37. Launer LJ, Harris T, Rumpel C, Madans J: Body mass index, weight change, and risk of mobility disability in middle-aged and older women: the Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study of NHANES I. JAMA 1994; 271: 1093– 1098 [PubMed]
If a person’s bodyweight is at least 20% higher than it should be, he or she is considered obese. If your Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 you are considered overweight. If your BMI is 30 or over you are considered obese. If you’re wondering what your ideal weight might be, take a look at our article, how much should I weigh?
Jump up ^ Weng HH, Bastian LA, Taylor DH, Moser BK, Ostbye T (2004). “Number of children associated with obesity in middle-aged women and men: results from the health and retirement study”. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) (Comparative Study). 13 (1): 85–91. doi:10.1089/154099904322836492. PMID 15006281.
Simply call us at (866- 363- 0072) to learn more about in-home care, respite care, and other services on this site, or use our local office finder to locate a Comfort Keepers franchise near you. Our professional staff will be happy to explain our customizable in-home care options.
Jump up ^ Johansson E, Böckerman P, Kiiskinen U, Heliövaara M (2009). “Obesity and labour market success in Finland: The difference between having a high BMI and being fat”. Economics and Human Biology. 7 (1): 36–45. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2009.01.008. PMID 19249259.
BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. However, it should be considered a rough guide because it may not correspond to the same degree of fatness in different individuals.
That brings us to the crucial question: Just how much healthier could fast-food joints and processed-food companies make their best-selling products without turning off customers? I put that question to a team of McDonald’s executives, scientists, and chefs who are involved in shaping the company’s future menus, during a February visit to McDonald’s surprisingly bucolic campus west of Chicago. By way of a partial answer, the team served me up a preview tasting of two major new menu items that had been under development in their test kitchens and high-tech sensory-testing labs for the past year, and which were rolled out to the public in April. The first was the Egg White Delight McMuffin ($2.65), a lower-calorie, less fatty version of the Egg McMuffin, with some of the refined flour in the original recipe replaced by whole-grain flour. The other was one of three new Premium McWraps ($3.99), crammed with grilled chicken and spring mix, and given a light coating of ranch dressing amped up with rice vinegar. Both items tasted pretty good (as do the versions in stores, I’ve since confirmed, though some outlets go too heavy on the dressing). And they were both lower in fat, sugar, and calories than not only many McDonald’s staples, but also much of the food served in wholesome restaurants or touted in wholesome cookbooks.
A. The answer is YES. In fact, many of the risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and overweight, are also risk factors for dementia, in addition to genetic predisposition for the disease.
What can you do right now to stop this dangerous trend? It’s simple. When I saw the post-menopausal pounds creeping up around the time I turned 50 a few years ago, I took action: I started to walk, then run. Push-ups and sit-ups became part of my daily life, and I began a healthy eating program which is comprised of eating small, healthy meals every two to three hours. The combination of moving my body every day and eating less was all it took. At the age of 54, I am fitter than I’ve ever been. There isn’t a single thing I do that any other average American couldn’t do, too.
Additionally, drugs have side effects, some quite serious, such as insomnia, nervousness, depression, high blood pressure and rapid heartbeat. Fen-phen had to be withdrawn by the Food and Drug Administration because it caused dangerous complications, including heart problems and pulmonary hypertension. However, there are real alternative diet aids that offer real benefits without any risks.
Although testing should be directed toward areas of concern based on the history and physical examination, tests found to be of highest yield in identifying potential causes include stool hemoccult, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, upper gastrointestinal series, endoscopy and thyroid function tests.5 Computed tomographic screening offers no further information.5 In institutionalized older adults, hemoglobin level, total cholesterol and albumin are useful in making the diagnosis.13 There are a few studies that have looked at TNF-α levels,1 cerebrospinal fluid concentration of amino acids,14 plasma and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels,15 and plasma and cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide levels.16 However, these levels have limited value within routine clinical practice.
Laparoscopic gastric banding—the surgeon places a band around the upper part of your stomach, creating a small pouch to hold food. The band limits the amount of food you can eat by making you feel full after eating small amounts of food.
I’m 72, 60-80 lbs overweight. For past 20 yrs I’ve suffered from cancer, serious blood diseases for which I took heavy doses of Predisone, suffered a large DVT/PE’s which left me weakened and overweight (from steroids).
Identify temptations. Learn what environments or social activities, such as watching TV or going out with friends, may be keeping you from meeting your goals. Once you have identified them, use creative strategies to help keep you on track.
There are no magic pills, no miracles in a bottle. The only way you have fighting chance of beating obesity is to change your lifestyle. No crash diet or miracle drug is going to cure what has now become an epidemic in the United States. The two best things you can do for yourself are 1) exercise on a regular basis and 2) control your caloric intake. Keep in mind that these factors are important for everyone, overweight or not, and regardless of whether or not you decide to have gastric bypass surgery.
In the USA, the consumption of calories increased from 1,542 per day for women in 1971 to 1,877 per day in 2004. The figures for men were 2,450 in 1971 and 2,618 in 2004. Most people would expect this increase in calories to consist of fat – not so! Most of the increased food consumption has consisted of carbohydrates (sugars). Increased consumption of sweetened drinks has contributed significantly to the raised carbohydrate intake of most young American adults over the last three decades. The consumption of fast-foods has tripled over the same period.
^ Jump up to: a b Wolfe SM (21 August 2013). “When EMA and FDA decisions conflict: differences in patients or in regulation?”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 347: f5140. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5140. PMID 23970394.
Association between obesity and stroke in advanced age has been inconsistent and may be sex-related. The Canadian Cardiovascular Health study did not find obesity to be a predisposing factor for stroke in older subjects (21). Conversely, the Honolulu Heart Program, which over a 22-year period prospectively followed up a cohort of 1,163 nonsmoking men aged 55–68 years, found that the rate of thromboembolic stroke rose significantly with increasing levels of BMI (22). In subjects from the Framingham Offspring Study aged 50–81 years, the 10-year population attributable risk of stroke was greater for the metabolic syndrome than for diabetes, particularly in women (27 vs. 5%), owing to its greater prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the general population (23). Obesity did not affect stroke rates in Korean men (24). A Spanish stroke registry of 2,000 consecutive stroke patients identified obesity as one significant predictor of stroke in women (mean age 75 years), but not in men (25). A similar identification of obesity as a risk factor for atherothrombotic brain infarction in older female but not male subjects was also reported by Aronow et al. (26). In a post hoc analysis of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly (SHEP) trial, the lowest BMI quintile was associated with increased occurrence of stroke rather than obesity (27), but after introduction of control of multiple confounders, the relation of BMI to death or stroke rate in the placebo group became insignificant. Overall, we interpret this mixed outcome of the attempt to clarify whether obesity is a contributor to the etiology of stroke in the elderly as a simple reflection of the dominant roles of hypertension, including obesity-related hypertension, as well as adiposity-related diabetes in this setting.
Table 1 summarizes the ten trials that met our inclusion criteria (Villareal 2006a; Villareal 2006b; Villareal 2008; Frimel 2008; Lambert 2008; Shah 2009; Villareal 2011a; Armamento-Villareal 2012; Shah 2011; Kelly 2011). Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the inter-relationships of the mechanisms discussed in these trials. Three papers by Villareal et al. (two in 2006 and one in 2008) reported on the same cohort of 27 participants. The participants were sedentary (≤ 2 exercise sessions per week); with stable body weight (± 2kg) during the preceding year; unchanged medications regimes for at least six months; and mild to moderate frailty as measured by the Physical Performance Test (Brown 2000). The intervention consisted of both diet and exercise (lifestyle intervention). Energy deficit was 500–700 kcal/day supplemented with a daily multivitamin and counseling to consume adequate dietary calcium and vitamin D. The goal was 10% weight loss over the six-month intervention and weight maintenance for an additional six months. Exercise sessions consisted of 90 minutes of aerobic and resistance exercises, three days per week, at a moderate intensity (~75% peak heart rate) and progressed to 80–90% of peak heart rate. Resistance exercise started at 65% of one repetition maximum (1RM) and progressed to ~80% of 1RM.
Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate a new medical approach, device, drug, or other treatment. As a Stanford Health Care patient, you may have access to the latest, advanced clinical trials.
47. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Clarke R, Emberson J, Halsey J, Qizilbash N, Collins R, Peto R: Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 2009; 373: 1083– 1096 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Physical activity. Many health benefits are associated with physical activity and getting the recommended amount of physical activity needed each week. Physical activity is an important factor in determining whether a person can maintain a healthy body weight, lose excess body weight, or maintain successful weight loss. Before starting any exercise program, ask your doctor about what level of physical activity is right for you. Visit Physical Activity Has Many Health Benefits for more information.
In the end, industry pressure succeeded in easing some measures in the original legislation, including loosening the advertising restrictions and quashing a proposed ban on junk food sales near schools.
These changes often result in appetite reduction, increased satiety and a decline in the natural appreciation of food. Collectively, these conditions contribute to a condition referred to as the “anorexia of aging.” To further exacerbate the problem, older adults show a reduced ability to adapt to periods of under- or overeating. They gain or lose weight quickly, and do not easily return to their original weight following such periods. This makes the elderly population much more susceptible to unintended (and lasting) changes in weight.
Studies of the effect of obesity on specific health outcomes such as diabetes or depression provide only a glimpse of the full impact of obesity on health and well-being. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) integrates the effect of obesity (or any other condition) across physical, psychological, and social functioning. Although HRQoL is a relatively young field of research, a number of studies have the overall impact of obesity on HRQoL. Among 31 studies in adults, the majority demonstrated that obesity was significantly associated with reduced HRQoL, compared with normal weight. (19) Researchers found a similar association among five HRQoL studies in children and adolescents.
15. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Colditz GA, Willett WC: Body size and fat distribution as predictors of coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older US men. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141: 1117– 1127 [PubMed]
The next consideration is how do you actually lost the weight? Here we rely on the same tried and true method – eating less and exercising more to burn more calories. Unfortunately, this requires lifestyle changes. It takes a lot of patience, support and perseverance to make permanent changes.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a mathematical calculation involving height and weight, irrespective of family history, gender, age or race. BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s body weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared (weight [kg] height [m]2) or by using the conversion with pounds (lbs) and inches (in) squared as shown below, This number can be misleading, however, for very muscular people, or for pregnant or lactating women.
Abstract Human beings are susceptible to sustained weight gain in the modern environment. Although both men and women can get fat, they get fat in different ways, and suffer different consequences. We review differences between men and women in the incidence of obesity,
Eating too much or eating too little during your pregnancy can change your baby’s DNA and can affect how your child stores and uses fat later in life. Also, studies have shown that obese fathers have DNA changes in their sperm that can be passed on to their children.
Much of the food isn’t all that different from what I can get in any other supermarket, but sprinkled throughout are items that scream “wholesome.” One that catches my eye today, sitting prominently on an impulse-buy rack near the checkout counter, is Vegan Cheesy Salad Booster, from Living Intentions, whose package emphasizes the fact that the food is enhanced with spirulina, chlorella, and sea vegetables. The label also proudly lets me know that the contents are raw—no processing!—and that they don’t contain any genetically modified ingredients. What the stuff does contain, though, is more than three times the fat content per ounce as the beef patty in a Big Mac (more than two-thirds of the calories come from fat), and four times the sodium.
Being overweight or obese can cause plaque to accumulate in your arteries. If that plaque breaks free from an artery, it can create a blood clot, and if that clot is close to your brain, it can prevent blood and oxygen from reaching your brain, causing a stroke. The risk of having a stroke corresponds to BMI: high BMI = high risk, and low BMI = low risk. That’s one more good reason for losing excess weight.
Obesity traditionally has been defined as a weight at least 20% above the weight corresponding to the lowest death rate for individuals of a specific height, gender, and age (ideal weight). Twenty to forty percent over ideal weight is considered mildly obese; 40-100% over ideal weight is considered moderately obese; and 100% over ideal weight is considered severely, or morbidly, obese. More recent guidelines for obesity use a measurement called BMI (body mass index) which is the individual’s weight multiplied by 703 and then divided by twice the height in inches. BMI of 25.9-29 is considered overweight; BMI over 30 is considered obese. Measurements and comparisons of waist and hip circumference can also provide some information regarding risk factors associated with weight. The higher the ratio, the greater the chance for weight-associated complications. Calipers can be used to measure skin-fold thickness to determine whether tissue is muscle (lean) or adipose tissue (fat).
In addition to helping you to lose a substantial amount of weight quickly, bariatric surgery can have a significant impact on obesity health problems. When evaluating the effect of surgery on obesity health issues, research has found the following (7):