Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Causes of asthma include genetics, environmental factors, personal history of allergies, and other factors. Asthma is diagnosed by a physician based on a patient’s family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms.
Even a modest weight loss of 5%-10% of initial weight and the long-term maintenance of that weight loss can bring significant health benefits by lowering blood pressure and lowering the risks of diabetes and heart disease.
Lipoplasty is a surgical procedure in which high-frequency sound waves are used to liquefy fat before it is removed with gentle suction. Lipoplasty does not prevent weight regain. Lipoplasty has a good safety record; risks of the procedure include infection, skin discoloration, and blood clots.
“It’s clear that the progress we’ve made in fighting obesity is fragile — and that we’re at a critical juncture where continuation of the policies that show promise and increased support and resources could truly help bend the rising tide of obesity rates,” said John Auerbach, president and CEO of Trust for America’s Health, a national healthcare organization that partnered with TRWF to generate the report.
Respondents were more likely to report that weight problems caused difficulty with physical functioning than with personal care or daily activities (see table). This made sense to Martin: “When you think about obesity, you can imagine someone having trouble climbing a flight of stairs or walking a quarter mile, but not needing help shopping or dressing,” she said. But she also noted that some of the conditions respondents named as the reason they needed assistance (such as diabetes and back problems) could be related to obesity.
Baby boomers, especially those over the age of 60, are already the sickest and most expensive in terms of medical costs. But, what’s making this even more worrisome is that it’s the fastest growing health issue in the U.S. Therefore, the overall disease burden and economic effects of obesity may be magnified.
Jump up ^ Hales, Craig M.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L. (October 2017). “Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015–2016”. NCHS data brief (288): 1–8. ISSN 1941-4927. PMID 29155689.
In an exhaustive review of the data, released in 2007, an expert panel assembled by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that there was convincing evidence of an association between obesity and cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, colon and rectum, breast, endometrium, and kidney, and a probable association between obesity and gallbladder cancer. (15) Abdominal obesity and weight gain during adulthood were also linked with several cancers. A later systematic review and meta-analysis confirmed direct associations between obesity and cancers of the breast, colon and rectum, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, ovary, and pancreas. (4) Encouragingly, the Nurses’ Health Study has found that for overweight women who have never used hormone replacement therapy, losing weight after menopause-and keeping it off-cut their post menopausal risk by one half.
Obese people often have chronic low-level inflammation, which can, over time, cause DNA damage that leads to cancer. Overweight and obese individuals are more likely than normal-weight individuals to have conditions or disorders that are linked to or that cause chronic local inflammation and that are risk factors for certain cancers (26). For example, chronic local inflammation induced by gastroesophageal reflux disease or Barrett esophagus is a likely cause of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Obesity is a risk factor for gallstones, a condition characterized by chronic gallbladder inflammation, and a history of gallstones is a strong risk factor for gallbladder cancer (27). Chronic ulcerative colitis (a chronic inflammatory condition) and hepatitis (a disease of the liver causing inflammation) are risk factors for different types of liver cancer (28).
In summary, determination of potential factors to weight loss should not focus solely on disease-related processes. Functional issues, medications, issues with intake, and psychological and social factors also need to be considered.
Jump up ^ LeFevre, Michael L. (26 August 2014). “Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults With Cardiovascular Risk Factors: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 161 (8): 587–93. doi:10.7326/M14-1796. PMID 25155419.
Stage 2: You have an obesity-related chronic disease, such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, or osteoarthritis, and you have moderate problems doing daily activities or feeling well.
Of special interest to women who have gained weight after having a baby is the fact that breastfeeding helps you shed some extra pounds. Besides the positive effects for the baby, breastfeeding burns approximately 500 extra calories each day.
Obesity and Stroke. Ischemic (clot-caused) stroke and coronary artery disease share many of the same disease processes and risk factors. A meta-analysis of 25 prospective cohort studies with 2.3 million participants demonstrated a direct, graded association between excess weight and stroke risk. Overweight increased the risk of ischemic stroke by 22 percent, and obesity increased it by 64 percent. There was no significant relationship between overweight or obesity and hemorrhagic (bleeding-caused) stroke, however. (10) A repeat analysis that statistically accounted for blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes weakened the associations, suggesting that these factors mediate the effect of obesity on stroke.
Since the withdrawal of fen/phen from the market, “herbal fen/phen” has been proposed as an alternative in treating obesity. But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning that “herbal fen/phen” has not been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for obesity and may contain ingredients that have been associated with injuries.
Obesity can sometimes be traced to a medical cause, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome, and other diseases and conditions. However, these disorders are rare and, in general, the principal causes of obesity are:
Patterson, R., Frank, L., Kristal, A., & White, E. (2004). A comprehensive examination of health conditions associated with obesity in older adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27, 385-390.
The cardiometabolic complications of obesity have been generally linked to central adiposity, but in many reports, obesity is quantified in terms of BMI alone, rather than waist circumference, which may potentially mask the association of abdominal fat and cardiovascular disease and events. Nevertheless, a body of evidence indicates that obese older subjects are more prone to cardiovascular morbidity. In the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study, men aged 65 years or older, with a waist-to-hip ratio of ≥0.98, had a 2.76-fold increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), even after adjustment for BMI and other cardiac risk factors (15). In the Physicians’ Health Study (a randomized trial of aspirin and β-carotene among 22,071 apparently healthy U.S. male physicians, aged 40–84 years at baseline), abdominal adiposity, whether measured by waist-to-hip ratio or waist circumference, was associated with a modest elevation in the risk of CHD in both middle-aged and older men. Of particular note in this study is the finding that age did not significantly modify the relationship between either measure of abdominal adiposity and risk of CHD (16). In a Chinese cohort of 67,334 women, aged 40–70 years, who had no prior history of CHD, stroke, or cancer at recruitment into the study, in the course of a mean follow-up of 2.5 years (168,164 person-years), waist-to-hip ratio was positively associated with the risk of CHD in both younger and older women, while other anthropometrics, including BMI, were related to CHD risk primarily among younger women (17). In a prospective study of 516 Brazilian women, aged 60–84 years, who were followed up for an average period of 6.6 years, the presence of the metabolic syndrome and high waist-to-hip ratio was associated with increased cumulative risk (odds ratio 1.66 and 1.72, respectively) of stroke, myocardial infarction, evidence of coronary artery disease, or cardiovascular death (18). In the Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study of the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I), 1,259 Caucasian women aged 65–74 years with BMI ≥29 kg/m2 showed 50% increased risk of CHD in the course of a mean follow-up period of 14 years, which was 2.5-fold higher than in women with BMI of 23–24 kg/m2 (19). A Swedish study of 70-year-old subjects, initially free from CHD, found that the 15-year risk-adjusted incidence of CHD was increased by larger waist circumference and BMI in males but not in females (20). In a U.S. cohort of 4,968 older (≥65 years) men and women from the Cardiovascular Health Study followed up for 9 years, the risks of myocardial infarction or stroke did not differ in the overweight range of 25–29.99 kg/m2, thus suggesting that a BMI cutoff point of 25 kg/m2 may be overly restrictive for the elderly (21). Overall, these data support an association between adiposity, particularly central adiposity, as assessed by anthropometric measurements, and increased propensity for cardiovascular disease, predominantly CHD.