“obesity paper +obesity calculator chart”

Kopelman P., Caterson I. An overview of obesity management In:Peter G. Kopelman; Ian D. Caterson; Michael J. Stock; William H. Dietz (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 319–26. ISBN 1-4051-1672-2.
Aging baby boomers are smoking and drinking less, but overweight and obesity are on the rise, according to a new report from the U.S. Census Bureau. That’s especially concerning when you consider the many other diseases and disabilities—including arthritis, type-2 diabetes, heart disease and hindered mobility—that can come with excess body weight.
You can use a measurement called a body mass index, or BMI, along with your waist size , to decide whether your weight is dangerous to your health. The BMI is a combination of your height and weight. If you have a BMI of 30 or higher, unhealthy eating patterns, and too little physical activity, your extra weight is putting your health in danger.
Obesity has reached epic proportions in the U.S. Rates of obesity have gone up from 12 to 20 percent of the population since 1991. This epidemic is not limited to adults; the percentage of young people who are overweight has more than doubled in the past 20 years. Sixteen percent of children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years old are considered overweight.
Koolhaas CM, Dhana K, Golubic R, Schoufour JD, Hofman A, van Rooij FJ et al. Physical Activity Types and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Middle-Aged and Elderly Persons: The Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol 2016; 183: 729–738.
Obesity is a chronic condition. Too often it is viewed as a temporary problem that can be treated for a few months with a strenuous diet. However, as most overweight people know, weight control must be considered a lifelong effort. To be safe and effective, any weight-loss program must address the long-term approach or else the program is largely a waste of time, money, and energy.
The study adds to evidence that while Americans are living longer these days, they may be living sicker. The 2012 America’s Health Rankings reported upticks in risk factors that drive chronic diseases, such as obesity and inactivity.
Obesity clearly exacerbates the age-related decline in physical function and causes frailty in older individuals. Frailty in older obese individuals may be related to the insulin resistance and inflammation that often accompany obesity (36). This is reflected by self-reported impairment in activities of daily living in the older obese individual, limitations in mobility and decreased physical performance (as detailed in the former segment), increased risk for functional decline, and a higher rate of nursing home admissions (35,37–39). Of particular significance in establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between obesity and frailty is the recent report that weight loss and exercise can ameliorate frailty in older obese adults (40).
5. Kabakov E, Norymberg C, Osher E, Koffler M, Tordjman K, Greenman Y, Stern N: Prevalence of hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus: impact of the tightening definition of high blood pressure and association with confounding risk factors. J Cardiometab Syndr 2006; 1: 95– 101 [PubMed]
A condition in women characterized by irregular or no menstrual periods, acne, obesity, and excess hair growth. PCOS is a disorder of chronically abnormal ovarian function and hyperandrogenism (abnormally elevated androgen levels).
While weight management may be complex, its solution is basic: Keep it simple. As director of preventive cardiology at the University of Chicago Medical Center Michael Davidson told US News and World Report, the best eating and exercise plans prioritize the question, “What can be a lifelong change instead of just a short-term fix for the patient?” Whether you’ve tried and failed in the past or are setting out on your first weight loss journey, letting this question be your guide may make all the difference in 2017.
The answers to these questions may reveal important clues about the cat’s weight loss. For example, in some households, pets compete for food, and underfeeding results. Clients may feed a weight-loss diet and continue it even after an optimal weight has been achieved. An arthritic or visually impaired cat may not be able to make it to food bowls that are difficult to access, such as on a countertop or in a dark basement. And an inability to smell food, the administration of certain medications, or a systemic illness can result in a decreased appetite, even in cats being fed a high-quality, palatable food.
Gaining too much weight during pregnancy can have long-term effects for both mother and child. These effects include that the mother will have overweight or obesity after the child is born. Another risk that the baby may gain too much weight later as a child or as an adult.
23. Yeh S, Wu SY, Levine DM, et al. Quality of life and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate: correlation between cytokine levels and nutritional status, appetite in geriatric patients with wasting syndrome. J Nutr Health Aging 2000; 4:246–51 [PubMed]
“Phen-fen” and Redux: These prescription drugs have been removed from the market in the United States and many other countries. They are linked to heart-valve problems and pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension affects the blood vessels in the lungs and is often fatal.
34. Ortega-Alonso A, Sipilä S, Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Rantanen T: Body fat and mobility are explained by common genetic and environmental influences in older women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16: 1616– 1621 [PubMed]
(CBS/AP) Baby boomers fear dying from cancer, or losing their memory from Alzheimer’s as they age. What they should be worrying about is their growing waist lines, as the generation’s obesity problem can cause serious health risks and take a toll on the U.S. healthcare system in the not-so-distant future.
One retrospective uncontrolled observational study of dronabinol was identified (starting dose 2.5 mg nightly for one week; dose could be increased to 2.5 mg twice daily 30 min. before lunch and dinner at the discretion of the physician).22 Treatment showed a trend toward weight gain among the 28 long-term care residents, who were treated for 12 weeks. No controlled trials of dronabinol were identified; therefore, this medication cannot be recommended.
Which raises a question: If McDonald’s is taking these sorts of steps, albeit in a slow and limited way, why isn’t it more loudly saying so to deflect criticism? While the company has heavily plugged the debut of its new egg-white sandwich and chicken wraps, the ads have left out even a mention of health, the reduced calories and fat, or the inclusion of whole grains. McDonald’s has practically kept secret the fact that it has also begun substituting whole-grain flour for some of the less healthy refined flour in its best-selling Egg McMuffin.
Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility.[1][4] A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental disorder.[9] The view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported.[10] On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their normal counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.[10][11]
Frequency of eating. The relationship between frequency of eating (how often you eat) and weight is somewhat controversial. There are many reports of overweight people eating less often than people with normal weight. Scientists have observed that people who eat small meals four or five times daily, have lower cholesterol levels and lower and/or more stable blood sugar levels than people who eat less frequently (two or three large meals daily). One possible explanation is that small frequent meals produce stable insulin levels, whereas large meals cause large spikes of insulin after meals.
A 2006 review identified ten other possible contributors to the recent increase of obesity: (1) insufficient sleep, (2) endocrine disruptors (environmental pollutants that interfere with lipid metabolism), (3) decreased variability in ambient temperature, (4) decreased rates of smoking, because smoking suppresses appetite, (5) increased use of medications that can cause weight gain (e.g., atypical antipsychotics), (6) proportional increases in ethnic and age groups that tend to be heavier, (7) pregnancy at a later age (which may cause susceptibility to obesity in children), (8) epigenetic risk factors passed on generationally, (9) natural selection for higher BMI, and (10) assortative mating leading to increased concentration of obesity risk factors (this would increase the number of obese people by increasing population variance in weight).[85] While there is evidence supporting the influence of these mechanisms on the increased prevalence of obesity, the evidence is still inconclusive, and the authors state that these are probably less influential than the ones discussed in the previous paragraph.
“There is the potential for obesity-related health problems to propel many from the workforce early, or to drastically reduce their ability to work. If ongoing generations continue down this path of developing what were once considered to be age-related conditions earlier in life, the consequences for healthcare costs will be enormous.”

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