“obesity in america map 2015 obesity weight”

Michael Spitzer, a personal trainer and author of Fitness at 40, 50, 60 and Beyond, agrees, adding that “the true path to weight control and fitness after age 60 isn’t that much different than it is at any other stage of life. However, there are certain factors that need special consideration.”
Fortunately, researchers are beginning to understand the differences between the wrong mix and a healthy one, as well as the specific factors that shape those differences. They hope to learn how to cultivate this inner ecosystem in ways that could prevent—and possibly treat—obesity, which doctors define as having a particular ratio of height and weight, known as the body mass index, that is greater than 30. Imagine, for example, foods, baby formulas or supplements devised to promote virtuous microbes while suppressing the harmful types. “We need to think about designing foods from the inside out,” suggests Jeffrey Gordon of Washington University in St. Louis. Keeping our gut microbes happy could be the elusive secret to weight control.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Poulain M, Doucet M, Major GC, Drapeau V, Sériès F, Boulet LP, Tremblay A, Maltais F (April 2006). “The effect of obesity on chronic respiratory diseases: pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies”. CMAJ. 174 (9): 1293–99. doi:10.1503/cmaj.051299. PMC 1435949 . PMID 16636330.
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Obesity is defined as excess adipose tissue. There are several different methods for determining excess adipose (fat) tissue; the most common being the Body Mass Index (BMI) (see below). A fat cell is an endocrine cell and adipose tissue is an endocrine organ. As such, adipose tissue secretes a number of products, including metabolites, cytokines, lipids, and coagulation factors among others. Significantly, excess adiposity or obesity causes increased levels of circulating fatty acids and inflammation. This can lead to insulin resistance, which in turn can lead to type 2 diabetes.
Jump up ^ Bellows-Riecken KH, Rhodes RE (February 2008). “A birth of inactivity? A review of physical activity and parenthood”. Prev Med (Review). 46 (2): 99–110. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.08.003. PMID 17919713.
In the United States, obesity is more common in black or Hispanic women than in black or Hispanic men. A person’s sex may also affect the way the body stores fat. For example, women tend to store less unhealthy fat in the abdomen than men do.
A hiatus hernia is an abnormality in which where part of the stomach protrudes through a defect in the diaphragm and up into the chest. This can increase the possibility of “reflux acid” into the oesophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. Obesity is a “risk factor” re. development of a hiatus hernia (Ref. http://bit.ly/wPv1w2).
More recently, investigators conducted a systematic review of 89 studies on weight-related diseases and then did a statistical summary, or meta-analysis, of the data. Of the 18 weight-related diseases they studied, diabetes was at the top of the risk list: Compared with men and women in the normal weight range (BMI lower than 25), men with BMIs of 30 or higher had a sevenfold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and women with BMIs of 30 or higher had a 12-fold higher risk. (4)
Jump up ^ van Baal PH, Polder JJ, de Wit GA, Hoogenveen RT, Feenstra TL, Boshuizen HC, Engelfriet PM, Brouwer WB (February 2008). “Lifetime Medical Costs of Obesity: Prevention No Cure for Increasing Health Expenditure”. PLoS Med. (Comparative Study). 5 (2): e29. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050029. PMC 2225430 . PMID 18254654.
As an older adult, there are special considerations to take into account if you want to lose weight. Your lifestyle may have changed over the past several years, you may be living alone and you may have medical issues to consider.
Other conditions and illnesses that are associated with both weight gain and obesity include: hyperthyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and depression (NIH, 2006).  The older adults who are obese are more likely than those who are not obese to report symptoms of depression, such as feelings of sadness, worthlessness, and hopelessness (Center on an Aging Society, 2003). Lack of sleep may contribute to obesity, as well as certain drugs, such as steroids and some antidepressants that may stimulate the appetite, cause water retention, or slow the metabolism rate (NIH, 2008). Finally, the complex relationship between functional ability and lifestyle patterns merits attention as a contributor to obesity (Center on an Aging Society). Joint pain, decreased mobility, and activity intolerance may lead to weight gain because of decreased activity. Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience functional limitations associated with chronic illnesses that may begin a stress-pain-depression cycle that can result in lifestyle patterns leading obesity (Lorig et al., 2006).
A general physical exam. This includes also measuring your height; checking vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure and temperature; listening to your heart and lungs; and examining your abdomen.
Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and body size: individual participant meta-analysis including 25,157 women with ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies. PLoS Medicine 2012; 9(4):e1001200.

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