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Respondents were more likely to report that weight problems caused difficulty with physical functioning than with personal care or daily activities (see table). This made sense to Martin: “When you think about obesity, you can imagine someone having trouble climbing a flight of stairs or walking a quarter mile, but not needing help shopping or dressing,” she said. But she also noted that some of the conditions respondents named as the reason they needed assistance (such as diabetes and back problems) could be related to obesity.
Measuring your waist circumference. Fat stored around your waist, sometimes called visceral fat or abdominal fat, may further increase your risk of diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease. Women with a waist measurement (circumference) of more than 35 inches (80 centimeters, or cm) and men with a waist measurement of more than 40 inches (102 cm) may have more health risks than do people with smaller waist measurements. Like the BMI measurement, your waist circumference should be checked at least once a year.
Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea are two common respiratory diseases that have been linked with obesity. In a meta-analysis of seven prospective studies that included 333,000 subjects, obesity increased the risk of developing asthma in both men and women by 50 percent. (33) Obesity is also a major contributor to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is estimated to affect approximately one in five adults; one in 15 adults has moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea. This condition is associated with daytime sleepiness, accidents, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Between 50 percent and 75 percent of individuals with OSA are obese. (32) Clinical trials suggest that modest weight loss can be helpful when treating sleep apnea. (34, 35)
Four months later, he was diagnosed with terminal lung cancer. The sudden weight loss had been a signal of a distressing problem, but neither he nor his physicians caught it in time. He and his doctors had missed or ignored one of the fundamental elder care warning signs-his weight loss–and now the cancer had spread to his brain.
As Asian populations develop negative health consequences at a lower BMI than Caucasians, some nations have redefined obesity; Japan have defined obesity as any BMI greater than 25 kg/m2[8] while China uses a BMI of greater than 28 kg/m2.[28]
A prospective study evaluated 101 patients (inpatient and outpatient) with an average age of 64 years and unintentional weight loss of at least 5% within six to 12 months.12 Baseline evaluation included a comprehensive history and physical examination, the laboratory studies mentioned in the previous paragraph except for fecal occult blood testing, and abdominal ultrasonography and ferritin measurement. After baseline evaluation, the etiology of unintentional weight loss was established in 73 patients (72%). Organic disease was identified in 57 patients, and 16 patients had a psychiatric diagnosis. More importantly, all of the 22 patients with malignant disease had abnormal results in the baseline assessment. Tests with the highest yield (i.e., typically abnormal in the setting of organic disease) were C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and albumin measurements. None of the 25 patients with negative findings on baseline evaluation had a malignancy on additional workup, such as computed tomography, endoscopy, colonoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, or radionuclide examinations. Therefore, the authors concluded that if baseline test results are normal, further workup is not necessary, and close observation for three to six months is justified.11,12
To measure obesity, researchers commonly use a scale known as the body mass index (BMI). BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by their height (in meters) squared (commonly expressed as kg/m2). BMI provides a more accurate measure of obesity than weight alone, and for most people it is a fairly good (although indirect) indicator of body fatness. 
The biology of food intake is very complex, involving olfaction (smell), taste, texture, temperature, cognitive and emotional responses and metabolic/autonomic information, which signal the brain to initiate or cease eating. Recent scientific studies have identified several substances that act on the brain to signal a need for an increase in food intake. Likewise, several substances have been identified that signal the brain to decrease food intake.
High blood pressure – Additional fat tissue in the body needs oxygen and nutrients in order to live, which requires the blood vessels to circulate more blood to the fat tissue. This increases the workload of the heart because it must pump more blood through additional blood vessels. More circulating blood also means more pressure on the artery walls. Higher pressure on the artery walls increases the blood pressure. In addition, extra weight can raise the heart rate and reduce the body’s ability to transport blood through the vessels.
Your friends also count. Some research shows that obesity is “contagious” socially. In one study of some 12,000 people, Harvard researchers found that if someone gains weight, their family, friends, and partners also tend to gain weight, even if they don’t live near each other. Their influence affects you.
Social and economic issues. Research has linked social and economic factors to obesity. Avoiding obesity is difficult if you don’t have safe areas to exercise. Similarly, you may not have been taught healthy ways of cooking, or you may not have money to buy healthier foods. In addition, the people you spend time with may influence your weight — you’re more likely to become obese if you have obese friends or relatives.
Apple-shaped people whose fat is concentrated mostly in the abdomen are more likely to develop many of the health problems associated with obesity. They are at increased health risk because of their fat distribution. While obesity of any kind is a health risk, it is better to be a pear than an apple.
Some states will be harder hit than others. Colorado, for example, can expect the numbers of older people with diabetes to increase by 138 percent by 2030, while Arizona will see its population of obese people over 65 grow by 90 percent.
… Conclusions: WC, and not BMI, explains obesity-related health risk. Thus, for a given WC value, overweight and obese persons and normal-weight persons have comparable health risks. However, when WC is dichotomized …
An important determinant of body-fat mass is the relationship between energy intake and expenditure. Obesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than she/he burns. We need calories to sustain life and have the energy be active; yet to maintain a desirable weight, we need to balance the amount of  energy we ingest in the form of food with the energy we expend (National Institutes of Health [NIH]), 2006). Weight gain occurs when the balance is tipped and we take in more calories than we burn. Most studies indicate that how much we eat does not decline with advancing age (Gary, Hunt, VanderJagt, & Vellas, 1992). Therefore it is likely that a decrease in energy expenditure, particularly in the 50- to 65-year-old age group, contributes to the increase in body fat as we age. In those 65 years of age and older, hormonal changes that occur during aging may cause the accumulation of fat. Aging is associated with a decrease in growth hormone secretions, reduced responsiveness to thyroid hormone, decline in serum testosterone, and resistance to leptin (Corpas, Harman, & Blackman, 1993). Resistance to leptin could cause a decreased ability to regulate appetite downward (Villareal et al., 2005). Genetic, environmental and social, as well as several other factors can all contribute to obesity. These factors will be discussed below.
Jump up ^ Manson JE, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE (1995). “Body weight and mortality among women”. N. Engl. J. Med. 333 (11): 677–85. doi:10.1056/NEJM199509143331101. PMID 7637744.
Although people can control what they eat and how much they exercise, age comes with certain uncontrollable factors. For instance, you lose lean body mass as you age. “The more lean body mass we have, the higher our metabolic rate is and the more efficiently we burn calories,” says Carmen Roberts, clinical dietician specialist with Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. Therefore, reduced lean body mass lowers your metabolism, thus, lowering the amount of calories needed and increasing the amount of physical activity needed.
The data presented on prevalence are from the 2013–2014 NHANES survey of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) unless noted otherwise. NCHS is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).2,3,4,5
Villareal DT, Kotyk JJ, Armamento-Villareal RC. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition. Aging Cell. 2011b;10:96–102. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Meyerhardt JA, Tepper JE, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Impact of body index on outcomes and treatment-related toxicity in patients with stage II and III rectal cancer: findings from Intergroup Trial 0114. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2004; 22(4):648-657.
Another job vacancy associated with obesity might be one normally filled by a stomach bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. Research by Martin Blaser of New York University suggests that it helps to regulate appetite by modulating levels of ghrelin—a hunger-stimulating hormone. H. pylori was once abundant in the American digestive tract but is now rare, thanks to more hygienic living conditions and the use of antibiotics, says Blaser, author of a new book entitled Missing Microbes.
In this study, the researchers did find slight reductions in lean body mass and bone mineral density among those who lost weight, but the decreases were smaller in the combined diet-exercise group than in those who dieted or exercised alone. The diet-exercise group participants lost 3 percent of their lean body mass, with a 1 percent bone mineral loss in the key area of the hip. Those who only dieted lost 5 percent of their lean body mass and 3 percent in bone mineral density at the hip.
Other measurements that reflect the distribution of body fat—that is, whether more fat is carried around the hips or the abdomen—are increasingly being used along with BMI as indicators of obesity and disease risks. These measurements include waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio (the waist circumference divided by the hip circumference).
A Senior Workout should start slowly with exercises that match your aging parents recent activity levels. Those moderately active can begin with relatively moderate-intensity aerobic activity. They should avoid vigorous intensity activities, such as shoveling snow or running. Senior adults with a low level of fitness can begin with light senior exercises.
Offer all help and support to him to help him reduce weight, get him examined and treated medically, if necessary. Call a nutritionist and let him explain all things desired to reduce weight. Let you support him fully in the period.

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Learn from your slips. Everyone slips, especially when learning something new. Don’t worry if work, the weather, or your family causes you to have an occasional slip. Remember that changing your lifestyle is a long-term process. Find out what triggered the slip and restart your eating and physical activity plan.
The impact of obesity on male fertility is less clear. In a study by Hammoud and colleagues, the incidence of low sperm count (oligospermia) and poor sperm motility (asthenospermia) increased with BMI, from 5.3 and 4.5 percent, respectively, in normal-weight men to 15.6 and 13.3 percent in obese men. (24) In contrast, a study by Chavarro and colleagues found little effect of body weight on semen quality except at the highest BMIs (above 35), despite major differences in reproductive hormone levels with increasing weight. (25)
That science is, in fact, fairly straightforward. Fat carries more than twice as many calories as carbohydrates and proteins do per gram, which means just a little fat can turn a serving of food into a calorie bomb. Sugar and other refined carbohydrates, like white flour and rice, and high-starch foods, like corn and potatoes, aren’t as calorie-dense. But all of these “problem carbs” charge into the bloodstream as glucose in minutes, providing an energy rush, commonly followed by an energy crash that can lead to a surge in appetite.
While these countries continue to deal with the problems of infectious diseases and undernutrition, they are also experiencing a rapid upsurge in noncommunicable disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings.
Obesity harms virtually every aspect of health, from shortening life and contributing to chronic conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease to interfering with sexual function, breathing, mood, and social interactions. Obesity isn’t necessarily a permanent condition. Diet, exercise, medications and even surgery can lead to weight loss. Yet it is much much harder to lose weight than it is to gain it. Prevention of obesity, beginning at an early age and extending across a lifespan could vastly improve individual and public health, reduce suffering, and save billions of dollars each year in health care costs.
A team from the of Barcelona (UB) led by Dr Juan Carlos Laguna published a study in the journal Hepatology that provides clues to the molecular mechanism through which fructose (a type of sugar) in beverages may alter lipid energy metabolism and cause fatty liver and metabolic syndrome.
Federal dietary guidelines and the MyPlate website recommend many tips for healthy eating that may also help you control your weight (see the Additional Links section for hyperlinks). Here are a few examples:
In the second paper, all CVD risk factors significantly improved in the diet and exercise group (Villareal 2006b). Specific mechanisms were not proposed, but the discussion focused on medical care costs related to metabolic coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors that were ameliorated by the intervention (Table 1). In the third paper (Villareal 2008), bone turnover was measured by type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), osteocalcin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. There was a marked increase in serum CTX (~100-fold) and osteocalcin (~60-fold) concentrations in response to weight loss indicating that bone resorption and formation, respectively, were stimulated. Moreover, the increases in both CTX and osteocalcin concentrations correlated with decreases in hip bone mineral density (BMD), suggesting that weight-loss induced bone loss was due to increased bone turnover, with greater stimulation of bone resorption than bone formation. However, the clinical significance of the decrease in BMD was not clear as all participants had high baseline BMD Z-scores, and none had evidence of osteoporosis following weight loss. The investigators argued that BMD was not lost in the spine, which implies that the exercises were more effective in preserving BMD at this site. Exact mechanisms for loss of BMD with weight loss are not currently elucidated, but it was suggested that weight loss decreases the mechanical stress on the hip, without negatively impacting the spine or wrist. Weight loss was also associated with a 25% reduction in serum leptin that was highly correlated with decreased hip BMD. No such relationship was found between decreasing estradiol and changes in BMD. Leptin was discussed in the context of its inhibiting action on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand levels (Burguera 2001) and osteoblast differentiation (Cornish 2002). Levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), cortisol, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) did not change in response to weight loss, which suggests that these bone-active hormones were not involved with the loss of BMD in the hip. Vitamin D supplementation during the trial did not reach optimal serum concentrations and whether higher dose Vitamin D supplementation could have slowed bone loss, was raised by the investigators. It was also noted that bone quality was not measured and could have been positively impacted by the exercise training intervention.
The amount of physical activity you should do may be different from other people your age if you’re underweight, have mobility problems or a disability. Your GP or practice nurse can advise you about this.
Jump up ^ Christakis NA, Fowler JH (2007). “The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years”. New England Journal of Medicine (Research Support). 357 (4): 370–79. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa066082. PMID 17652652.
According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, about 13% of adults experience unintentional or involuntary weight loss. Problematic weight loss can be defined as a loss of 5% of body weight in one month or 10% over a period of six months or longer. For example, if you weighed 126 pounds at the beginning of the month and 118 pounds at the end of the month, you would have experienced over a 6% weight loss within a month, which could be problematic weight loss. Involuntary weight loss may be associated with chronic conditions and could result in functional decline, ulcers and worsening cognitive disorders. According to the Mayo Clinic, malnutrition in older adults can result in
Researchers at the University of Adelaide have confirmed that if current trends continue, Australia’s Generation X will overtake Baby Boomers for poor health, including rates of obesity and diabetes, which could have huge implications for healthcare and the workforce.
^ Jump up to: a b c Arendas K, Qiu Q, Gruslin A (2008). “Obesity in pregnancy: pre-conceptional to postpartum consequences”. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 30 (6): 477–88. doi:10.1016/s1701-2163(16)32863-8. PMID 18611299.
Changes in the environments where young people spend their time—like homes, schools, and community settings—can make it easier to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Schools can adopt policies and practices that help young people eat more fruits and vegetables, get at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily, and eat fewer foods and beverages that are high in added sugars or solid fats.8,9, 17, 18
Clearly, this is not the way to do it. In order to lose 5-10% of your body weight over a six-month period you must, by definition, stick to the diet for six months. Since most of us will stop dieting after one or two months, we need help in order to see the results we desire most.
The diet should be safe. It should include all of the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for vitamins, minerals, and protein. The weight-loss diet should be low in calories (energy) only, not in essential foodstuffs.
Several areas of research are exploring mechanisms that link obesity and cancer (29, 46). One research area involves understanding the role of the microbes that live in the human gastrointestinal tract (collectively called the gut microbiota, or microbiome) in both type 2 diabetes and obesity. Both conditions are associated with dysbiosis, an imbalance in the collection of these microbes. For example, the gut microbiomes of obese people are different from, and less diverse than, those of non-obese people. Imbalances in the gut microbiota are associated with inflammation, altered metabolism, and genotoxicity, which may in turn be related to cancer. Experiments in mice show that the microbiome may influence the efficacy of some types of cancer treatment, particular immunotherapy (47, 48). Researchers are beginning to think about ways to change the microbiota of cancer patients to improve their outcomes.
Your doctor may recommend you enroll in individual or group behavioral weight-loss programs to treat your overweight and obesity. In these programs, a trained healthcare professional will customize a weight-loss plan for you. This plan will include a moderately-reduced calorie diet, physical activity goals, and behavioral strategies to help you make and maintain these lifestyle changes. Read Living With for more information about required follow-up for these behavioral treatment programs.
Obesity is a condition of having excess body weight. Adults with a body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) greater than 25 kg/m2 but less than 30 kg/m2 are considered overweight. Adults with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 are considered obese. An adult who is more than 100 pounds overweight or has a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese.
Gastric bypass surgery. A small part of the stomach is connected to the middle part of the intestine, bypassing the first part of intestine. This decreases the amount of food that you can eat and the amount of fat your body can take in and store.
Ephedra should not be used by anyone with a history of diabetes, heart disease, or thyroid problems. In fact, an article that appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association in early 2003 advised against the use of ephedra.
For individuals who are severely obese, dietary changes and behavior modification may be accompanied by surgery to reduce or bypass portions of the stomach or small intestine. Although obesity surgery is less risky as of 2003 because of recent innovations in equipment and surgical technique, it is still performed only on patients for whom other strategies have failed and whose obesity seriously threatens their health. Other surgical procedures are not recommended, including liposuction, a purely cosmetic procedure in which a suction device is used to remove fat from beneath the skin, and jaw wiring, which can damage gums and teeth and cause painful muscle spasms.
Begin increasing your activity level. Try to get up and move around your home more frequently. Start gradually if you aren’t in good shape or aren’t used to exercising. Even a 10-minute daily walk can help. If you have any health conditions, or if you’re a man over age 40 or a woman over age 50, wait until you’ve talked to your doctor or health care provider before you start a new exercise program.
Despite the positive effect of bariatric surgery on weight and obesity health problems, it is not the right solution for everyone.  In addition to preparing for and going through with surgery, big sacrifices must be made in life after weight loss surgery for patients to be successful.
The UT MIST Center for Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery and UT COMMP specializes in weight-loss surgery and medical weight loss programs. Our board-certified surgeons perform traditional and minimally invasive robotic, laparoscopic, and endoscopic surgery, including gastric bypass, gastric sleeve surgery, LAP-BAND® surgery, duodenal switch, reflux surgery, hernia repair, and more. We see patients at the following UT MIST/UT COMMP locations: Houston, Bayshore, Bellaire, Katy, Missouri City, and Sugar Land, Texas.
Lisa Esposito is a Patient Advice reporter at U.S. News. She covers health conditions, drawing on experience as an RN in oncology and other areas and as a research coordinator at the National Institutes of Health. Esposito previously reported on health care with Gannett, and she received her journalism master’s degree at Georgetown University. You can follow her on Twitter, connect with her on LinkedIn or email her at lesposito@usnews.com.
Madeira Beach is looking beautiful, the weather is great, and things have returned almost completely to normal. We thank everyone for their concern and prayers, and also thank the authorities and utility folks who have done such a great job!
Additionally, drugs have side effects, some quite serious, such as insomnia, nervousness, depression, high blood pressure and rapid heartbeat. Fen-phen had to be withdrawn by the Food and Drug Administration because it caused dangerous complications, including heart problems and pulmonary hypertension. However, there are real alternative diet aids that offer real benefits without any risks.
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Moreno also suggests that seniors be especially careful to achieve a diet that is nutritionally balanced but provides plenty of protein. For most adults, this means including a source of lean protein at every meal. Sources of protein might include eggs, egg whites, fish, chicken, turkey, and lean cuts of meat.

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Soda, juice and other sweet beverages are full of sugar, which are empty calories. Eliminating these culprits from your diet can be a one step process to losing a few pounds. In addition to weight loss, cutting out refined sugar as much as possible is a healthy choice for people of all ages.
First of all, hats off to your mom. She’s got her hands full. So when she gets upset, everyone should be understanding to her plite. And, your father should be appreciative of the sacrifices she’s making in time and energy to care for him. I think he should be made fully aware of the issues he’s creating in the rest of the family’s lives as well. Especially your mom’s as primary caregiver. Let him know that you love him and care about his well being, but that he is not alone in this equation. He has to consider others. Also let him know what alternatives are be explored, if no changes can be made. For health purposes, I suggest cleaning out the cabinets and refrigerator of unhealthy foods and replacing with healthy alternatives (lots of vegetables and fruits). Maybe explore different recipes to make eating healthy more appealing. If he’s in wheelchair and not very mobile, he probably won’t be going shopping for food. Thus, his caregiver is in charge. He may grumble for a short while, but it will be well worth it in the long run. His attitude may even change for the better, because he will start to feel better about himself.
The imbalance between calories in and calories out doesn’t need to be large to gain weight, says Dr. Lawrence Cheskin, director of the Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center and associate professor of Health Behavior and Society at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. As little as 50 extra calories a day can lead to weight gain. So it all adds up quickly, particularly when you’re older. Even if you eat the same amount of food at age 50 as you did at 25, your body will gain weight.
The study also ranked states on the health of their current senior populations. Massachusetts topped the list, jumping to No. 1 from the No. 6 ranking it had the last time the rankings were calculated. Vermont slipped to No. 2.
For an overweight or obese senior, getting healthy improves your quality and length of life. Losing weight as a senior citizen can be difficult, particularly when dealing with unexpected aches and pains, dwindling energy and new nutrition needs. Still, you can fight off the weight gain that can naturally occur as you age with a two-pronged weight-loss plan that includes regular physical activity — both cardio and strength training — and a nutritious diet plan.
Madeira Beach is looking beautiful, the weather is great, and things have returned almost completely to normal. We thank everyone for their concern and prayers, and also thank the authorities and utility folks who have done such a great job!
Your doctor will ask about your eating and physical activity habits, family history, and will see if you have other risk factors Your doctor may ask if you have any other signs or symptoms. This information can help determine if you have other conditions that may be causing you to be overweight or obese or if you have complications from being overweight or obese.
It’s never too late to begin a weight-control and exercise program. Along with a healthy diet, engaging in individually-appropriate physical activity—aerobics, resistance training, and flexibility exercises—can provide seniors a way toward feeling younger.
The Pollanites seem confused about exactly what benefits their way of eating provides. All the railing about the fat, sugar, and salt engineered into industrial junk food might lead one to infer that wholesome food, having not been engineered, contains substantially less of them. But clearly you can take in obscene quantities of fat and problem carbs while eating wholesomely, and to judge by what’s sold at wholesome stores and restaurants, many people do. Indeed, the more converts and customers the wholesome-food movement’s purveyors seek, the stronger their incentive to emphasize foods that light up precisely the same pleasure centers as a 3 Musketeers bar. That just makes wholesome food stealthily obesogenic.
The investigators used the Physical Performance Test, a test that evaluates an individual’s ability to perform tasks, such as walking 50 feet, putting on and removing a coat, standing up from a chair, picking up a penny, climbing a flight of stairs and lifting a book.
A balanced diet: Make fresh, organic foods the priority. Eliminate or greatly reduce canned or processed foods, particularly those with a high GI, such as table sugar and flour-based foods, including bread and pastry.
Passers-by in front of a fast food restaurant in downtown Santiago. The medical cost of obesity was 2.4 percent of all health care spending in Chile in 2016 and could rise to 4 percent by 2030. Credit Victor Ruiz Caballero for The New York Times
Deloitte has centered on two key areas where it can leverage its strengths as a business service provider to have a positive impact for the long term on the communities in which it operates: education and workforce development.
Children: A healthy weight is usually when your child’s BMI is at the 5th percentile up to the 85th percentile, based on growth charts for children who are the same age and sex. To figure out your child’s BMI, use the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen and compare the BMI with the table below.
Jump up ^ “Obesity: guidance on the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children” (PDF). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence(NICE). National Health Services (NHS). 2006. Retrieved April 8, 2009.
A disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency. Dyslipidemias may be manifested by elevation of the total cholesterol, the “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the triglyceride concentrations, and a decrease in the “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration in the blood. Dyslipidemia comes under consideration in many situations including diabetes, a common cause of lipidemia. For adults with diabetes, it has been recommended that the levels of LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol, and triglyceride be measured every year. Optimal LDL cholesterol levels for adults with diabetes are less than 100 mg/dL (2.60 mmol/L), optimal HDL cholesterol levels are e4qual to or greater than 40 mg/dL (1.02 mmol/L), and desirable triglyceride levels are less than 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L).
“The problem with using only primary care providers,” says Bonnie Modugno, a registered dietician in Santa Monica, Calif., “is that they completely ruled out direct reimbursement for the population of providers who are uniquely qualified and experienced working with weight management. I think that was a big mistake.”
These changes often result in appetite reduction, increased satiety and a decline in the natural appreciation of food. Collectively, these conditions contribute to a condition referred to as the “anorexia of aging.” To further exacerbate the problem, older adults show a reduced ability to adapt to periods of under- or overeating. They gain or lose weight quickly, and do not easily return to their original weight following such periods. This makes the elderly population much more susceptible to unintended (and lasting) changes in weight.
Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents: United States, 1963-1965 through 2011-2012. Health E-Stats. 2014. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_child_11_12/obesity_child_11_12.htm. Accessed December 21, 2017.
In the U.S., 97 million adults are overweight or obese. Being overweight significantly increases the risk of death from hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, stroke, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease, gallbladder disease, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, and endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon cancers. 
Structure House offered me the opportunity to leave my chaotic world of eating and go to a safe place to build new habits that would last a lifetime. An initial four week stay and two additional visits over a one year period helped me to lose 170 pounds and learn lifelong habits to continue being healthy.    
A great way to test this is to talk while you workout – if you can have a conversation easily, then you need to work harder. If you’re struggling for breath, it’s time to slow down. You can combine aerobic exercise with water-based exercise too!
One of the things seniors often struggle most with is flexibility, and it can be tough to know how to improve this. Yoga or Pilates are great ways to safely do this – as long as you find a teacher who understands the needs of older people.

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According to the World Health Organization (WHO) being overweight or obese is largely preventable. To reach your ideal weight you must reach a balance of calories consumed and calories burned. According to WHO, in your diet you can:
Body shape is also important. People who carry most of their weight around the waist (apple shaped) have a greater risk of heart disease and diabetes than do people with big hips and thighs (pear shaped).
Four months later, he was diagnosed with terminal lung cancer. The sudden weight loss had been a signal of a distressing problem, but neither he nor his physicians caught it in time. He and his doctors had missed or ignored one of the fundamental elder care warning signs-his weight loss–and now the cancer had spread to his brain.
Children grow at different rates at different times, so it is not always easy to tell if a child is overweight. The CDC BMI growth charts are used to compare a child’s BMI with other children of the same sex and age. It is important that a child’s health care provider evaluates a child’s BMI, growth, and potential health risks due to excess body weight. An online tool for gauging the BMIs of children and teens can be found at: https://nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/Calculator.aspx
The role of physical activity cannot be overstated when it comes to weight loss. For sedentary seniors moving toward more active lifestyles, starting small can help prevent injuries while avoiding burnout. Also essential? Choosing a program that you can actually stick with. This means honestly assessing your own physical capabilities and adopting a can-do attitude.
Senior citizens can’t hit the gym and run for hours like their younger counterparts — at least, not without serious risk of injury. Aim for 30 to 60 minutes a day of moderate-intensity physical activity, but start slowly if you haven’t been active in a few years. If 30 to 60 minutes seems like too much, break it into 10-minute increments. Choose low-impact activities such as walking and swimming to protect your aging joints. If you’re at a risk of falling, engage in balance training at least three days a week; potential activities include backward or sideways walking, toe walking or tai chi, advises the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The percentage of overweight and obese Americans 65 and older has grown: 72% of older men and 67% of older women are now overweight or obese. Baby boomers started reaching age 65 in 2011, and the report, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health, also shows many of these older Americans are not financially prepared to pay for long-term care in nursing homes. That’s concerning, since America’s aging population, which is now around 40 million, is estimated to double by 2050.
“Baby boomers who are not obese and younger generations are going to have to foot the trillions of dollars in health care costs for the millions of unhealthy boomers,” Slome explains.  “Healthy boomers approaching retirement have very little time left to develop a plan so they are not left depending on already strapped government programs or forced to deplete whatever retirement savings they managed to squirrel away.”
Cancers of the colon, breast (after menopause), endometrium (the lining of the uterus), kidney, and esophagus are linked to obesity. Some studies have also reported links between obesity and cancers of the gallbladder, ovaries, and pancreas.
A group in Amsterdam, meanwhile, is investigating whether transferring feces from lean to overweight people will lead to weight loss. U.S. researchers tend to view such “fecal transplants” as imprecise and risky. A more promising approach, says Robert Karp, who oversees National Institutes of Health grants related to obesity and the microbiome, is to identify the precise strains of bacteria associated with leanness, determine their roles and develop treatments accordingly. Gordon has proposed enriching foods with beneficial bacteria and any nutrients needed to establish them in the gut—a science-based version of today’s probiotic yogurts. No one in the field believes that probiotics alone will win the war on obesity, but it seems that, along with exercising and eating right, we need to enlist our inner microbial army.
Taking a walk everyday is good for the body and the mind. Walking outside is a quiet time for the mind to relax and unwind, while giving your body low impact exercise. Walking just a mile every day keeps your muscles and joints engaged so that they maintain and improve their strength.
Finally, cumulative attrition of the most vulnerable fraction of the obese population brought about by premature mortality of those subjects who do not survive the late-midlife years leaves only the most biologically advantaged obese survivors for “nonbiased” epidemiological analysis of obesity in advanced years. If one accepts that obesity increases mortality in younger years, attempted comparison between age-matched obese and lean humans in the older age inevitably leads to the study of two highly unequal cohorts of which only one has been subjected to the Darwinian process of obesity-related attrition.
Elderly patients with some diseases seem to survive longer when they are affected by excess weight or obesity. The debate is ongoing in the scientific world about whether this is a real phenomenon and if so, what could explain it. Some suggest that the statistics are such only due to the fact that as adults age, those “susceptible” to the harmful effects of obesity may have already succumbed to diseases. Therefore, the elderly population affected by obesity is represented by people that are “resistant” to the negative effects of obesity. To better understand this, let’s make an analogy with smoking and lung cancer.
Portion sizes of less healthy foods and beverages have increased over time in restaurants, grocery stores, and vending machines. Research shows that children eat more without realizing it if they are served larger portions. This means they are consuming a lot of extra calories, especially when eating high-calorie foods.
Jump up ^ Makhsida N, Shah J, Yan G, Fisch H, Shabsigh R (September 2005). “Hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: Implications for testosterone therapy”. J. Urol. (Review). 174 (3): 827–34. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000169490.78443.59. PMID 16093964.
The calorie needs calculator is designed to allow you to enter your ideal weight and determine the number of daily calories you should eat to reach that goal.  Remember to consult a physician before beginning any diet or exercise plan – particularly if you have a chronic condition.
Moreno also suggests that seniors be especially careful to achieve a diet that is nutritionally balanced but provides plenty of protein. For most adults, this means including a source of lean protein at every meal. Sources of protein might include eggs, egg whites, fish, chicken, turkey, and lean cuts of meat.
“We’re all creatures of habit,” Campbell says. So, she says, imagine you’re 75 years old and have to change your habits and incorporate new foods like tofu. Although most diets offer plenty of online and printed resources, they can be overwhelming. “It’s hard sometimes to pick up a book and say, ‘what should I be eating,'” she says. For older adults, it can help to work with dietitians.
Orlistat can be taken up to three times a day, with each fat-containing meal. The drug may be during the meal or up to one hour after the meal. If the meal is missed or is very low in fat content, the medications should not be taken.
Jump up ^ Neovius K, Johansson K, Kark M, Neovius M (January 2009). “Obesity status and sick leave: a systematic review”. Obes Rev (Review). 10 (1): 17–27. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00521.x. PMID 18778315.
Chronic Drinking – SeniorsCognitive Difficulty – SeniorsDepression – SeniorsDiabetes – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Education – SeniorsHigh Health Status – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Multiple Chronic Conditions – SeniorsObesity – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Overuse–MammographyOveruse–PSA TestPoor Mental Health Days – SeniorsSmoking – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Social Support – SeniorsSuicide – Senior
Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea are two common respiratory diseases that have been linked with obesity. In a meta-analysis of seven prospective studies that included 333,000 subjects, obesity increased the risk of developing asthma in both men and women by 50 percent. (33) Obesity is also a major contributor to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is estimated to affect approximately one in five adults; one in 15 adults has moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea. This condition is associated with daytime sleepiness, accidents, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Between 50 percent and 75 percent of individuals with OSA are obese. (32) Clinical trials suggest that modest weight loss can be helpful when treating sleep apnea. (34, 35)
^ Jump up to: a b Caballero B (March 2001). “Introduction. Symposium: Obesity in developing countries: biological and ecological factors”. J. Nutr. (Review). 131 (3): 866S–70S. doi:10.1093/jn/131.3.866s. PMID 11238776.
Engaging in a variety of exercises, such as aerobic exercises, resistance training, and flexibility exercises is essential for healthy aging. Most older, obese adults are able to safely engage in regular physical activity; however, because fitness levels vary, a medical professional is important to determine which exercises are appropriate for an individual’s specific needs. Certain medical conditions, as well as medications, can also affect a person’s tolerance for exercise.
This work was supported by grants from the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health and by the Foundation for Physical Therapy.
Here’s “the tell it like it is” projection for Medicare costs. Medicare spending is projected to grow four times faster between now and 2024 than it grew between 2010 and 2014. Medicare spending is projected to grow almost a full percentage faster than our country’s economy.
Skin conditions. Brown, Wimpenny, and Maughan (2004) found skin problems, including itching, skin breakdown, redness, and rashes, in 75% of the obese population they sampled. The two main causes of the reported skin problems were perspiration and friction. Groin, limbs, and under breasts were identified as the most troubling areas. Older adults who are obese and have skin problems face additional complications because their skin naturally loses about 20% of its dermal thickness with age (Baranoski, 2001). This combination of older age, fragile skin, and obesity increases the risk for pressure sores (Flood & Newman, 2007).
“Everyone’s mother and brother has been telling them to eat more fruit and vegetables forever, and the numbers are only getting worse. We’re not going to solve this problem by telling people to eat unprocessed food.”
(A few words on salt: Yes, it’s unhealthy in large amounts, raising blood pressure in many people; and yes, it makes food more appealing. But salt is not obesogenic—it has no calories, and doesn’t specifically increase the desire to consume high-calorie foods. It can just as easily be enlisted to add to the appeal of vegetables. Lumping it in with fat and sugar as an addictive junk-food ingredient is a confused proposition. But let’s agree we want to cut down on it.)
Obesity is a condition of having excess body weight. Adults with a body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) greater than 25 kg/m2 but less than 30 kg/m2 are considered overweight. Adults with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 are considered obese. An adult who is more than 100 pounds overweight or has a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese.
Diet modification incorporating patient preferences, softer food consistency to accommodate for chewing or swallowing disabilities, and assisted feeding may lead to weight gain and improved laboratory parameters; however, study results of this approach are mixed.28–30 Creating a more leisurely eating environment simulating an in-home dining experience may improve nutrition in nursing home residents.31
An important consideration when interpreting your BMI score is your waist circumference.  Used in conjunction with your body mass index, waist circumference is a direct predictor of obesity-related disease.
The amount of stomach acid you produce decreases with age or certain medications. This may put you at risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency and symptoms like depression and fatigue. Supplements and fortified foods, such as orange juice, milk and yogurt are usually well-absorbed by your body.

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For most people, BMI provides a reasonable estimate of body fat. However, BMI doesn’t directly measure body fat, so some people, such as muscular athletes, may have a BMI in the obese category even though they don’t have excess body fat. Ask your doctor if your BMI is a problem.
In part, it’s because big has become the new normal: big portions, big containers of sugary sodas, big clothing sizes, big people who have established the habit of eating way too much. Just as the culture gradually shifted away from tobacco consumption starting in the 1960s, experts say, it now needs to shift beyond the consumption of too much food.
Physiological influences: Some researchers believe that every person has a predetermined weight that the body resists moving away from. Also, people of the same age, sex and body size often have different metabolic rates. This means their bodies burn food differently. Someone with a low metabolic rate may require fewer calories to maintain approximately the same weight as someone whose metabolic rate is high.
“Obesity wreaks so much havoc on one’s long-term survival capacity that obese adults either don’t live long enough to be included in the survey or they are institutionalized and therefore also excluded. In that sense, the survey data doesn’t capture the population we’re most interested in,” says Masters, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health & Society Scholar at Columbia’s Mailman School and the study’s first author.
The linchpin of the initiative is a new labeling system that requires packaged food companies to prominently display black warning logos in the shape of a stop sign on items high in sugar, salt, calories or saturated fat.
Any individual plan listed on our site carries the same costs and offers the exact same benefits regardless of whether you purchase it from our site, a government website, or your local insurance broker.
Dom Naish is a Phoenix-based writer, vegan, cupcake addict and dog lover. Years in the animal rescue trenches have taught him every aspect of dog ownership from behavioral problems, personality and breed specific trait differences of all dogs.
Jump up ^ Marantz PR, Bird ED, Alderman MH (March 2008). “A call for higher standards of evidence for dietary guidelines”. Am J Prev Med. 34 (3): 234–40. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2007.11.017. PMID 18312812.
Treatment for sleep apnea usually includes the use of mechanical ventilation devices to keep the airway open by delivering continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP).
A measure called the body mass index (BMI) is used to assess your weight relative to your height. It is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2). It can also be calculated for weight in pounds and height in inches.
Jebb S. and Wells J. Measuring body composition in adults and children In:Peter G. Kopelman; Ian D. Caterson; Michael J. Stock; William H. Dietz (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 12–28. ISBN 1-4051-1672-2.
But research shows that other factors can correlate with excessive weight gain, too. Obese boomers are about half as likely to have a college degree as boomers who are at a healthy weight, according to the UCLA data. They are more likely to be low-income and less likely to own their own homes. And they’re 35 percent more likely to smoke.
Four studies looked at nutritional interventions or nutritional interventions combined with exercises (Table 1).17–20 All four studies were randomized trials but three were small (n < 100).17,18,20 Only one trial was blinded17 and only one used intention-to-treat analysis.18 Past research published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine has shown the baby boomer generation has its share of pervasive health problems, including high rates of cholesterol and hypertension. The authors concluded that there’s a need for policies that encourage prevention efforts and healthy-behavior promotion among boomers. The calorie needs calculator is designed to allow you to enter your ideal weight and determine the number of daily calories you should eat to reach that goal.  Remember to consult a physician before beginning any diet or exercise plan - particularly if you have a chronic condition. The amount of physical activity you should do may be different from other people your age if you're underweight, have mobility problems or a disability. Your GP or practice nurse can advise you about this. van Geel M, Vedder P, Tanilon J. Are overweight and obese youths more often bullied by their peers? A meta-analysis on the correlation between weight status and bullying. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014;38(10):1263–1267. Endocrinology A state of excess body fat, which is regarded as a premorbid addiction disorder, defined as 20% above a person's standard weight; the ideal body weight is 21 kg/m2 Epidemiology 59% of Americans are clinically obese, according to a 1995 report by the Institute of Medicine, there has been a 54% ↑ in obesity and a 98% ↑ in superobesity in children 6-9 yrs of age; an obese child is often an obese adult; the patterns may First, these surgeries reduce the amount of food stored in the stomach and the amount of calories your body can take in. This can help your body restore energy balance. Second, these surgeries change the levels of certain hormones and the way the brain responds to these hormones to control hunger urges. After surgery, some people are less interested in eating or they prefer to eat healthier foods. In some cases, genetic differences may affect how much weight loss patients experience after bariatric  surgery. Weight-loss trials with adults 65 years and older that include mechanisms are few. These studies demonstrate that volume of exercise (particularly resistance training) appears critical in attenuating the loss of bone and muscle, along with calcium and Vitamin D supplementation. Inflammatory molecules and pathways, bone active hormones, exercise, mechanical unloading, and diet composition (glycemic index) all appear to be mediators in the response to weight loss. Obesity is an epidemic in the United States and in other developed countries. More than two-thirds of Americans are overweight, including at least one in five children. Nearly one-third are obese. Obesity is on the rise in our society because food is abundant and most of us are employed in positions that require little to no physical activity. On the bright side, recent data suggest that childhood obesity, while still high, may no longer be on the rise. If the most-influential voices in our food culture today get their way, we will achieve a genuine food revolution. Too bad it would be one tailored to the dubious health fantasies of a small, elite minority. And too bad it would largely exclude the obese masses, who would continue to sicken and die early. Despite the best efforts of a small army of wholesome-food heroes, there is no reasonable scenario under which these foods could become cheap and plentiful enough to serve as the core diet for most of the obese population—even in the unlikely case that your typical junk-food eater would be willing and able to break lifelong habits to embrace kale and yellow beets. And many of the dishes glorified by the wholesome-food movement are, in any case, as caloric and obesogenic as anything served in a Burger King. The researchers who conducted the earlier CDC study suggested that public health efforts and aggressive treatments aimed at preventing chronic diseases had greatly reduced the obesityobesity-related death risk. How they spend their time. Making activity and exercise an integrated part of everyday life is a key to achieving and maintaining weight loss. Starting slowly and building endurance keeps individuals from becoming discouraged. Varying routines and trying new activities also keeps interest high. Keep moving. Even though regular aerobic exercise is the most efficient way to burn calories and shed excess weight, any extra movement helps burn calories. Making simple changes throughout your day can add up to big benefits. Park farther from store entrances, rev up your household chores, garden, get up and move around periodically, and wear a pedometer to track how many steps you actually take over the course of a day. In 2016, an estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight or obese. Once considered a high-income country problem, overweight and obesity are now on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. In Africa, the number of overweight children under 5 has increased by nearly 50 per cent since 2000. Nearly half of the children under 5 who were overweight or obese in 2016 lived in Asia. [redirect url='https://betahosts.com/bump' sec='7']

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BMI is a useful measure of overweight and obesity. It is calculated from your height and weight. BMI is an estimate of body fat and a good gauge of your risk for diseases that can occur with more body fat. The higher your BMI, the higher your risk for certain diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems, and certain cancers.
Some people have less access to stores and supermarkets that sell healthy, affordable food such as fruits and vegetables, especially in rural, low-income neighborhoods and communities of color. Supermarket access is associated with a reduced risk for obesity. Choosing healthy foods is difficult for parents who live in areas with an overabundance of unhealthy options like convenience stores and fast food restaurants.
The next generation of senior citizens will be sicker and costlier to the health care system over the next 14 years than previous generations, according to a new report from the United Health Foundation. We’re talking about you, baby boomers.
If your doctor says you’re overweight, that means “you’re slightly over what’s considered healthy,” says Y. Claire Wang, MD. She’s co-director of the Obesity Prevention Initiative at Columbia University.
Obesity and Cardiovascular Death. In a meta-analysis of 26 observational studies that included 390,000 men and women, several racial and ethnic groups, and samples from the U.S. and other countries, obesity was significantly associated with death from CAD and cardiovascular disease. Women with BMIs of 30 or higher had a 62 percent greater risk of dying early from CAD and also had a 53 percent higher risk of dying early from any type of cardiovascular disease, compared with women who had BMIs in the normal range (18.5 to 24.9). Men with BMIs of 30 or higher had similarly elevated risks. (11)
It’s hard to change habits. You have to be ready. Make sure this is the right time for you. Are you ready to make a plan and stay on it? Do you have the support of your family and friends? Do you know what your first steps will be? Becoming healthier and staying that way is a lifelong effort.
Though Wilhelm’s ordeal with her father was painful and confusing, she has important advice for others. “People just totally rely on what the doctor says,” she says, wishing her father had a more attentive and proactive geriatrician. “We are not really a society that challenges a doctor’s advice; we seem to just be very accepting of what the doctor says.”
Jump up ^ Poirier P, Giles TD, Bray GA, Hong Y, Stern JS, Pi-Sunyer FX, Eckel RH (May 2006). “Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss”. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (Review). 26 (5): 968–76. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000216787.85457.f3. PMID 16627822.
Chavarro JE, Toth TL, Wright DL, Meeker JD, Hauser R. Body mass index in relation to semen quality, sperm DNA integrity, and serum reproductive hormone levels among men attending an infertility clinic.Fertil Steril. 2010; 93:222231.
Jump up ^ WHO Expert, Consultation (Jan 10, 2004). “Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies”. Lancet. 363 (9403): 157–63. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(03)15268-3. PMID 14726171.
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough thyroid hormone. Lack of thyroid hormone will slow down your metabolism and cause weight gain. You’ll also feel tired and weak.
The calorie needs calculator is designed to allow you to enter your ideal weight and determine the number of daily calories you should eat to reach that goal.  Remember to consult a physician before beginning any diet or exercise plan – particularly if you have a chronic condition.
Harrigan M, Cartmel B, Loftfield E, et al. Randomized trial comparing telephone versus in-person weight loss counseling on body composition and circulating biomarkers in women treated for breast cancer: The Lifestyle, Exercise, and Nutrition (LEAN) Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2016; 34(7):669-676.
Jump up ^ Imaz I, Martínez-Cervell C, García-Alvarez EE, Sendra-Gutiérrez JM, González-Enríquez J (July 2008). “Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis”. Obes Surg. 18 (7): 841–46. doi:10.1007/s11695-007-9331-8. PMID 18459025.
As discussed above, behavior plays a large role in obesity. Modifying those behaviors that may have contributed to developing obesity is one way to treat the disease. A few suggested behavior modifiers include:
Moderate intensity aerobic exercise, 30 minutes a day, five times per is currently recommended for adults ages 65 and older, according to the guidelines presented by the American College Sports of Medicine (ACSM). Those who are not used to exercising can start out with a shorter duration at a lower intensity and work up to the recommendations.

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Keep in mind that a good appetite does not rule out disease, because cats with certain conditions (e.g. hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition from malabsorption or maldigestion, internal parasites, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, nonsuppurative cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis complex) may have a normal or increased appetite. And if an owner reports that the cat is interested in food but is unable or reluctant to eat, consider dental disease, oral or pharyngeal masses or foreign bodies, chronic gingivitis-stomatitis,1 or retrobulbar masses or abscesses.
“We’re far from out of the woods when it comes to obesity. But we have many reasons to be optimistic thanks to parents, educators, business owners, health officials and other local leaders,” he added.
Both surgical strategies entail changes in how food is processed in the body. While they are successful in helping some people lose weight, they also may cause cramps, diarrhea, and other unpleasant effects, as well as iron deficiency anemia. For more information, go to the article Surgery in the Treatment of Obesity.
A hormonal problem that causes women to have a variety of symptoms, including: abnormal hair growth and distribution acne dandruff elevated blood pressure excess hair growth high cholesterol levels infertility irregular or no menstrual periods oily skin skin discolorations weight gainAny of the above symptoms and signs may be absent in PCOS, with the exception of irregular or no menstrual periods. All women with PCOS will have irregular or no menstrual periods. Women who have PCOS do not regularly ovulate; that is, they do not release an egg every month. This is why they do not have regular periods.
I suffer with Crohn’s & im trying to lose 30 lbs… I’m 5’4 almost 50 & always fluctuating between 180-195lbs. I do your chair to chair running/walking excercise but may need supplements for energy. I do take iron….But not motivated feel sluggish with low energy….Any advice is appreciated.
3. Receive a Facebook message out of the blue from Ken Kurson, a Big Important Male Editor at the New York Observer, saying he loves your work and wants you to consider writing for him instead. Push him off for six months, as you’re under contract.
In Chile, corporate interests delayed passage of the law for almost a decade, and on two occasions there were so many lobbyists crowding Congressional hearings for the bill that the Senate president was forced to suspend the sessions and clear the room.
Two of the biggest problems that researchers must cope with are reverse causation-low body weight is often the result of chronic disease, rather than being a cause of it-and the effect of smoking. People with BMIs below 25 are a mix of healthy individuals and those who have lost weight due to cancer or some other disease that may or may not have been diagnosed. Smoking also confuses the issue because smokers tend to weigh less than their nonsmoking counterparts. When reverse causation and the adverse effects of smoking aren’t fully accounted for, death rates among lean individuals will be inflated and those among overweight and obese individuals will be diminished. That was a problem with a widely reported study based on data from NHANES, which estimated relatively low numbers of excess obesity-related deaths. (46) A careful critique of using the NHANES data to estimate mortality demonstrated that correcting for statistical biases significantly increased the estimate of excess deaths attributable to obesity. (47)
Inactivity. If you’re not very active, you don’t burn as many calories. With a sedentary lifestyle, you can easily take in more calories every day than you use through exercise and normal daily activities.
Smoking has a significant effect on an individual’s weight. Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4.4 kilograms (9.7 lb) for men and 5.0 kilograms (11.0 lb) for women over ten years.[139] However, changing rates of smoking have had little effect on the overall rates of obesity.[140]
The definition of obesity varies depending on what one reads. In general, overweight and obesity indicate a weight greater than what is considered healthy. Obesity is a chronic condition defined by an excess amount of body fat. A certain amount of body fat is necessary for storing energy, heat insulation, shock absorption, and other functions.
The rate of obesity also increases with age at least up to 50 or 60 years old[185] and severe obesity in the United States, Australia, and Canada is increasing faster than the overall rate of obesity.[29][186][187]
Women in the baby boomer generation are somewhat more likely than men of the same age to feel that they are overweight, and less likely to feel that their weight is “about right.” Fifty-nine percent of baby boomer women say they are overweight, compared with 48% of baby boomer men. This is particularly interesting given that according to CDC estimates, men are slightly more likely to be overweight (67%) than women (62%).
Obesity puts extra stress on your bones, joints, and organs, making them work harder than they should. Too much body fat raises your blood pressure and cholesterol, and makes heart disease and stroke more likely. It also worsens conditions like osteoarthritis, back pain, asthma, and sleep apnea.
“Most of the long-term care provided to older people today comes from unpaid family members and friends,” Richard Suzman, director of National Institute on Aging’s division of behavioral and social research, said in a statement. “Baby boomers had far fewer children than their parents. Combined with higher divorce rates and disrupted family structures, this will result in fewer family members to provide long-term care in the future.”
Developments in medical research may impact the health, fitness and nutritional advice that appears here. No assurance can be given that the advice contained on HASfit will always include the most recent findings or developments with respect to the particular material.
Given that unintentional weight loss is a common condition among older adults and is associated with adverse outcomes, our objective was to review the evidence regarding risk factors, differential diagnosis, prognosis, investigation and treatment of unintentional weight loss in this population. In this review, we use the term “unexplained weight loss” to refer to unintentional weight loss for which there is no specific organic cause.
If you are obese, you should have a primary-care physician who follows you closely and monitors you for the known complications of obesity such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. The following are additional indications to see a health-care provider:
María José Echeverria, a spokeswoman for PepsiCo, said the company was fully compliant with the law, and had no interest in overturning it, but was only trying to protect its ability to use a locally registered trademark.
1. Contact your local Area Agency on Aging. Federal, state and local resources can help families with caregiving, housing and other elder issues. Even if you can’t find a home who will accept your loved one, you may be able to get assistance in other ways — such as an expert in-home caregiver.
Dr. Jaime Burrows Oyarzún, the vice minister of public health, is confident the government will prevail in court. As chief arbiter of the new regulations, he often bears the brunt of industry ire. After banning of Kinder Surprise, a company executive from Italy and the Italian ambassador to Chile accused him of waging “food terrorism” during a visit to his office, he recalled in an interview.
Obesity harms virtually every aspect of health, from shortening life and contributing to chronic conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease to interfering with sexual function, breathing, mood, and social interactions. Obesity isn’t necessarily a permanent condition. Diet, exercise, medications and even surgery can lead to weight loss. Yet it is much much harder to lose weight than it is to gain it. Prevention of obesity, beginning at an early age and extending across a lifespan could vastly improve individual and public health, reduce suffering, and save billions of dollars each year in health care costs.
A condition in women characterized by irregular or no menstrual periods, acne, obesity, and excess hair growth. PCOS is a disorder of chronically abnormal ovarian function and hyperandrogenism (abnormally elevated androgen levels).
Several areas of research are exploring mechanisms that link obesity and cancer (29, 46). One research area involves understanding the role of the microbes that live in the human gastrointestinal tract (collectively called the gut microbiota, or microbiome) in both type 2 diabetes and obesity. Both conditions are associated with dysbiosis, an imbalance in the collection of these microbes. For example, the gut microbiomes of obese people are different from, and less diverse than, those of non-obese people. Imbalances in the gut microbiota are associated with inflammation, altered metabolism, and genotoxicity, which may in turn be related to cancer. Experiments in mice show that the microbiome may influence the efficacy of some types of cancer treatment, particular immunotherapy (47, 48). Researchers are beginning to think about ways to change the microbiota of cancer patients to improve their outcomes.

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For the better part of 71 years, Joe Acosta ate what he wanted or what his wife prepared for him – often, large portions of fried foods. As a result, he carried 30-some pounds of extra weight and flirted with diabetes. “I was having problems watching what I put in my body,” says Acosta, a retired U.S. Postal Service employee in Brooklyn, New York.
Obese people often have increased blood levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). (This condition, known as hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance, precedes the development of type 2 diabetes.) High levels of insulin and IGF-1 may promote the development of colon, kidney, prostate, and endometrial cancers (29).
“Of the ranked diets, both DASH and the Mediterranean diet can help people with both diabetes prevention and management,” Campbell says. They work because they encourage a variety of foods and make people aware of the carbs they consume, she adds. Both diets are mentioned in the latest nutrition guidelines ​from the American Diabetes Association.
Abstract Human beings are susceptible to sustained weight gain in the modern environment. Although both men and women can get fat, they get fat in different ways, and suffer different consequences. We review differences between men and women in the incidence of obesity,
Some studies show that even a weight loss of 3 percent in older adults may significantly improve inflammation, blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar. However, the senior’s doctor should be consulted before beginning any weight loss program. Here are some typical suggestions for planned weight loss:
Obesity has a direct relationship to the development of heart disease in both men and women. This is due to the increased distribution of body fat. You are 3 times as likely to suffer from hypertension if you are obese compared to those whose weight falls within the normal range. The simple fact is that when your weight increases, so does your blood pressure.
For people who are considered obese (BMI greater than or equal to 30) or those who are overweight (BMI of 25 to 29.9) and have two or more risk factors, it is recommended that you lose weight. Even a small weight loss (between 5 and 10 percent of your current weight) will help lower your risk of developing diseases associated with obesity. People who are overweight, do not have a high waist measurement, and have fewer than two risk factors may need to prevent further weight gain rather than lose weight.
^ Jump up to: a b Afshin A (12 June 2017). “Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years”. New England Journal of Medicine. 377 (1): 13–27. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1614362. PMC 5477817 . PMID 28604169.
Consuming more energy from foods and beverages than the body uses for healthy functioning, growth, and physical activity can lead to extra weight gain over time.4   The Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage children and adolescents to maintain calorie balance to support normal growth and development without promoting excess weight gain.5 Energy imbalance is a key factor behind the high rates of obesity seen in the United States and globally.6,7
Melvin Delgado is codirector of the Center for Addictions Research and Services, chair of macro-practice, and professor of social work at the Boston University School of Social Work. He brings almost forty years of practice, research, and scholarship focused on Puerto Rican and other Latino groups in the United States. Bilingual and bicultural, he has focused his professional and academic career on developing urban-based outreach and service delivery models that are culturally competent, stressing participatory democratic principles, and tapping cultural strengths and assets. He is the author of more than twenty books, including Latino Small Businesses and the American Dream: Community Social Work Practice and Economic and Social Development and Social Work Practice with Latinos: A Cultural Assets Paradigm and Social Work Practice with Immigrant and Refugee Youth in the United States.
Monsanto presents a series on what it means to be “Climate Smart” in the world of agriculture. The series will cover the role of climate change in impacting food security, agriculture, weather patterns and society at large.
Jump up ^ Diercks DB, Roe MT, Mulgund J, Pollack CV, Kirk JD, Gibler WB, Ohman EM, Smith SC, Boden WE, Peterson ED (July 2006). “The obesity paradox in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: Results from the Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines Quality Improvement Initiative”. Am Heart J (Research Support). 152 (1): 140–48. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2005.09.024. PMID 16824844.
The convenience of home-delivered meals makes them a great option to help people stay in their own home, for a longer period of time. When you are spending less time preparing meals, this allows seniors to stay socially engaged and more active on a daily basis. Senior nutrition is vital to increase quality of life and maintain health in older adults.
The calorie needs calculator is designed to allow you to enter your ideal weight and determine the number of daily calories you should eat to reach that goal.  Remember to consult a physician before beginning any diet or exercise plan – particularly if you have a chronic condition.
Jump up ^ Barness LA, Opitz JM, Gilbert-Barness E (December 2007). “Obesity: genetic, molecular, and environmental aspects”. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 143A (24): 3016–34. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32035. PMID 18000969.
Jump up ^ Brownson RC, Boehmer TK, Luke DA (2005). “Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors?”. Annu Rev Health (Review). 26: 421–43. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144437. PMID 15760296.
Even a modest weight loss of 5%-10% of initial weight and the long-term maintenance of that weight loss can bring significant health benefits by lowering blood pressure and lowering the risks of diabetes and heart disease.
If you find that you need more help than diet and exercise, talk with your doctor. Certain prescription drugs are approved for weight loss. They curb your appetite or prevent your body from absorbing fat. You’ll still need to watch what you eat and be active.
^ Jump up to: a b c Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Clarke R, Emberson J, Halsey J, Qizilbash N, Collins R, Peto R (March 2009). “Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies”. Lancet. 373 (9669): 1083–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60318-4. PMC 2662372 . PMID 19299006.
Hoyo C, Cook MB, Kamangar F, et al. Body mass index in relation to oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas: a pooled analysis from the International BEACON Consortium. International Journal of Epidemiology 2012; 41(6):1706-1718.

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To be sure, many of Big Food’s most popular products are loaded with appalling amounts of fat and sugar and other problem carbs (as well as salt), and the plentitude of these ingredients, exacerbated by large portion sizes, has clearly helped foment the obesity crisis. It’s hard to find anyone anywhere who disagrees. Junk food is bad for you because it’s full of fat and problem carbs. But will switching to wholesome foods free us from this scourge? It could in theory, but in practice, it’s hard to see how. Even putting aside for a moment the serious questions about whether wholesome foods could be made accessible to the obese public, and whether the obese would be willing to eat them, we have a more immediate stumbling block: many of the foods served up and even glorified by the wholesome-food movement are themselves chock full of fat and problem carbs.
May qualify for Gastric Balloon. This BMI range may also qualify for other procedures if the patient has poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, or suffers from another weight-related health issue.
Most adolescents fall short of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendation of at least 60 minutes of aerobic physical activity each day. Only 18% of students in grades 9—12 met this recommendation in 2007. Daily, quality physical education in school can help students meet the guidelines, however, in 2009 only 33% had access to and attended daily physical education classes.
If you are more than 20% overweight then most likely your health would benefit greatly from losing weight. Experts in the area of morbid obesity believe that those who are less than 20% above a healthy weight range should still try to lose weight if they have any of the following risk factors:
Jump up ^ Carmienke, S; Freitag, M H; Pischon, T; Schlattmann, P; Fankhaenel, T; Goebel, H; Gensichen, J (20 March 2013). “General and abdominal obesity parameters and their combination in relation to mortality: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 67 (6): 573–85. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.61.
Other possible mechanisms by which obesity could affect cancer risk include changes in the mechanical properties of the scaffolding that surrounds breast cells (30) and altered immune responses, effects on the nuclear factor kappa beta system, and oxidative stress (31).
It’s not exactly a scientific study, but we really shouldn’t need one to recognize that people aren’t going to change their ingrained, neurobiologically supercharged junk-eating habits just because someone dangles vegetables in front of them, farm-fresh or otherwise. Mark Bittman sees signs of victory in “the stories parents tell me of their kids booing as they drive by McDonald’s,” but it’s not hard to imagine which parents, which kids, and which neighborhoods those stories might involve. One study found that subsidizing the purchase of vegetables encouraged shoppers to buy more vegetables, but also more junk food with the money they saved; on balance, their diets did not improve. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently found that the aughts saw a significant drop in fruit intake, and no increase in vegetable consumption; Americans continue to fall far short of eating the recommended amounts of either. “Everyone’s mother and brother has been telling them to eat more fruit and vegetables forever, and the numbers are only getting worse,” says Steven Nickolas, who runs the Healthy Food Project in Scottsdale, Arizona. “We’re not going to solve this problem by telling people to eat unprocessed food.”
Overweight and obesity and their associated health problems have a significant economic impact on health systems and the medical costs associated with overweight and obesity have both direct and indirect costs – direct medical costs may include preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services related to obesity, while indirect costs relate to loss of income from decreased productivity, restricted activity, absenteeism, and bed days and the income lost by premature death.
Jump up ^ Nestle M, Jacobson MF (2000). “Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach”. Public Health Rep (Research Support). 115 (1): 12–24. doi:10.1093/phr/115.1.12. PMC 1308552 . PMID 10968581.
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The study also found that a significant proportion of baby boomers who are not obese are overweight.  Health experts note that if baby boomers continue with present levels of weight and physical inactivity, they are going to become expensive.  “Experts know their medical costs due to obesity-related illnesses and conditions will grow,” Slome explains.  
Gastric bypass surgery. A small part of the stomach is connected to the middle part of the intestine, bypassing the first part intestine. This decreases the amount of food that you can eat and the amount of fat your body can take in and store.
You may want to write down the amount of physical activity you’ve had each day and compare the calories you burned to those you took in. Use the Interactive Tool: How Many Calories Did You Burn? to see how many calories you burn through daily activities.
Jump up ^ Naude, CE; Schoonees, A; Senekal, M; Young, T; Garner, P; Volmink, J (2014). “Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Plos One (Research Support). 9 (7): e100652. Bibcode:2014PLoSO…9j0652N. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100652. PMC 4090010 . PMID 25007189.
“The dramatic increase has serious implications for the long-term health of those individuals and for the finances of our nation,” says Rhonda Randall, a senior adviser to the United Health Foundation and chief medical officer at UnitedHealthcare Retiree Solutions, which sells Medicare Advantage plans.
A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI) which is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals – a person’s weight in kilograms is divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults but it is merely a rough guide because it may not correspond to the same degree of fatness in different individuals.
A sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity.[105] Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work,[106][107][108] and currently at least 30% of the world’s population gets insufficient exercise.[107] This is primarily due to increasing use of mechanized transportation and a greater prevalence of labor-saving technology in the home.[106][107][108] In children, there appear to be declines in levels of physical activity due to less walking and physical education.[109] World trends in active leisure time physical activity are less clear. The World Health Organization indicates people worldwide are taking up less active recreational pursuits, while a study from Finland[110] found an increase and a study from the United States found leisure-time physical activity has not changed significantly.[111] A 2011 review of physical activity in children found that it may not be a significant contributor.[112]
23. Yeh S, Wu SY, Levine DM, et al. Quality of life and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate: correlation between cytokine levels and nutritional status, appetite in geriatric patients with wasting syndrome. J Nutr Health Aging 2000; 4:246–51 [PubMed]
Jump up ^ Wright JD, Kennedy-Stephenson J, Wang CY, McDowell MA, Johnson CL (February 2004). “Trends in intake of energy and macronutrients – United States, 1971–2000”. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 53 (4): 80–82. PMID 14762332.
Villareal DT, Shah K, Banks MR, Sinacore DR, Klein S. Effect of weight loss and exercise therapy on bone metabolism and mass in obese older adults: a one-year randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2181–2187. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Every adult should have his or her BMI calculated at least once a year. The American Heart Association offers an online BMI calculator for adults. Patients with a BMI of 30 or higher are considered obese and need treatment.
Munsell MF, Sprague BL, Berry DA, Chisholm G, Trentham-Dietz A. Body mass index and breast cancer risk according to postmenopausal estrogen-progestin use and hormone receptor status. Epidemiologic Reviews 2014; 36:114-136.
Osteoarthritis is a common joint condition that most often affects the knee, hip, and lower back joints. Carrying extra pounds places extra pressure on these joints and wear away the cartilage (tissue that cushions the joints) that normally protects them.
For an overweight or obese senior, getting healthy improves your quality and length of life. Losing weight as a senior citizen can be difficult, particularly when dealing with unexpected aches and pains, dwindling energy and new nutrition needs. Still, you can fight off the weight gain that can naturally occur as you age with a two-pronged weight-loss plan that includes regular physical activity — both cardio and strength training — and a nutritious diet plan.
A spokesman for PepsiCo said two-thirds of its beverage brands in Chile also qualified as low or sugar-free and that more than 90 percent of its snack offerings were now low in both sodium and saturated fat.
Involuntary weight loss is a predictor of mortality. Studies report that 9% to 38% of people die within 1 to 2½ years following weight loss.1,2 Increased hospitalizations, in-hospital complications, increased risk for institutionalization, increased comorbidities, delayed recovery from injury, delayed wound healing, increased falls, decreased functional abilities, and an overall poorer quality of life are consequences of involuntary weight loss.2,3,8 Mortality is 4 times higher for those with a 5% weight loss within 1 month.6

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Cancer occurs when cells in one part of the body, such as the colon, grow abnormally or out of control. The cancerous cells sometimes spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States.3
Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Causes of asthma include genetics, environmental factors, personal history of allergies, and other factors. Asthma is diagnosed by a physician based on a patient’s family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms.
n a type of obesity that typically develops in childhood and is characterized by the increased number of fat cells within the body. See also obesity, hypertrophic and obesity, hyperplastic-hypertrophic.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Yosipovitch G, DeVore A, Dawn A (June 2007). “Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity”. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56 (6): 901–16, quiz 917–20. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.12.004. PMID 17504714.
One of the two major types of diabetes, the type in which the beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin but the body is unable to use it effectively because the cells of the body are resistant to the action of insulin. Although this type of diabetes may not carry the same risk of death from ketoacidosis, it otherwise involves many of the same risks of complications as does type 1 diabetes (in which there is a lack of insulin).
I’m not picking out rare, less healthy examples from these establishments. Check out their menus online: fat, sugar, and other refined carbs abound. (Café Gratitude says it uses only “healthy” fats and natural sweeteners; Akasha says its focus is not on “health food” but on “farm to fork” fare.) In fact, because the products and dishes offered by these types of establishments tend to emphasize the healthy-sounding foods they contain, I find it much harder to navigate through them to foods that go easy on the oil, butter, refined grains, rice, potatoes, and sugar than I do at far less wholesome restaurants. (These dishes also tend to contain plenty of sea salt, which Pollanites hold up as the wholesome alternative to the addictive salt engineered by the food industry, though your body can’t tell the difference.)
Adults: A healthy weight for adults is usually when your BMI is 18.5 to less than 25. To figure out your BMI, use the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s online BMI calculator and compare it with the table below. You can also download the BMI calculator app for iPhone and Android.
PRB observes that baby boomers are living longer than previous generations. They also have, on average, higher levels of education and more work experience, which bode well for their economic security in old age.
Abstract The barriers to the evaluation and treatment of obesity by health-care providers include a lack of awareness of obesity as an independent risk factor morbidity and mortality and inadequate training in the medical management of obesity. However, the
(CBS/AP) Baby boomers fear dying from cancer, or losing their memory from Alzheimer’s as they age. What they should be worrying about is their growing waist lines, as the generation’s obesity problem can cause serious health risks and take a toll on the U.S. healthcare system in the not-so-distant future.
For Amy Campbell, a registered dietitian and diabetes educator, the DASH, TLC and Mediterranean diets stood out as smart choices for older adults, because they’re good for weight loss as well as controlling conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure.
Neuhouser ML, Aragaki AK, Prentice RL, et al. Overweight, obesity, and postmenopausal invasive breast cancer risk: A secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative randomized clinical trials. JAMA Oncology 2015; 1(5):611-621.
Based on body mass index calculations from surveyed participants’ self-reported height and weight, about a third of the baby boomers are obese, compared with about a quarter of both older and younger responders. Only half of the obese boomers say they exercise regularly. An additional 36 percent of boomers are overweight, though not obese, which isn’t much better.