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Talk to your doctor to learn more about the benefits and risks of each type of surgery. Possible complications include bleeding, infection, internal rupture of sutures, or even death. Read gastric bypass surgery for more information.
For people who are considered obese (BMI greater than or equal to 30) or those who are overweight (BMI of 25 to 29.9) and have two or more risk factors, it is recommended that you lose weight. Even a small weight loss (between 5 and 10 percent of your current weight) will help lower your risk of developing diseases associated with obesity. People who are overweight, do not have a high waist measurement, and have fewer than two risk factors may need to prevent further weight gain rather than lose weight.
Most of the evidence about obesity in cancer survivors comes from people who were diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Research indicates that obesity may worsen several aspects of cancer survivorship, including quality of life, cancer recurrence, cancer progression, and prognosis (survival) (37, 38).
Increased pressure within the brain in the absence of a tumor. Symptoms may include headache, nausea, vomiting, pulsating intracranial noises, singing in the ears, double vision, loss of visual accuracy, and even blindness.
In her professional life, Sacramento public relations executive Kassy Perry has long represented health organizations trying to combat California’s obesity problem. In her personal life, she has struggled with weight loss, trying with little success to drop the 30 pounds she gained after age 50. Today, at 52, she’s active and athletic. But the weight won’t melt away.
Phentermine (Fastin, Adipex P) — the other half of fen/phen — suppresses appetite by causing a release of norepinephrine in the body. Phentermine alone is still available for treatment of obesity but only on a short-term basis (a few weeks). The common side effects of phentermine include headache, insomnia, irritability, and nervousness. Fenfluramine (the fen of fen/phen) and dexfenfluramine (Redux) suppress appetite mainly by increasing release of serotonin by the cells. Both fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn from the market in September 1997 because of association of these two medications with pulmonary hypertension (a rare but serious disease of the arteries in the lungs) and association of fen/phen with damage to the heart valves. Since the withdrawal of fenfluramine, some have suggested combining phentermine with fluoxetine (Prozac), a combination that has been referred to as phen/pro. However, no clinical trials have been conducted to confirm the safety and effectiveness of this combination. Therefore, this combination is not an accepted treatment for obesity.
A total of 2,309 prospective articles were initially identified. After removing duplicates and irrelevant studies, 90 articles were retained. Of these 90 articles, 83 were excluded for not meeting the inclusion criteria outlined previously. Three articles were manually added. The selection of articles was agreed upon by two authors (DLW and DTV). The final analysis yielded a total of ten articles meeting all established criteria (Figure 1). These articles are listed in Table 1. They are not ordered chronologically, but instead grouped by similarities between study design and intervention, for ease of discussion. Only one small pilot study was found under the category feasibility/maintenance of long-term weight loss in older adults that satisfied our study selection criteria. This study is not included in Table 1, but is discussed under the subheading 3.2 Feasibility and Long-term Maintenance of Weight Loss, in the Discussion of the Systematic Review section.
The publication of this supplement was made possible in part by unrestricted educational grants from Eli Lilly, Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Generex Biotechnology, Hoffmann-La Roche, Johnson & Johnson, LifeScan, Medtronic, MSD, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, sanofi-aventis, and WorldWIDE.
“If someone does lose 20 or 30 pounds, their metabolism goes down and they start to burn fewer calories,” Tsai says. “Our bodies are designed to regain weight, so it’s much easier to prevent obesity than to treat it.”
A significant limitation of all weight-for-height tables is that they do not distinguish between excess fat and muscle. A very muscular person may be classified as obese, according to the tables, when he or she in fact is not.
We fund research. Our Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, which includes our Clinical Applications and Prevention Branch, funds research to understand how overweight and obesity relate to heart disease. Our Division of Lung Diseases funds research on the impact of overweight and obesity on sleep disordered breathing. The research we fund today will help improve our future health. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research NHLBI is funding on overweight and obesity.
A new federally funded national study has been designed to answer this sort of question, according to Freedman. The National Health and Aging Trends Study led by Johns Hopkins University researchers, is following more than 8,000 older Americans annually, to explore how their daily lives change as they age. than relying exclusively on reports from participants, researchers are also giving short performance tests to measure physical and cognitive function.
“Sometimes it’s easy, like if a dog is wearing glasses and talking like a person, but sometimes it’s not,” said Dr. Lorena Rodriguez, the ministry’s head of nutrition. “We fight and fight and fight until we have consensus.”
Scientific research has shown that increasing low intensity exercise produces a very low risk of injury to the heart of muscle skeletal system. A light- to moderate–intensity activity, such as 5 to 15 minutes of walking per session, 2 to 3 times a week.
The prevalence of obesity in the United States (US) is increasing in all age groups. During the past 30 years, the proportion of older adults who are obese has doubled (Patterson, Frank, Kristal, & White 2004). The increased number of obese older adults is seen both as an increase in the total number of older obese persons in our population and as an increase in the percentage of the population that is obese (Villareal, Apovian, Kushner, & Klein, 2005). In spite of the increase in obesity among older adults, it is important to note that the majority of older adults are not obese and continue to lead active and healthy lives. The goal of this article is to raise nurses’ awareness of the challenges of obesity in older adults. This article will describe the prevalence and causes of obesity among older adults, as well as the consequences of obesity in older adults. Recommendations for interventions to address obesity will be provided. Differences between two groups of older persons, those 50 to 65 years of age, and those over 65 years of age, will be addressed.
4. Calhoun DA, Jones D, Textor S, Goff DC, Murphy TP, Toto RD, White A, Cushman WC, White W, Sica D, Ferdinand K, Giles TD, Falkner B, Carey RM: American Heart Association Professional Education Committee Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Circulation 2008; 117: e510– e526 [PubMed]
We help obese individuals determine whether surgery is a good option and help WLS patients find the right surgical team and set, achieve and maintain specific and realistic health and weight loss goals. 
Tamura Y, Tanaka Y, Sato F, Choi JB, Watada H, Niwa M, Kinoshita J, Ooka A, Kumashiro N, Igarashi Y, Kyogoku S, Maehara T, Kawasumi M, Hirose T, Kawamori R. Effects of diet and exercise on muscle and liver intracellular lipid contents and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:3191–3196. [PubMed]
W. B. Droyvold, T. I. Lund Nilsen, S. Lydersen, K. Midthjel, P. M. Nilsson, J. Nilsson, J. Holmen; “Weight change and mortality: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study.” Journal of Internal Medicine. Volume 257 Issue 4, Pages 338 – 345
In summary, the evidence confirmed that weight loss of about 10% is achievable through caloric restriction and exercise in sedentary, frail, obese adults aged 65 years and older. However, there was loss of BMD and lean body mass, which can be attenuated, but not stopped, by the addition of exercise during the active weight loss period. The loss of skeletal muscle and bone is a common outcome in weight loss trials (Bales 2008) and one of the primary reasons that recommending weight loss for older adults remains controversial. However, the clinical relevance of this adverse effect remains to be determined due to high baseline BMD and improvements in physical function and metabolic parameters with weight loss. Although the notion that obesity is osteoprotective is now challenged by newer findings that excess adiposity could be detrimental to bone (Nielson 2011), it is possible that dietary-induced caloric restriction through its effect in reducing inflammation may preserve bone quality despite the reduction in BMD (Villareal 2011b). Moreover, it is unclear whether the beneficial effects of weight loss therapy on physical function lower the overall risk of falls and fractures, despite the low BMD.
Searches of MEDLINE (and MEDLINE In-Process), EMBASE, CINAHL and AGELINE were conducted to identify relevant studies from 1980 to September 2009. Additional studies were identified from searching bibliographies of retrieved articles and by consulting a clinical expert in the area. We identified English-language articles that addressed risk factors, differential diagnosis, prognosis, investigation or treatment of unintentional weight loss among adults 65 years of age or older. Further details on the search can be found in Appendix 1, available at www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/cmaj.101471/DC1. We excluded articles that specifically focused on weight loss associated with cancer or HIV infection. All types of articles were considered for inclusion except for case reports, editorials and meeting abstracts. All patients, regardless of where they lived, were included in the review. Two reviewers (S.S. and E.M.A or J.H-L) independently reviewed all identified citations to select relevant publications that met the inclusion criteria. In cases of doubt, full-text articles were retrieved for review and discussion.
Health clubs and weight-loss centers often use the skin caliper or bioelectric impedance analysis method; however, these can yield inaccurate results if an inexperienced person performs them or they are used on someone with significant obesity.
Villareal DT, Chode S. Parimi N, Sinacore DR, Hilton T, Armamento-Villareal R, Napoli N, Qualls C, Shah K. Weight loss, exercise or both and physical function in obese older adults, The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364(13), pp. 1218-1229. March 31, 2011.
Another recent study documented rising disability levels among middle-age Americans (ages 40 to 64, a group that included most baby boomers) in recent years.2 The analysis identified a link between trends in obesity and disability, according to Linda Martin, a RAND Corporation demographer and lead author of the study.
Able-bodiedAll Determinants – SeniorAll Outcomes – SeniorBehaviors – SeniorsClinical Care – SeniorsCommunity & Environment – Macro – SeniorsCommunity & Environment – Micro – SeniorsCommunity & Environment Total – SeniorsCommunity SupportDedicated Health Care Provider – SeniorsDental Visit – SeniorsDiabetes ManagementEarly Death – SeniorsExcessive Drinking – SeniorsFalls – SeniorsFlu Vaccine – SeniorsFood Insecurity – SeniorsFrequent Mental Distress – SeniorsGeriatrician Shortfall Health Screenings – SeniorsHigh Health Status-SeniorHip FracturesHome Health Care Home-delivered MealsHospice CareHospital DeathsHospital ReadmissionsICU Use Low-care Nursing Home ResidentsNursing Home QualityObesity – SeniorsOverall – SeniorPain ManagementPhysical Inactivity – SeniorsPolicy – SeniorsPoverty – SeniorsPrescription Drug CoveragePreventable Hospitalizations – SeniorsRecommended Hospital Care-SeniorsSmoking – SeniorsSNAP ReachTeeth Extractions – SeniorsUnderweight – SeniorsVolunteerism
Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M. Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 2008; 371(9612):569-578.
“Originally we didn’t believe the logos would make much of a difference but in focus groups, we’ve discovered that kids really do look at them,” said Dr. Camila Corvalan, of the University of Chile who has been assessing the impact of new label system. “They’ll say ‘Mom, this has so many logos. I can’t bring them to school. My teacher won’t allow it.”
Jump up ^ Nestle, Marion (12 September 2016). “Invited Commentary: Food Industry Funding of Nutrition Research: The Relevance of History for Current Debates”. JAMA Internal Medicine. 176 (11): 1685–86. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5400. PMID 27618496.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Poulain M, Doucet M, Major GC, Drapeau V, Sériès F, Boulet LP, Tremblay A, Maltais F (April 2006). “The effect of obesity on chronic respiratory diseases: pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies”. CMAJ. 174 (9): 1293–99. doi:10.1503/cmaj.051299. PMC 1435949 . PMID 16636330.
Jump up ^ Fried M, Hainer V, Basdevant A, Buchwald H, Deitel M, Finer N, Greve JW, Horber F, Mathus-Vliegen E, Scopinaro N, Steffen R, Tsigos C, Weiner R, Widhalm K (April 2007). “Inter-disciplinary European guidelines on surgery of severe obesity”. Int J Obes (Lond). 31 (4): 569–77. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803560. PMID 17325689.
The role of physical activity cannot be overstated when it comes to weight loss. For sedentary seniors moving toward more active lifestyles, starting small can help prevent injuries while avoiding burnout. Also essential? Choosing a program that you can actually stick with. This means honestly assessing your own physical capabilities and adopting a can-do attitude.
Get excited about reading again with fun and interesting tips from our experts, including The M.D., our dietitians, and our fitness expert. In our health library, you will find all of the information you need to achieve your goals of making a healthy lifestyle change. So, start reading and start losing!
Doctors may also note how a person carries excess weight on his or her body. Studies have shown that this factor may indicate whether or not an individual has a predisposition to develop certain diseases or conditions that may accompany obesity. “Apple-shaped” individuals who store most of their weight around the waist and abdomen are at greater risk for cancer, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes than “pear-shaped” people whose extra pounds settle primarily in their hips and thighs.
HASfit makes no warrants, promises, or claims regarding accuracy of the calories burned estimate. It is provided only as a general reference and each person should use an indirect calorimetry system for a more accurate estimate.
Age. Obesity can occur at any age, even in young children. But as you age, hormonal changes and a less active lifestyle increase your risk of obesity. In addition, the amount of muscle in your body tends to decrease with age. This lower muscle mass leads to a decrease in metabolism. These changes also reduce calorie needs, and can make it harder to keep off excess weight. If you don’t consciously control what you eat and become more physically active as you age, you’ll likely gain weight.

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