“obesity definition yahoo _obesity line chart”

For an overweight or obese senior, getting healthy improves your quality and length of life. Losing weight as a senior citizen can be difficult, particularly when dealing with unexpected aches and pains, dwindling energy and new nutrition needs. Still, you can fight off the weight gain that can naturally occur as you age with a two-pronged weight-loss plan that includes regular physical activity — both cardio and strength training — and a nutritious diet plan.
The diet should be safe. It should include all of the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for vitamins, minerals, and protein. The weight-loss diet should be low in calories (energy) only, not in essential foodstuffs.
As you age, you tend to lose muscle, especially if you’re less active. Muscle loss can slow down the rate at which your body burns calories. If you don’t reduce your calorie intake as you get older, you may gain weight. Midlife weight gain in women is mainly due to aging and lifestyle, but menopause also plays a role. Many women gain around five pounds during menopause and have more fat around the waist than they did before.
Although people can control what they eat and how much they exercise, comes with certain uncontrollable factors. For instance, you lose lean body mass as you age. “The more lean body mass we have, the higher our metabolic rate is and the more efficiently we burn calories,” says Carmen Roberts, clinical dietician specialist with Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. Therefore, reduced lean body mass lowers your metabolism, thus, lowering the amount of calories needed and increasing the amount of physical activity needed.
Over the short term, certain dietary changes may lead to an attack of gout in people who have high levels of uric acid or who have had gout before. If you have a history of gout, check with your doctor before trying to lose weight.
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Qsymia (combination of phentermine and topiramate) was approved by the FDA in 2012. It is only approved for those with a BMI greater than 27 with weight-related conditions. When combined with diet and exercise, studies have shown that half of the participants lost 10% of their body weight and four-fifths lost 5% (which equates to 12 pounds in a 227 pound person). Topiramate is associated with a high risk of birth defects such as cleft lip and palate. Phentermine (an appetite suppressant) was one of the ingredients in fen-phen and is associated with an elevation in heart rate. Because of these potentially serious side effects, Qsymia is only available through mail order. Other side effects include tingling, dizziness, alterations in taste, insomnia, dry mouth, and constipation.
Jump up ^ van Baal PH, Polder JJ, de Wit GA, Hoogenveen RT, Feenstra TL, Boshuizen HC, Engelfriet PM, Brouwer WB (February 2008). “Lifetime Medical Costs of Obesity: Prevention No Cure for Increasing Health Expenditure”. PLoS Med. (Comparative Study). 5 (2): e29. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050029. PMC 2225430 . PMID 18254654.
While these countries continue to deal with the problems of infectious diseases and undernutrition, they are also experiencing a rapid upsurge in noncommunicable disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings.
Bursitis of the knee results when any of the three fluid-filled sacs (bursae) become inflamed due to injury or strain. Symptoms include pain, swelling, warmth, tenderness, and redness. Treatment of knee bursitis depends on whether infection is involved. If the knee bursa is not infected, knee bursitis may be treated with ice compresses, rest, and antiinflammatory and pain medications.
This systematic review focused on randomized controlled trails in obese adults aged 65 years and older. The authors acknowledge that of the ten studies, three reported on the same cohort of 27 participants (Villareal 2006a; Villareal 2006b; Villareal 2008), and three reported on the same cohort of 107 participants (Villareal 2011a; Shah 2011; Armamento-Villareal 2012). The remaining studies had small sample sizes, which although limiting statistical power and inference, do provide initial mechanistic findings in humans, of which few studies exist. Just one article was included that met our inclusion criteria and reported on long-term weight maintenance.
Given the adverse consequences of obesity on multiple aspects of health, it makes sense that the condition also shortens survival or increases premature mortality. However, pinning down the contribution of obesity to premature mortality has been fraught with methodological problems and controversy.
People who are inactive are more likely to gain weight because they don’t burn up the calories that they take in. An inactive lifestyle also raises your risk of coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, colon cancer, and other health problems.
Wing RR. Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial.Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170:156675.
Smoking has a significant effect on an individual’s weight. Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4.4 kilograms (9.7 lb) for men and 5.0 kilograms (11.0 lb) for women over ten years.[139] However, changing rates of smoking have had little effect on the overall rates of obesity.[140]
Other methods of estimating body fat and body fat distribution include measurements of skinfold thickness and waist circumference, calculation of waist-to-hip circumference ratios, and techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Appetite suppressing medications are popular because we need help in controlling food intake. Relying on drugs does not solve the problem. Often these over-the-counter and prescription medications work for a few weeks, becoming ineffective as the body learns to ignore them-a process known as tolerance.
3. Gilmore SA, Robinson G, Posthauer ME, et al. Clinical indicators associated with unintentional weight loss and pressure ulcers in elderly residents of nursing facilities. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:984–92 [PubMed]
The healthcare costs of American adults with obesity amount to approximately $190 billion per year. Discrimination and mistreatment of person with obesity is widespread and, sadly, often considered socially acceptable.
To measure obesity, researchers commonly use a scale known as the body mass index (BMI). BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by their height (in meters) squared (commonly expressed as kg/m2). BMI provides a more accurate measure of obesity than weight alone, and for most people it is a fairly good (although indirect) indicator of body fatness. 
Obesity is defined as excess adipose tissue. There are several different methods for determining excess adipose (fat) tissue; the most common being the Body Mass Index (BMI) (see below). A fat cell is an endocrine cell and adipose tissue is an endocrine organ. As such, adipose tissue secretes a number of products, including metabolites, cytokines, lipids, and coagulation factors among others. Significantly, excess adiposity or obesity causes increased levels of circulating fatty acids and inflammation. This can lead to insulin resistance, which in turn can lead to type 2 diabetes.
Much concern has been generated about the increasing incidence of obesity among Americans. Some studies have noted an increase from 12% to 18% occurring between 1991 and 1998. Other studies have actually estimated that a full 50% of all Americans are overweight. The World Health Organization terms obesity a worldwide epidemic, and the diseases which can occur due to obesity are becoming increasingly prevalent.
Gordon theorizes that the gut community in obese mice has certain “job vacancies” for microbes that perform key roles in maintaining a healthy body weight and normal metabolism. His studies, as well as those by other researchers, offer enticing clues about what those roles might be. Compared with the thin mice, for example, Gordon’s fat mice had higher levels in their blood and muscles of substances known as branched-chain amino acids and acylcarnitines. Both these chemicals are typically elevated in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
An association between viruses and obesity has been found in humans and several different animal species. The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined.[147]
Being an active participant in your care is important. One way to do this is by preparing for your appointment. Think about your needs and goals for treatment. Also, write down a list of questions to ask. These questions may include
Differences in gastrointestinal bacteria may contribute to overweight and obesity. NHLBI and other partners in the Trans-NIH Microbiome Working Group are investigating how different populations of bacteria in our gastrointestinal tracts may make people resistant or susceptible to obesity.
For obese seniors, dieting and exercise together are more effective at improving physical performance and reducing frailty than either alone. Although weight loss alone and exercise alone improve physical function, neither is as effective as diet and exercise together, which improved physical performance in seniors by 21 percent.
33. Koster A, Patel KV, Visser M, van Eijk JT, Kanaya AM, de Rekeneire N, Newman AB, Tylavsky FA, Kritchevsky SB, Harris TB: Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Joint effects of adiposity and physical activity on incident mobility limitation in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56: 636– 643 [PubMed]
And the social and economic consequences of obesity — including higher healthcare costs, lost workplace productivity, and lower wages — are having profound effects throughout the United States and around the globe.
People who carry too much fat around the middle, rather than around the hips, are more likely to have health problems. In women, a waist size of 35 in. (88 cm) or more raises the chance for disease. In men, a waist size of 40 in. (101 cm) or more raises the chance for disease.1
Losing excess weight after delivery may help women reduce their health risks. For example, if a woman developed gestational diabetes, losing weight may lower her risk of developing diabetes later in life.
Yet these hurdles can be waved away, if one only has the proper mind-set. Bittman argued two years ago in The Times that there’s no excuse for anyone, food-desert-bound or not, to eat fast food rather than wholesome food, because even if it’s not perfectly fresh and locally grown, lower-end wholesome food—when purchased judiciously at the supermarket and cooked at home—can be cheaper than fast food. Sure, there’s the matter of all the time, effort, schedule coordination, and ability it takes to shop, cook, serve, and clean up. But anyone who whines about that extra work, Bittman chided, just doesn’t want to give up their excessive TV watching. (An “important benefit of paying more for better-quality food is that you’re apt to eat less of it,” Pollan helpfully noted in his 2008 book, In Defense of Food.) It’s remarkable how easy it is to remake the disadvantaged in one’s own image.
If you skip that bowl of ice cream, then you will be one-seventh of the way to losing that pound! Losing 1 pound per week is a safe and reasonable way to take off extra pounds. The higher the initial weight of a person, the more quickly he/she will achieve weight loss. This is because for every 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body weight, approximately 22 calories are required to maintain that weight. So for a woman weighing 100 kilograms (220 pounds), he or she would require about 2,200 calories a day to maintain his or her weight, while a person weighing 60 kilograms (132 pounds) would require only about 1,320 calories. If both ate a calorie-restricted diet of 1,200 calories per day, the heavier person would lose weight faster. Age also is a factor in calorie expenditure. Metabolic rate tends to slow as we age, so the older a person is, the harder it is to lose weight.
NIH task force to develop first nutrition strategic plan. We will collaborate with other institutes to develop a ten-year plan to increase research in nutrition, including experimental design and training. Visit NIH task force formed to develop first nutrition strategic plan for more information.

One Reply to ““obesity definition yahoo _obesity line chart””

  1. Obesity not only lowers a child’s quality of life during childhood, but overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and to develop obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease at a younger age.
    As care providers for older adults, nurses are in a position to assist older adults who are obese in adopting changes to promote a healthier lifestyle. The primary goal is to achieve sustained lifestyle changes through dietary modifications, exercise, and use of community supports (Villareal et al., 2005). Strategies that promote lifestyle modifications include helping older adults who are obese to overcome barriers related to dietary changes and physical activity. Two well-developed programs, as well as general considerations to facilitate safe dietary changes and safe increases in physical activity, will be discussed below.
    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) “Not everyone gains weight when they stop smoking. Among people who do, the average weight gain is between 6 and 8 pounds. Roughly 10 percent of people who stop smoking gain a large amount of weight – 30 pounds or more.”
    Gallbladder disease. Obesity is a major risk factor for gallstones because obesity is believed to reduce the amount of bile salts in bile, resulting in more cholesterol. Additionally, gallbladder emptying is decreased as a result of obesity (National Digestive Diseases Clearinghouse, 2004). Again, management of obesity, as described below, is the primary approach for decreasing the incidence of this gallbladder disease.
    It may be beneficial to involve a social worker and/or a dietitian depending on the specific circumstances. This is particularly true if no identifiable health conditions are contributing to malnutrition or if the senior is living in poverty. Sedentary seniors should be encouraged to become more active, as exercise is a powerful appetite stimulant.

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