “We’re not making any health claims,” Watson said. “We’re just saying it’s new, it tastes great, come on in and enjoy it. Maybe once the product is well seated with customers, we’ll change that message.” If customers learn that they can eat healthier foods at McDonald’s without even realizing it, he added, they’ll be more likely to try healthier foods there than at other restaurants. The same reasoning presumably explains why the promotions and ads for the Carl’s Jr. grilled-cod sandwich offer not a word related to healthfulness, and why there wasn’t a whiff of health cheerleading surrounding the turkey burger brought out earlier this year by Burger King (which is not yet calling the sandwich a permanent addition).

“obesity willpower +obesity is a growing problem in the us”

Jump up ^ Flegal, Katherine M.; Kit, Brian K.; Orpana, Heather; Graubard, Barry I. (2 January 2013). “Association of All-Cause Mortality With Overweight and Obesity Using Standard Body Mass Index Categories”. JAMA. 309 (1): 71–82. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.113905. PMID 23280227.

1. Adams KF, Schatzkin A, Harris TB, Kipnis V, Mouw T, Ballard-Barbash T, Hollenbeck A, Leitzmann MF: Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 763– 778 [PubMed]

The prevalence of obesity is increasing in all age groups. According to a 2001 census and the projection made by the United Nations (1996 revision), the elderly constitute 7.5% of the Indian population, and by all indications 21% of the Indian population will be 60 years and above by 2050. Medical science discoveries, improved lifestyle, and social conditions during the past few decades have increased the life span of man. Life expectancy at birth in developed countries is over 70 years. Questions have risen about the relation between obesity in old age and total or disease-specific mortality, the definition of obesity in the elderly, its clinical relevance, and about the need for its treatment. Information about changes in body composition and fat distribution among the elderly will help us better understand the relationships between obesity and morbidity in the elderly.

Oral nutritional supplements can be quite beneficial in preventing or reversing weight loss among elderly adults. Beverages such as Ensure are high in calories and nutrients, and are very convenient for seniors who have a limited ability to prepare nutritious meals. Seniors may need assistance from caregivers or family members to consistently supplement their nutrition so as to achieve maximum benefit.

Gaining weight as an adult increases the risk for several cancers, even if the weight gain doesn’t result in overweight or obesity. It isn’t known exactly how being overweight increases cancer risk. Fat cells may release hormones that affect cell growth, leading to cancer. Also, eating or physical activity habits that may lead to being overweight may also contribute to cancer risk.

When we grow older, we tend to lose our muscle mass and it gets replaced with fat. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) may not change, but in reality, our fat-stores increase, as does the chance of being affected by obesity and its related diseases. BMI can also be inaccurate in seniors for another common reason. As we grow old, we often get shorter. This is due to osteoporosis and spinal vertebral issues that take away inches in older age. Since BMI is a measure calculated from height and weight, a change in height will change BMI as well. In fact, if a senior weighs the same, and his or her height is now less, then the BMI will be falsely higher. This could classify the senior as “overweight”, while in reality, that is not the case. Scientists and physicians still debate about a better measure for weight classification, but for now, BMI is the accepted one and physicians need to use it, while understanding its limitations. 

Endurance exercise when combined with a dietary weight loss program increases maximal oxygen consumption (Dick, 2004). Diet in conjunction with resistance and endurance exercises improves peak oxygen consumption as well. Nurses can teach patients with respiratory problems to do diaphragmatic or abdominal breathing to help strengthen respiratory muscles. Breathing exercises, as well as good posture, can help patients to exhale and inhale fully (Lorig et al., 2006). Pursed lip breathing may also be helpful for patients who are short of breath or breathless. Pursed breathing includes pursing the lips as if blowing a whistle; using diaphragmatic breathing out through pursed lips without any force; and remembering to relax the upper chest, arms shoulders, and arms while breathing out. Patients with sleep apnea need to be referred for sleep studies.

It’s commonly known and scientifically proven that obesity can contribute to many diseases. In fact, the majority of organs and body systems are negatively affected by obesity. Most commonly, obesity may help bring on hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease, and certain cancers. The increase in people with type 2 diabetes is of particular concern, as diabetes is a well-known risk factor in heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, and other serious medical conditions. Physical disability and mobility can also be a major problem due to the effect of weight on joints.

Dom Naish is a Phoenix-based writer, vegan, cupcake addict and dog lover. Years in the animal rescue trenches have taught him every aspect of dog ownership from behavioral problems, personality and breed specific differences of all dogs.

Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of obesity, premature death and disability in adulthood. But in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience breathing difficulties, increased risk of fractures, hypertension, early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and psychological effects.

Hedlund J, Hansson L-O, örtqvist Å. Short-and long-term prognosis for middle-aged and elderly patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: impact of nutritional and inflammatory factors. Scand J Infect Dis 1995; 27: 32–37.

Guar gum preparations have also been promoted as a weight-loss agent. Guar gum is thought to work by leading to a feeling of fullness early in the meal. It has not been scientifically proven and has been associated with abdominal pain, gas, and diarrhea.

Obesity in pets is common in many countries. In the United States, 23–41% of dogs are overweight, and about 5.1% are obese.[231] The rate of obesity in cats was slightly higher at 6.4%.[231] In Australia the rate of obesity among dogs in a veterinary setting has been found to be 7.6%.[232] The risk of obesity in dogs is related to whether or not their owners are obese; however, there is no similar correlation between cats and their owners.[233]

Medical experts report that obesity raises the risk of developing some cancers, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, diabetes and coronary heart disease.  Obese Medicare beneficiaries are estimated to cost 34% more than their non-obese/overweight peers. According to the Poll, approximately 77 million US baby boomers may be eligible for Medicare coverage.

It’s important for your senior to maintain body weight once they are advanced in age, experiencing frailty, or undergoing treatments for cancer. Weight loss for seniors who are advanced in age is typically not recommended, and rapid weight loss in older adults can indicate a medical problem, malnourishment, or an issue with ease of eating or dental problems.

Eat more nutritious foods that have “low energy density.” Low energy dense foods contain relatively few calories per unit weight (fewer calories in a large amount of food). Examples of low energy dense foods include vegetables, fruits, lean meat, fish, grains, and beans. For example, you can eat a large volume of celery or carrots without taking in many calories.