A number of additional health outcomes have been linked to excess weight. These include the development of gallstones in men (40) and women, (41) as well as gout, (42, 43) chronic kidney disease, (44) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (25,45)
Author familyhealthtodayPosted on November 19, 2016Categories HEART HEALTH, LONGEVITY, PREDIABETES/DIABETES, WEIGHT LOSSTags baby bommers health, baby boomer diabesity, baby boomer fitness, baby boomer health, baby boomer health concerns, baby boomer health issues, baby boomer wellness, baby boomers diabesity, baby boomers fitness, baby boomers health, baby boomers health concerns, baby boomers health issues, baby boomers wellness, blood glucose, breast health, diabesity, diabetes, healthy, healthy life, optimal health, prediabetes
Beers, Mark H., MD, and Robert Berkow, MD, editors. “Nutritional Disorders: Obesity.” Section 1, Chapter 5. In The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2004.
If you’re ready to get started with a weight loss program, ask your doctor to help you set personal goals and refer you to other professionals who can give you tips and help you reach your goals. For example, a nutritionist can help you with a food plan, and a physical therapist or trainer can help you move more.
A spokesman for PepsiCo said two-thirds of its beverage brands in Chile also qualified as low or sugar-free and that more than 90 percent of its snack offerings were now low in both sodium and saturated fat.
^ Jump up to: a b Tsigos C, Hainer V, Basdevant A, Finer N, Fried M, Mathus-Vliegen E, Micic D, Maislos M, Roman G, Schutz Y, Toplak H, Zahorska-Markiewicz B (April 2008). “Management of Obesity in Adults: European Clinical Practice Guidelines” (PDF). The European Journal of Obesity. 1 (2): 106–16. doi:10.1159/000126822. PMID 20054170. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-26.
While there are other measures of obesity, including abdominal fat and waist circumference, researchers generally define it according to body mass index, or BMI. The BMI formula divides an individual’s weight by the square of height, then multiplies the result by 703. The math is not without controversy: Some health experts charge that for people with large muscle mass, the calculations may unfairly skew them into overweight or obese categories.
“Woe to you, because you build tombs for the prophets, and it was your ancestors who killed them.” Jesus’s rebuke to the Pharisees descended upon me on a cold January morning in 2017, in West Potomac Park in Washington, D.C. On that Monday, the national holiday dedicated to the man at whose memorial I stood, the capital bustled in anticipation of a more pressing political event. That’s why I was at the park, pondering this granite stone of hope, carved out of a mountain of despair. The memorial to Martin Luther King Jr. cast its shadow over me, its presence just as conflicted as those tombs.
Various efforts have been made to redesign bodegas to emphasize healthier choices. I learned that one retooled bodega was nearby, and dropped in. It was cleaner and brighter than the others I’d seen, and a large produce case was near the entrance, brimming with an impressive selection of fresh-looking produce. The candy and other junky snack foods were relegated to a small set of shelves closer to the more dimly lit rear of the store. But I couldn’t help noticing that unlike most of the other bodegas I’d been to, this one was empty, except for me and a lone employee. I hung around, eventually buying a few items to assuage the employee’s growing suspicion. Finally, a young woman came in, made a beeline for the junk-food shelves, grabbed a pack of cupcakes, paid, and left.
While weight management may be complex, its solution is basic: Keep it simple. As director of preventive cardiology at the University of Chicago Medical Center Michael Davidson told US News and World Report, the best eating and exercise plans prioritize the question, “What can be a lifelong change instead of just a short-term fix for the patient?” Whether you’ve tried and failed in the past or are setting out on your first weight loss journey, letting this question be your guide may make all the difference in 2017.
Respondents were more likely to report that weight problems caused difficulty with physical functioning than with personal care or daily activities (see table). This made sense to Martin: “When you think about obesity, you can imagine someone having trouble climbing a flight of stairs or walking a quarter mile, but not needing help shopping or dressing,” she said. But she also noted that some of the conditions respondents named as the reason they needed assistance (such as diabetes and back problems) could be related to obesity.
Jump up ^ Chakravarthy MV, Booth FW (2004). “Eating, exercise, and “thrifty” genotypes: Connecting the dots toward an evolutionary understanding of modern chronic diseases”. J. Appl. Physiol. (Review). 96 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00757.2003. PMID 14660491.
Another rough way of estimating the amount of a person’s abdominal fat is by measuring the waist circumference. Men with a waist circumference of 40 inches or greater and women with a waist circumference of 35 inches or greater are considered to have increased health risks related to obesity.
A combination of healthy diet and exercise (when you stick to it) appears to work better than either one alone. Sticking to a weight reduction program is difficult and requires a lot of support from family and friends.
Obesity clearly exacerbates the age-related decline in physical function and causes frailty in older individuals. Frailty in older obese individuals may be related to the insulin resistance and inflammation that often accompany obesity (36). This is reflected by self-reported impairment in activities of daily living in the older obese individual, limitations in mobility and decreased physical performance (as detailed in the former segment), increased risk for functional decline, and a higher rate of nursing home admissions (35,37–39). Of particular significance in establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between obesity and frailty is the recent report that weight loss and exercise can ameliorate frailty in older obese adults (40).
Waist circumference is another widely used measurement to determine abdominal fat content. An excess of abdominal fat, when out of proportion to total body fat, is considered a predictor of risk factors related to obesity. Men with a waist measurement exceeding 40 inches are considered at risk. Women are at risk with a waist measurement of 35 inches or greater.
Based on evidence from a large cohort study that involved 4010 persons aged 65 years and older from 11 cities in Europe, the most common independent factors associated with unexplained weight loss are those related to food intake. Specifically, they are eating less than one meal per day (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8–6.4), eating less overall (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.8–4.4), reduced appetite (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9–3.4), severe malnutrition (OR 7.1, 95% CI 4.2–11.9) and problems swallowing food (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.8–4.4). Other factors were flare-ups of chronic diseases (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), hospital admission in the last 90 days (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6–2.7), constipation (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.7), falls (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9), pressure ulcers (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9) and daily pain (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0–1.6)7 (Box 1).
Diet is an important factor in shaping the gut ecosystem. A diet of highly processed foods, for example, has been linked to a less diverse gut community in people. Gordon’s team demonstrated the complex interaction among food, microbes and body weight by feeding their humanized mice a specially prepared unhealthy chow that was high in fat and low in fruits, vegetables and fiber (as opposed to the usual high-fiber, low-fat mouse kibble). Given this “Western diet,” the mice with obese-type microbes proceeded to grow fat even when housed with lean cagemates. The unhealthy diet somehow prevented the virtuous bacteria from moving in and flourishing.
Exercises For KneesExercises For Knee InjuriesKnee Injury WorkoutExercises For Arthritic KneesNon Weight Bearing ExercisesBad Knee ExercisesInner Thigh StretchesPilates Ring ExercisesExercises For Love Handles
 Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Weight Gain during Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2009. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK32813.
Madeira Beach is looking beautiful, the weather is great, and things have returned almost completely to normal. We thank everyone for their concern and prayers, and also thank the authorities and utility folks who have done such a great job!
Obesity is best defined by using the body mass index. The body mass index is calculated using a person’s height and weight. The body mass index (BMI) equals a person’s weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared. Since BMI describes body weight relative to height, it is strongly correlated with total body fat content in adults. An adult who has a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and an adult who has a BMI over 30 is considered obese. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 considered normal weight.
“I noticed that he was definitely thinner, but not so much as to cause great concern,” she says. Still something didn’t seem right to Wilhelm, so she asked her father about his weight loss.”He said he had been to his doctor, so I didn’t worry,” she explains. “He was his usual upbeat self.”
To determine whether a person is overweight or obese, the Body Mass Index (BMI) is a helpful tool. BMI is calculated from your height and weight; the higher your BMI, the higher your risk for certain diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems (like sleep apnea), an increase in abnormal blood fats like cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, and certain cancers.
“In older, obese people, it may be more important to improve physical function and quality of life, rather than to reverse or treat risk factors for cardiovascular disease,” says Villareal, now chief of geriatrics at the New Mexico Veterans Affairs Health Care System and professor of medicine at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, both in Albuquerque. “Combining exercise and weight loss isn’t designed so much to extend their life expectancy as it is to improve their quality of life during their remaining years and to help seniors avoid being admitted to a nursing home.”
Searches of MEDLINE (and MEDLINE In-Process), EMBASE, CINAHL and AGELINE were conducted to identify relevant studies from 1980 to September 2009. Additional studies were identified from searching bibliographies of retrieved articles and by consulting a clinical expert in the area. We identified English-language articles that addressed risk factors, differential diagnosis, prognosis, investigation or treatment of unintentional weight loss among adults 65 years of age or older. Further details on the search can be found in Appendix 1, available at www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/cmaj.101471/DC1. We excluded articles that specifically focused on weight loss associated with cancer or HIV infection. All types of articles were considered for inclusion except for case reports, editorials and meeting abstracts. All patients, regardless of where they lived, were included in the review. Two reviewers (S.S. and E.M.A or J.H-L) independently reviewed all identified citations to select relevant publications that met the inclusion criteria. In cases of doubt, full-text articles were retrieved for review and discussion.
For more information about these and other health problems associated with overweight and obesity, visit Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults [PDF-1.25MB].
Hip geometry and serum sclerostin were the focus of the second paper (Armamento-Villareal 2012). Sclerostin is an inhibitor of bone formation and increases in states of unloading. It may mediate the changes in bone metabolism associated with weight loss and exercise by increased sclerostin production by the mechanostat in osteocytes. Sclerostin then inhibits signaling through the canonical Wnt pathway that results in an inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation, inhibiting bone formation. The resultant skeletal loading from exercise training increases BMD and improves bone geometry, and when added to caloric restriction, inhibits the weight-loss induced increase in sclerostin. This results in the attenuation of bone loss and preservation of bone geometry. The study investigators hypothesized a reduction in sclerostin with weight loss, but found no change. They suggested a floor effect of mechanical loading on the osteocyte’s response due to chronic overload in obese subjects. Additionally, the significant correlations between sclerostin and hip geometry parameters indicated that sclerostin may mediate the degradation in bone quality from unloading during weight loss, which is preserved with the addition of exercise.
Aerobic exercise can lead to improved cardiovascular function, better quality of sleep, improved mental health, weight loss, and enhanced immune function. Suggested aerobic activities for older adults include low-impact exercises such as walking, biking, low-impact aerobics, and water activities such as swimming or water aerobics.
Take up a physical hobby like dancing, yoga, or water aerobics instead of — or in addition to — something sedentary like bingo or bridge. Keeping up the physical activity will help you keep the mobility you have and may even increase flexibility and range of movement. And you may even make some new friends.
At last, it’s time to toss that scale that’s collecting dust under your bathroom vanity. “At advanced ages, you cannot afford to lose muscle, organ tissue, or bone mass,” says Huizenga, “which means focusing on the number on the scale is especially inappropriate.” Instead, invest in a body fat measurement tool (such as calipers or an electrical impedance device) or simply just measure your waist size. The general rule of thumb is that your waist size should be no more than half your height. So, a woman who’s 5′ 4″ (or 64 inches) should have a waist size no larger than 32 inches; a man who’s 5′ 9″ (or 69 inches) should have a waist no larger than 34.5 inches.
Next, ask the owner about specific body systems and other clinical signs. Cats with abdominal pain may lie in an unusual position or object to being held in a way that puts pressure on the abdomen. Vomiting and diarrhea may help localize the problem to the GI tract, although these are nonspecific signs of many conditions.