“obesity bmi and waist circumference -childhood obesity statistics in jamaica”

Obesity and overweight have in the last decade become a global problem – according to the World Health Organization (WHO) back in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion adults over the of age 15+ were overweight, at least 400 million adults were obese and at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight.
[6] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: the evidence report. www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/guidelines/archive/clinical-guidelines-obesity-adults-evidence-report. Published September 1998. Accessed July 25, 2017.
Many poor Chileans do their food shopping at small mom-and-pop stores that sell mostly processed and packaged food and little fresh produce. Above, a store in the El Bosque neighborhood of Santiago. Credit Victor Ruiz Caballero for The New York Times
The World Health Organization (2005) has noted that life-threatening illnesses related to obesity include cardiovascular disease; conditions associated with insulin resistance, such as type 2 diabetes; certain types of cancers, especially hormonally related and large-bowel cancer; and gallbladder disease. The next few sections will discuss these illnesses.
Physical illnesses may also have secondary characteristics that lead to weight loss. For example, gall stones often result in decreased appetite and nausea, which causes them to avoid high-energy foods.
Excess weight impairs respiratory function via mechanical and metabolic pathways. The accumulation of abdominal fat, for example, may limit the descent of the diaphragm, and in turn, lung expansion, while the accumulation of visceral fat can reduce the flexibility of the chest wall, sap respiratory muscle strength, and narrow airways in the lungs. (32) Cytokines generated by the low-grade inflammatory state that accompanies obesity may also impede lung function.
Vagal nerve blockade is another treatment for obesity. It involves implanting a device under the skin of the abdomen that sends intermittent electrical pulses to the abdominal vagus nerve, which tells the brain when the stomach feels empty or full. This new technology received FDA approval in 2014 for use by adults who have not been able to lose weight with a weight-loss program and who have a BMI of 35 to 45 with at least one obesity-related condition, such as type 2 diabetes.
The food industry calls the rules government overreach. Felipe Lira, the director of Chilealimentos, an industry association, said the new nutrition labels were confusing and “invasive,” and that the marketing restrictions were based on a scientifically flawed correlation between the promotion of unhealthy foods and weight gain. “We believe that the best way to approach the problem of obesity is through consumer education that changes people’s habits,” he said in an emailed statement.
“We’re all creatures of habit,” Campbell says. So, she says, imagine you’re 75 years old and have to change your habits and incorporate new foods like tofu. Although most diets offer plenty of online and printed resources, they can be overwhelming. “It’s hard sometimes to pick up a book and say, ‘what should I be eating,'” she says. For older adults, it can help to work with dietitians.
Most seniors experience a steady decline in strength and endurance as they age, especially after age 75. Yoga routines for seniors help improve balance, strength and mobility, allowing for continued independence in later years as well as improving such characteristic health problems as arthritis, constipation and hypertension. Among other benefits, yoga practice promotes an increase in self-reported quality of life, as reported in a 2011 study published in the “International Journal of Yoga.”
Diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes in older adults, results from interplay between genetic factors and environmental factors that contribute to obesity. Even a 15 pound weight gain can increase a person’s risk of diabetes by 50% (Daniels, 2006). There is an age-related increase in total body fat and visceral adiposity until age 65 that is often accompanied by diabetes or impaired glucose intolerance (Wilson & Kannel, 2007). In the Framingham Study 30-40% of people over 65 were found to have diabetes or glucose intolerance. Coronary disease is the most common and lethal sequel of type 2 diabetes. Lean-muscle mass begins to diminish after the age of 65. This decrease may be related to decreased physical activity, disability, anabolic hormone production, or increased cytokine activity. If calorie intake continues at the same rate while the muscle mass decreases, the older person will most likely experience fat weight gain (Tucker, 2006).
Pregnant women who are overweight are more likely to develop insulin resistance, high blood sugar, and high blood pressure. Overweight also increases the risks associated with surgery and anesthesia, and severe obesity increases surgery time and blood loss.
In elderly patients who suffer from serious health disease conditions such as cancer or heart disease, the amount of weight loss experienced. Unintentional weight loss may also point to an as of yet undiagnosed condition. Seniors who lose more than 4 percent of their body weight in a year or 10 percent over five years should seek medical attention to address the issue, as this degree of weight loss increases morbidity and mortality.
A chart review of 290 medical records from many centres in the United States that included long-term care residents and home care clients found six factors to be associated with unexplained weight loss.3 These factors included reduced functional ability, taking in 50% or less of the food served in three consecutive days, refusal of 50% or more of food replacement offered over a seven-day period, chewing problems, a serum albumin level less than 35 g/L with normal hydration status and a cholesterol level less than 4.1 mmol/L.
Another aim of this review was to report on weight maintenance and long-term health outcomes to determine if weight loss can be maintained beyond one year. It was unexpected that only one small follow-up pilot study fit our inclusion criteria (Waters et al. 2013).
Many people suffer from health due to their weight. Some people who need to lose weight for their health don’t recognize it, while others who don’t need to lose weight want to get thinner for cosmetic reasons.

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