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Obesity is a major public health problem and the leading nutritional disorder in the U.S. It is responsible for more than 280,000 deaths annually in this country. A widely accepted definition of obesity is body weight that is 20% or more in excess of ideal weight:height ratio according to actuarial tables. By this definition, 34% of adults in the U.S. are obese. The National Institutes of Health have defined obesity as a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more, and overweight as a BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2. By these criteria, two thirds of adults are either overweight or obese. There is strong evidence that the prevalence of obesity is increasing in both children and adults. Increases are particularly striking among African-Americans and Mexican-Americans. More than 80% of black women over the age of 40 are overweight, and 50% are obese. Among factors blamed for the steady increase in the prevalence of obesity are unhealthful eating practices (high-fat diet, overlarge portions) and the decline in physical activity associated with use of automobiles and public transportation instead of walking, labor-saving devices including computers, and passive forms of entertainment and recreation (television, computer games). Despite efforts of public health authorities to educate the public about the dangers of obesity, it is widely viewed as a cosmetic rather than a medical problem. Obesity is an independent risk factor for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, certain malignancies (cancer of the colon, rectum, and prostate in men and of the breast, cervix, endometrium, and ovary in women), obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation syndrome, osteoarthritis and other orthopedic disorders, infertility, lower extremity venous stasis disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and urinary stress incontinence. Lesser degrees of obesity can constitute a significant health hazard in the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, or their associated risk factors. Body fat distribution in central (abdominal or male pattern, with an increased waist:hip ratio) versus peripheral (gluteal or female pattern) adipose tissue depots is associated with higher risks of many of these disorders. Obese people are more liable to injury, more difficult to examine by palpation and imaging techniques, and more likely to have unsuccessful outcomes and complications from surgical operations. Not least among the adverse effects of obesity are social stigmatization, poor self-image, and psychological stress. Weight reduction is associated with improvement in most of the health risks of obesity. All treatments for obesity (other than cosmetic surgical procedures in which subcutaneous fat is mechanically removed) require creation of an energy deficit by reducing caloric intake, increasing physical exercise, or both. Basic weight reduction programs involve consumption of a restricted-calorie, low-fat diet and performance of at least 30 minutes of endurance-type physical activity of at least moderate intensity on most and preferably all days of the week. Behavior modification therapy, hypnosis, anorexiant drugs (sympathomimetic agents, sibutramine), the lipase inhibitor orlistat, and surgical procedures to reduce gastric capacity or intestinal absorption of nutrients are useful in selected cases, but the emphasis should be on establishing permanent changes in lifestyle. Weight reduction is not recommended during pregnancy or in patients with osteoporosis, cholelithiasis, severe mental illness including anorexia nervosa, or terminal illness.
Brinton LA, Cook MB, McCormack V, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: male breast cancer pooling project results. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2014; 106(3):djt465.
Although diet and over-eating is not the only possible reason for obesity it is usually the one that receives most press coverage. Diet and lifestyle are also the possible causes and contributory factors to obesity that most people are most likely to be able to do something about.
Too much weight is especially hazardous for an aging body. Obesity exacerbates bone and muscle loss, increases inflammation and significantly raises the risk of diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Excess weight also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, losing the ability to walk or dying earlier.
Changes in the environments where young people spend their time—like homes, schools, and community settings—can make it easier to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Schools can adopt policies and practices that help young people eat more fruits and vegetables, get at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily, and eat fewer foods and beverages that are high in added sugars or solid fats.8,9, 17, 18
The research revealed that over a third (36 percent) of U.S. baby boomers are obese.  The study found that only a quarter (25 percent) of  the two generations directly above and below boomers are obese.
Sleep apnea is a condition in which person has one or more pauses in breathing during sleep. A person who has sleep apnea may suffer from daytime sleepiness, difficulty focusing, and even heart failure.
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Obesity and overweight have in the last decade become a global problem – according to the World Health Organization (WHO) back in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion adults over the of age 15+ were overweight, at least 400 million adults were obese and at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight.
Obesity is not just a cosmetic consideration; it is harmful to one’s health. In the United States, roughly 112,000 deaths per year are directly related to obesity, and most of these deaths are in patients with a BMI over 30. For patients with a BMI over 40, life expectancy is reduced significantly. Obesity also increases the risk of developing a number of chronic diseases, including the following:
The following medications are available in the United States by prescription. If you have been unsuccessful losing weight through diet and exercise, ask your doctor about these medications. For more information about these drugs, see Medication in the Treatment of Obesity. These are not a substitute for dietary management. Over the long term, successful long-term weight loss requires changes in overall eating patterns.
In this study, Villareal and his colleagues evaluated the effects of dieting and exercise in more than 100 obese seniors over a one-year period. Although weight loss alone and exercise alone improved physical function by about 12 percent and 15 percent, respectively, neither was as effective as diet and exercise together, which improved physical performance by 21 percent.
Jump up ^ Lin BH, Guthrie J, Frazao E (1999). “Nutrient contribution of food away from home”. In Frazão E. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 750: America’s Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. pp. 213–39. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08.
Senior citizens can’t hit the gym and run for hours like their younger counterparts — at least, not without serious risk of injury. Aim for 30 to 60 minutes a day of moderate-intensity physical activity, but start slowly if you haven’t been active in a few years. If 30 to 60 minutes seems like too much, break it into 10-minute increments. Choose low-impact activities such as walking and swimming to protect your aging joints. If you’re at a risk of falling, engage in balance training at least three days a week; potential activities include backward or sideways walking, toe walking or tai chi, advises the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, Geographical Information Systems, University of Adelaide, Level 4, 230 North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. Electronic address:jennifer.buckley@adelaide.edu.au.
Some wholesome foodies openly celebrate fat and problem carbs, insisting that the lack of processing magically renders them healthy. In singing the praises of clotted cream and lard-loaded cookies, for instance, a recent Wall Street Journal article by Ron Rosenbaum explained that “eating basic, earthy, fatty foods isn’t just a supreme experience of the senses—it can actually be good for you,” and that it’s “too easy to conflate eating fatty food with eating industrial, oil-fried junk food.” That’s right, we wouldn’t want to make the same mistake that all the cells in our bodies make. Pollan himself makes it clear in his writing that he has little problem with fat—as long as it’s not in food “your great-grandmother wouldn’t recognize.”
“We’re in an epidemic,” said Rich Hamburg, deputy director of the Trust for America’s Health, a national nonprofit health advocacy group. “We’ve seen this 30-year rise in overweight and obesity rates, and we’ve seen a more significant increase in the baby boom population.”
A stroke happens when the flow of blood to a part of your brain stops, causing brain cells to die. The most common type of stroke, called ischemic stroke, occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery that carries blood to the brain. Another type of stroke, called hemorrhagic stroke, happens when a blood vessel in the brain bursts.
Treatment should focus on the underlying cause. This often involves a multidisciplinary team, including dentists; dietitians; speech, occupational, or physical therapists; and social service workers. Common strategies to address unintentional weight loss in older adults are dietary changes, environmental modifications, nutritional supplements, flavor enhancers, and appetite stimulants.27
Moderate intensity aerobic exercise, 30 minutes a day, five times per week is currently recommended for adults ages 65 and older, according to the guidelines presented by the American College Sports of Medicine (ACSM). Those who are not used to exercising can start out with a shorter duration at a lower intensity and work up to the recommendations.
Overweight and obesity are increasingly common conditions in the United States. They are caused by the increase in the size and the amount of fat cells in the body. Doctors measure body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to screen and diagnose overweight and obesity. Obesity is a serious medical condition that can cause complications such as metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, cancers and sleep disorders. Treatment depends on the cause and severity of your condition and whether you have complications. Treatments include lifestyle changes, such as heart-healthy eating and increased physical activity, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved weight-loss medicines. For some people, surgery may be a treatment option.
All too often, obesity prompts a strenuous diet in the hopes of reaching the “ideal body weight.” Some amount of weight loss may be accomplished, but the lost weight usually quickly returns. Most people who lose weight regain the weight within five years. It is clear that a more effective, long-lasting treatment for obesity must be found.
For the past year, President Trump has worked with the Republican Congress to dismantle crucial parts of Obama’s legacy, including affordable health care, progressive taxation, climate-change regulation, oversight of the financial system, and immigration reform. Discussions of Medicare and Medicaid cuts surfacing in recent weeks suggest that an effort to roll back Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society might be next.
For older adults who are struggling with obesity, a weight loss program that minimizes muscle and bone loss and also takes into account functional impairments or metabolic complications is often the most beneficial way to get weight issues under control. These programs usually include nutritional counseling from a registered dietician or nutritionist, and can help ensure that older adults meet daily nutritional requirements while also moderately decreasing daily calorie intake for weight loss. Additionally, through the implementation of regular physical exercise older adults can improve physical functioning and better preserve muscle and bone mass. The best types of exercises recommend for the older adults include stretching, aerobics, and strengthen exercises as they help improve flexibility, endurance, and strength and reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries.
High blood pressure is linked to overweight and obesity in several ways. Having a large body size may increase blood pressure because your heart needs to pump harder to supply blood to all your cells. Excess fat may also damage your kidneys, which help regulate blood pressure. 
Heart disease – Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) is present 10 times more often in obese people compared to those who are not obese. Coronary artery disease is also more prevalent because fatty deposits build up in arteries that supply the heart. Narrowed arteries and reduced blood flow to the heart can cause chest pain (angina) or a heart attack. Blood clots can also form in narrowed arteries and cause a stroke.
That was the goal for Pamela Christensen, a 65-year-old technology manager in Garden City, New York, who’s lost – and kept off – 35 pounds since joining a gym two years ago. Since then, she’s relieved her joint discomfort, ditched her cane and boosted her stamina. “I didn’t want to be the grandma who everybody says, ‘She can’t get on the floor with us,'” Christensen says. “And little by little, I am less that person.”

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