“Obesity wreaks so much havoc on one’s long-term survival capacity that obese adults either don’t live long enough to be included in the survey or they are institutionalized and therefore also excluded. In that sense, the survey data doesn’t capture the population we’re most interested in,” says Masters, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health & Society Scholar at Columbia’s Mailman School and the study’s first author.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Yosipovitch G, DeVore A, Dawn A (June 2007). “Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity”. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56 (6): 901–16, quiz 917–20. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.12.004. PMID 17504714.
In the past few years the number of older adults who are obese has doubled, with more than 15% of the older adult population now classified as obese. More specifically, it is estimated that the prevalence of obesity in adults ages 50 to 69 is 22.9%; for adults over age 70, the obesity rate is 15%.
Visceral fat is the fatty tissue inside of your abdomen and organs. While we do not know what causes the body to create and store visceral fat, it is known that this type of fat interferes with the body’s endocrine and immune systems and promotes chronic inflammation and contributes to obesity-related complications.
Diet is an important factor in shaping the gut ecosystem. A diet of highly processed foods, for example, has been linked to a less diverse gut community in people. Gordon’s team demonstrated the complex interaction among food, microbes and body weight by feeding their humanized mice a specially prepared unhealthy chow that was high in fat and low in fruits, vegetables and fiber (as opposed to the usual high-fiber, low-fat mouse kibble). Given this “Western diet,” the mice with obese-type microbes proceeded to grow fat even when housed with lean cagemates. The unhealthy diet somehow prevented the virtuous bacteria from moving in and flourishing.
The percentage of children and adolescents who are overweight or obese has also increased (3). In 2011–2014, an estimated 9% of 2- to 5-year-olds, 17% of 6- to 11-year-olds, and 20% of 12- to 19-year-olds were overweight or obese. In 1988–1994, those figures were only 7%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. In 2011–2014, about 17% of U.S. youth ages 2 to 19 years old were obese. In 1988–1994, by contrast, only about 10% of 2 to 19-year old were obese (4).
be established by 3 months of age and linked to ↓ energy expenditure in infants of obese mothers; diet-resistant obesity is characterized by an inability to lose weight despite ↓ caloric intake and ↑ exercise; a certain percentage of diet-resistant obesity is related to underreporting of actual caloric consumption and/or overreporting of physical activity, not due to low energy expenditure Etiology, 2º obesity Endocrine-hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome, hypogonadism–Fröhlich syndrome, polycystic ovaries, pseudohypoparathyroism Pathogenesis ↑ Lipid deposit in fat cells, ↓ mobilization of lipids from adipocytes, and ↓ lipid utilization; obesity mimics lab findings of type 2 DM–insulin resistance, ↑ glucose, ↑ cholesterol,
And many times, their primary care physicians have been reluctant to bring up the patients’ weight problems: Studies show that half of obese people say their doctors have never told them to lose weight.
If your doctor says you’re overweight, that means “you’re slightly over what’s considered healthy,” says Y. Claire Wang, MD. She’s co-director of the Obesity Prevention Initiative at Columbia University.
In virtually every realm of human existence, we turn to technology to help us solve our problems. But even in Silicon Valley, when it comes to food and obesity, technology—or at least food-processing technology—is widely treated as if it is the problem. The solution, from this viewpoint, necessarily involves turning our back on it.
Federal dietary guidelines and the MyPlate website recommend many tips for healthy eating that may also help you control your weight (see the Additional Links section for hyperlinks). Here are a few examples:
Gaining weight as an adult increases the risk for several cancers, even if the weight gain doesn’t result in overweight or obesity. It isn’t known exactly how being overweight increases cancer risk. Fat cells may release hormones that affect cell growth, leading to cancer. Also, eating or physical activity habits that may lead to being overweight may also contribute to cancer risk.
The researchers wanted to see what combination of exercise, along with dieting for weight loss, might be best. They randomly assigned 160 obese and sedentary adults, age 65 or older, to one of four groups: weight and aerobic training; weight loss and resistance training; or weight loss and a combination of both types of exercise. The fourth group served as controls and didn’t exercise or try to lose weight.
Jump up ^ Metcalf B, Henley W, Wilkin T (2012). “Effectiveness of intervention on physical activity of children: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials with objectively measured outcomes (EarlyBird 54)”. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) (Review, Meta-analysis). 345: e5888. doi:10.1136/bmj.e5888. PMID 23044984.
Nicklas BJ, Ambrosius W, Messier SP, Miller GD, Penninx BWJH, Loeser RF, Palla S, Bleecker E, Pahor M. Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:544–551. [PubMed]
Professor Cappuccio explains that sleep deprivation may lead to obesity through increased appetite as a result of hormonal changes. If you do not sleep enough you produce Ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite. Lack of sleep also results in your body producing less Leptin, a hormone that suppresses appetite.
What impact will a new administration have on health care? How will access to health care change? Join our sit-down breakfast panel discussion followed by Q&A from the audience. Panelists listed below.