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In addition to the rising need for nursing home slots, demand for elder care will also be fueled by a steep rise in the number of Americans living with Alzheimer’s disease, which could nearly triple by 2050 to 14 million, from 5 million in 2013.
Individual responsibility can only have its full effect where people have access to a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, at the societal level it is important to support individuals in following the recommendations above, through sustained implementation of evidence based and population based policies that make regular physical activity and healthier dietary choices available, affordable and easily accessible to everyone, particularly to the poorest individuals. An example of such a policy is a tax on sugar sweetened beverages.
In some cases, weight-loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, is an option. Weight-loss surgery limits the amount of food you’re able to comfortably eat or decreases the absorption of food and calories or both. While weight-loss surgery offers the best chance of losing the most weight, it can pose serious risks.
Additionally, drugs have side effects, some quite serious, such as insomnia, nervousness, depression, high blood pressure and rapid heartbeat. Fen-phen had to be withdrawn by the Food and Drug Administration because it caused dangerous complications, including heart problems and pulmonary hypertension. However, there are real alternative diet aids that offer real benefits without any risks.
Jump up ^ Sjöström L, Narbro K, Sjöström CD, Karason K, Larsson B, Wedel H, Lystig T, Sullivan M, Bouchard C, Carlsson B, Bengtsson C, Dahlgren S, Gummesson A, Jacobson P, Karlsson J, Lindroos AK, Lönroth H, Näslund I, Olbers T, Stenlöf K, Torgerson J, Agren G, Carlsson LM (August 2007). “Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects”. N. Engl. J. Med. (Research Support). 357 (8): 741–52. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa066254. PMID 17715408.
I visited Fona International, a flavor-engineering company also outside Chicago, and learned that there are a battery of tricks for fooling and appeasing taste buds, which are prone to notice a lack of fat or sugar, or the presence of any of the various bitter, metallic, or otherwise unpleasant flavors that vegetables, fiber, complex carbs, and fat or sugar substitutes can impart to a food intended to appeal to junk-food eaters. Some 5,000 FDA-approved chemical compounds—which represent the base components of all known flavors—line the shelves that run alongside Fona’s huge labs. Armed with these ingredients and an array of state-of-the-art chemical-analysis and testing tools, Fona’s scientists and engineers can precisely control flavor perception. “When you reduce the sugar, fat, and salt in foods, you change the personality of the product,” said Robert Sobel, a chemist, who heads up research at the company. “We can restore it.”
For example, someone who is 5’5 and weighs 150 pounds would have a BMI of 25 and be slightly overweight. Keep in mind that these BMI calculations are only a comparison of your weight to your height. They do not factor in anything else, such as your muscle mass or your gender. You can use the CDC’s BMI calculator here.
The Program targets large segments of the population by promoting: (1) strategies to reduce environmental barriers to healthy living, and (2) administrative policies that facilitate healthy choices.    
Researchers found almost 39 percent of baby boomers were obese, compared to about 29 percent of adults in the previous generation. Boomers were also more inactive, with 52 percent of them reporting a sedentary lifestyle with no physical activity, compared with only 17.4 percent of the previous generation. Baby boomers were also more likely to have diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol than their parents. Overall, 32 percent of adults in the previous generation reported they were in “excellent” health, compared with only 13 percent of baby boomers.
Jump up ^ Howard NJ, Taylor AW, Gill TK, Chittleborough CR (2008). “Severe obesity: Investigating the socio-demographics within the extremes of body mass index”. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2 (1): I–II. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2008.01.001. PMID 24351678.
Cushing’s syndrome is a condition in which the body’s adrenal glands make too much of the hormone cortisol. Cushing’s syndrome also can develop if a person takes high doses of certain medicines, such as prednisone, for long periods. People who have Cushing’s syndrome gain weight, have upper-body obesity, a rounded face, fat around the neck, and thin arms and legs.
A constellation of conditions that place people at high risk for coronary artery These conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and a poor lipid profile with elevated LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, low HDL (“good”) cholesterol, elevated triglycerides. All of these conditions are associated with high blood insulin levels. The fundamental defect in the metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance in both adipose tissue and muscle.
Obesity increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and some cancers. If you have obesity, losing even 5 to 10 percent of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases. For example, that means losing 10 to 20 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds.
Each of us begins to assemble a unique congregation of microbes the moment we pass through the birth canal, acquiring our mother’s bacteria first and continuing to gather new members from the environment throughout life. By studying the genes of these various microbes—collectively referred to as the microbiome—investigators have identified many of the most common residents, although these can vary greatly from person to person and among different human populations. In recent years researchers have begun the transition from mere census taking to determining the kind of jobs these minute inhabitants fill in the human body and the effect they have on our overall health.
Weight-loss surgery may be an option if you are very obese and have not been able to lose weight through diet and exercise. However, these surgeries are not a “quick fix” for obesity. You must still be committed to diet and exercise after the surgery. Talk to your doctor to learn if this is a good option for you.
NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative. We continue our 20-year long commitment to educating the public and high-risk populations about adopting heart-healthy eating and physical activity for life to prevent and treat overweight and obesity and their associated complications. Visit Obesity Education Initiative for more information.
Just wanted to say thank you for your ebook of exercises for seniors. Lots of free things offered on the web are worthless. Your ebook has inspired me and helped me to begin an exercise program that I’ve been able to stick with. Thank you for making this resource available.”
A. Excessive body weight has been shown to predispose to various diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep disturbances (sleep apnea) and osteoarthritis. Obesity is one of the major risk factors for developing a heart attack, as well as hypertension and stroke. It is also a risk factor for breast, colon, prostate cancer and other malignancies. It is known that losing weight helps to reduce the risk of suffering from these diseases.
The numbers are stark. For the next 30 years, it is not enough for the millennial generation to adopt sustainable best practices. Their actions will push our national policy and economy toward sustained economic growth, improved human health and environmental sustainability. But to actually realize these results will require boomer generation engagement.
While these countries continue to deal with the problems of infectious diseases and undernutrition, they are also experiencing a rapid upsurge in noncommunicable disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings.
What makes you overeat? Coffee break at work? Going out with friends? Watching TV? Late-afternoon energy lag? Late-night sweet tooth? Are you the one who finishes the last serving of dinner just so there won’t be any leftovers? Do you eat high-calorie fast foods or snacks because you don’t have time or energy to cook? Having some insight into your overeating habits helps you to avoid your problem situations and reach your weight goal.
It’s not exactly a scientific study, but we really shouldn’t need one to recognize that people aren’t going to change their ingrained, neurobiologically supercharged junk-eating habits just because someone dangles vegetables in front of them, farm-fresh or otherwise. Mark Bittman sees signs of victory in “the stories parents tell me of their kids booing as they drive by McDonald’s,” but it’s not hard to imagine which parents, which kids, and which neighborhoods those stories might involve. One study found that subsidizing the purchase of vegetables encouraged shoppers to buy more vegetables, but also more junk food with the money they saved; on balance, their diets did not improve. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently found that the aughts saw a significant drop in fruit intake, and no increase in vegetable consumption; Americans continue to fall far short of eating the recommended amounts of either. “Everyone’s mother and brother has been telling them to eat more fruit and vegetables forever, and the numbers are only getting worse,” says Steven Nickolas, who runs the Healthy Food Project in Scottsdale, Arizona. “We’re not going to solve this problem by telling people to eat unprocessed food.”
Nevertheless, the follow-up study of weight and breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative (36) found that for women who were already overweight or obese at baseline, weight change (either gain or loss) was not associated with breast cancer risk during follow-up. However, for women who were of normal weight at baseline, gaining more than 5% of body weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk.
More older adults are divorced compared with previous generations. The share of divorced women ages 65 and older increased from 3 percent in 1980 to 13 percent in 2015, and for men from 4 percent to 11 percent during the same period. The rise in divorce, single-parent families, and “blended families” that include children from previous relationships may lead to weaker family ties and less caregiving support for aging spouses and parents.
All weight-loss programs require changes in your eating habits and increased physical activity. The treatment methods that are right for you depend on your level of obesity, your overall health and your willingness to participate in your weight-loss plan.
Sleep-wake cycles can contribute to obesity. NHLBI continues funding studies to understand how the body’s internal sleep-wake cycles influence sleep and eating behaviors in people who are obese. This may help discover new therapies.

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Another field of obesity research is the study of hormones, particularly leptin, which is produced by fat cells in the body, and ghrelin, which is secreted by cells in the lining of the stomach. Both hormones are known to affect appetite and the body’s energy balance. Leptin is also related to reproductive function, while ghrelin stimulates the pituitary gland to release growth hormone. Further studies of these two hormones may lead to the development of new medications to control appetite and food intake.
37. Launer LJ, Harris T, Rumpel C, Madans J: Body mass index, weight change, and risk of mobility disability in middle-aged and older women: the Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study of NHANES I. JAMA 1994; 271: 1093– 1098 [PubMed]
A retrospective chart review of 96 residents in six intermediate care facilities in the United States found an association between anorexia and poor weight status and confusion in 42 residents.8 A prospective six-month study involving 309 residents of an intermediate nursing home in suburban midwestern United States found the primary reasons for weight changes to be acute illness, dementia and changes in the mucous membranes of the mouth and gums.9
Obesity rates among older adults have been increasing, standing at about 40 percent of 65-to-74-year-olds in 2009-2012, and putting more people at risk of chronic disease and disability (see image below).
Strokes: Being overweight or obese can lead to a buildup of plaque in your arteries. This causes blood clots to form, which can eventually reach the blood stream and then vital organs such as the brain or the heart, blocking blood flow and producing a stroke.
Take your weight loss and weight maintenance one day at a time and surround yourself with supportive resources to help ensure your success. Find a healthier way of living that you can stick with for the long term.
Weight loss surgery can help people lose large amounts of weight. But it’s not right for everyone, and it does have risks. You won’t be able to eat like you used to, you might need to take vitamins to meet your nutritional needs, and you’ll need to work on diet and exercise to keep up the results.
Here’s the good news: Losing just 10% of your excess weight can reduce your chances of developing heart disease. If you are severely overweight and lose more than that, the benefits to your cardiovascular health increase considerably.
Jump up ^ Howard NJ, Taylor AW, Gill TK, Chittleborough CR (2008). “Severe obesity: Investigating the socio-demographics within the extremes of body mass index”. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2 (1): I–II. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2008.01.001. PMID 24351678.
While these countries continue to deal with the problems of infectious diseases and undernutrition, they are also experiencing a rapid upsurge in noncommunicable disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings.
Researchers now know more about visceral fat, which is deep in the abdomen of overweight and obese patients. Visceral fat releases factors that promote inflammation. Chronic obesity-related inflammation is thought to lead to insulin  resistance and diabetes, changes in the liver or non-alcoholic fatty acid liver disease, and cancers. More research is needed to understand what triggers inflammation in some obese patients and to find new treatments.
Past research published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine has shown the baby boomer generation has its share of pervasive health problems, including high rates of cholesterol and hypertension. The authors concluded that there’s a need for policies that encourage prevention efforts and healthy-behavior promotion among boomers.
There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity.[148] This field of research had been almost unapproached until the leptin gene was discovered in 1994 by J. M. Friedman’s laboratory.[149] While leptin and ghrelin are produced peripherally, they control appetite through their actions on the central nervous system. In particular, they other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamus, a region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood.[148] The circuit begins with an area of the hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus, that has outputs to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), the brain’s feeding and satiety centers, respectively.[150]

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For over 35 years, Structure House has provided effective, quality weight loss management and healthy eating programs for adults who need more guided eating routines and exercise plans. We are open to the public, please call today to learn more.
Excess food portions. Americans are surrounded by huge food portions in restaurants, fast food outlets, gas stations, movie theaters, supermarkets, and even home. Eating large portions means too much energy IN. Over time, this will cause weight gain if it isn’t balanced with physical activity.
“We’re far from out of the woods when it comes to obesity. But we have many reasons to be optimistic thanks to parents, educators, business owners, health officials and other local leaders,” he added.
Your friends also count. Some research shows that obesity is “contagious” socially. In one study of some 12,000 people, Harvard researchers found that if someone gains weight, their family, friends, and partners also tend to gain weight, even if they don’t live near each other. Their influence affects you.
The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons.[148] The first group coexpresses neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and has stimulatory inputs to the LH and inhibitory inputs to the VMH. The second group coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and has stimulatory inputs to the VMH and inhibitory inputs to the LH. Consequently, NPY/AgRP neurons stimulate feeding and inhibit satiety, while POMC/CART neurons stimulate satiety and inhibit feeding. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Leptin inhibits the NPY/AgRP group while stimulating the POMC/CART group. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity.[148]
An enormous amount of media space has been dedicated to promoting the notion that all processed food, and only processed food, is making us sickly and overweight. In this narrative, the food-industrial complex—particularly the fast-food industry—has turned all the powers of food-processing science loose on engineering its offerings to addict us to fat, sugar, and salt, causing or at least heavily contributing to the obesity crisis. The wares of these pimps and pushers, we are told, are to be universally shunned.
Mar. 14, 2014 — The ACE I/D gene and how its variations — the ID, DD, and II genotypes — cause some seniors’ to lose out on the benefits of exercise, new research shows. These findings suggest that the ACE … read more
The researchers argue that previous studies of longevity and obesity were biased due to limitations of the National Health Interview Survey, or which provides information on obesity. For example, the survey excludes those who are institutionalized, such as in a hospital or nursing home — a segment largely made up of seniors. Consequently, the data is overrepresented by older respondents who are healthy, including the relatively healthy obese. What’s more, many obese people fail to make it to age 65 and therefore don’t live long enough to participate in studies of older populations.
” It is well known that being overweight or being clinically obese can have an adverse impact on a woman’s fertility. … Another study, which was published at the end of 2008, agreed that male obesity and infertility were linked.” FertilityExpert.co.uk (Ref. http://bit.ly/zKSySZ).
Soda, juice and other sweet beverages are full of sugar, which are empty calories. Eliminating these culprits from your diet can be a one step process to losing a few pounds. In addition to weight loss, cutting out refined sugar as much as possible is a healthy choice for people of all ages.
1. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, McDowell MA, Flegal KM. Obesity among adults in the United States— no change since 2003–2004. NCHS data brief no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2007 http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/index.html
PCOS is a condition that affects about 5-10 percent of women of childbearing age. Women who have PCOS are often obese, have excess hair growth, and have reproductive problems and other health issues due to high levels of hormones called androgens.
Health problems associated with obesity are classified as either nonfatal or life threatening by the World Health Organization (2005). This section will discuss the consequences of obesity on both nonfatal and life-threatening health problems. Interventions to address these particular consequences will be discussed as each consequence is presented. Specific interventions to decrease obesity will be discussed in the following section titled, “Interventions to Address Obesity.”
Take the first step to managing your weight from the comfort of your home. Use our BMI calculator to help you determine whether or not you are considered obese. If you are obese, or have one or more risk factors for obesity, our physicians can help. In cases of severe obesity, surgery may be an option. Learn more about obesity treatments at Stanford.
Jump up ^ Sjöström L, Narbro K, Sjöström CD, Karason K, Larsson B, Wedel H, Lystig T, Sullivan M, Bouchard C, Carlsson B, Bengtsson C, Dahlgren S, Gummesson A, Jacobson P, Karlsson J, Lindroos AK, Lönroth H, Näslund I, Olbers T, Stenlöf K, Torgerson J, Agren G, Carlsson LM (August 2007). “Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects”. N. Engl. J. Med. (Research Support). 357 (8): 741–52. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa066254. PMID 17715408.

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When used as substitutes for regular meals, meal substitutes are a convenient way to reduce calories as part of a low-calorie diet plan. A typical meal substitute available in powder and liquid form is Slim-Fast. Ensure is another meal substitute available in both liquid and bars. Meal substitutes should provide protein and be low in fat and calories. The label should include the amount of calories per serving and the percentages of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. The total number of calories per serving is predetermined so it is easier to keep track of the daily consumption of calories. As with all dramatic changes in your diet, you should consult your health-care provider to make sure that these changes will not have negative consequences.
BMI is a calculated value and approximates the body’s fat percentage. Actually measuring a person’s body fat percentage is not easy and is often inaccurate if the methods are not monitored carefully. The following methods require special equipment, trained personnel, can be costly, and some are only available in certain research facilities.
36. Barzilay JI, Blaum Carolina , Moore T, Xue QL, Hirsch CH, Walstom JD, Frird LP: Insulin resistance and inflammation as precursor of frailty: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167; 635– 641 [PubMed]
Washington University School of Medicine’s 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient care institutions in the nation, currently ranked fourth in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.
^ Jump up to: a b Wolfe SM (21 August 2013). “When EMA and FDA decisions conflict: differences in patients or in regulation?”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 347: f5140. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5140. PMID 23970394.
Taking your medications as directed. If you take weight-loss medications or medications to treat obesity-related conditions, such as high blood pressure or diabetes, take them exactly as prescribed. If have a problem sticking with your medication regimen or have unpleasant side effects, talk to your doctor.
Over the next two months, her appetite improves and she gains four pounds. Her weight loss appears to have been the result of multiple factors, including social isolation, bereavement, chewing issues, decreased oral intake and possibly the use of NSAIDs. Risk factor modification appears to have been successful so you do not consider further nutritional or pharmacologic interventions at this time.
Jump up ^ Oreopoulos A, Padwal R, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Fonarow GC, Norris CM, McAlister FA (July 2008). “Body mass index and mortality in heart failure: A meta-analysis”. Am. Heart J. (Meta-analysis, Review). 156 (1): 13–22. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2008.02.014. PMID 18585492.
There are many factors associated with unintentional weight loss. Assessment of unintentional weight loss should start with a comprehensive history, including questions about associated factors, and a physical examination. Investigations should be guided by the findings of the history and physical examination. Both nutritional and pharmacologic interventions have proven so far to be of only limited value. Although treatment remains a challenge, clinicians should attempt to identify and address factors that may be contributing to the weight loss.
The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese.[219][220] However, some in the movement are also attempting to challenge the established relationship between obesity and negative health outcomes.[221]
For most people, BMI provides a reasonable estimate of body fat. However, BMI doesn’t directly measure body fat, so some people, such as muscular athletes, may have a BMI in the obese category even though they don’t have excess body fat. Ask your doctor if your BMI is a problem.
Whether for you or your loved one, weight management can be challenging.  We know that having a healthy weight is good for us, but sometimes it is hard to sort through all the information out there.  Some trendy diets that seriously limit certain types of foods can be unhealthy.  It is important to keep in mind some healthy basics when changing your eating habits.  Download our tip sheet above and remember to speak to a physician before starting any new diet – especially if you have a chronic condition or are on regular medications.
Obesity is defined as having excess body fat.3 Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used screening tool for measuring obesity. BMI is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of a person’s height in meters. Scientists have found that BMI is moderately related to direct measures of body fatness. Measuring height and weight is easier and less expensive than other methods for assessing weight status.
Jump up ^ Moyer VA (4 September 2012). “Screening for and management of obesity in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine (Practice Guideline). 157 (5): 373–78. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00475. PMID 22733087.

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People with diabetes, thyroid conditions, who have received an organ transplant, or who are taking prescription medications that affect blood clotting should check with their physician before using OTC orlistat (alli), since drug interactions with certain medications are possible.
Acute  stress and chronic stress affect the brain and trigger the production of hormones, such as cortisol, that control our energy balances and hunger urges. Acute stress can trigger hormone changes that make you not want to eat. If the stress becomes chronic, hormone changes can make you eat more and store more fat.
Jump up ^ Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB (August 2006). “Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Review). 84 (2): 274–88. PMC 3210834 . PMID 16895873.
Some wholesome foodies openly celebrate fat and problem carbs, insisting that the lack of processing magically renders them healthy. In singing the praises of clotted cream and lard-loaded cookies, for instance, a recent Wall Street Journal article by Ron Rosenbaum explained that “eating basic, earthy, fatty foods isn’t just a supreme experience of the senses—it can actually be good for you,” and that it’s “too easy to conflate eating fatty food with eating industrial, oil-fried junk food.” That’s right, we wouldn’t want to make the same mistake that all the cells in our bodies make. Pollan himself makes it clear in his writing that he has little problem with fat—as long as it’s not in food “your great-grandmother wouldn’t recognize.”
Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted.[196] Obese people are also paid less than their non-obese counterparts for an equivalent job; obese women on average make 6% less and obese men make 3% less.[212]
In summary, initial treatment for unexplained weight loss should be targeted at addressing identified risk factors, although evidence of benefit is limited. Medications that are not clearly required and that may be contributing to the weight loss should be discontinued or appropriate alternatives considered. The role for specific nutritional interventions targeted at increasing caloric intake and improving weight is unclear. There is also minimal evidence to support use of pharmacologic agents. Megestrol acetate may be effective for older adults living in care facilities when used in conjunction with feeding assistance, but further study is required.
An important determinant of body-fat mass is the relationship between energy intake and expenditure. Obesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than she/he burns. We need calories to sustain life and have the energy be active; yet to maintain a desirable weight, we need to balance the amount of  energy we ingest in the form of food with the energy we expend (National Institutes of Health [NIH]), 2006). Weight gain occurs when the balance is tipped and we take in more calories than we burn. Most studies indicate that how much we eat does not decline with advancing age (Gary, Hunt, VanderJagt, & Vellas, 1992). Therefore it is likely that a decrease in energy expenditure, particularly in the 50- to 65-year-old age group, contributes to the increase in body fat as we age. In those 65 years of age and older, hormonal changes that occur during aging may cause the accumulation of fat. Aging is associated with a decrease in growth hormone secretions, reduced responsiveness to thyroid hormone, decline in serum testosterone, and resistance to leptin (Corpas, Harman, & Blackman, 1993). Resistance to leptin could cause a decreased ability to regulate appetite downward (Villareal et al., 2005). Genetic, environmental and social, as well as several other factors can all contribute to obesity. These factors will be discussed below.
First of all, set realistic objectives. The latest guidelines reflect the goal of rapidly losing weight in a short period of time. The current recommendation is to achieve a 5-10% reduction in body weight over a six-month period and every six months thereafter until you’ve reached your ideal body weight.
Table 1 summarizes the ten trials that met our inclusion criteria (Villareal 2006a; Villareal 2006b; Villareal 2008; Frimel 2008; Lambert 2008; Shah 2009; Villareal 2011a; Armamento-Villareal 2012; Shah 2011; Kelly 2011). Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the inter-relationships of the mechanisms discussed in these trials. Three papers by Villareal et al. (two in 2006 and one in 2008) reported on the same cohort of 27 participants. The participants were sedentary (≤ 2 exercise sessions per week); with stable body weight (± 2kg) during the preceding year; unchanged medications regimes for at least six months; and mild to moderate frailty as measured by the Physical Performance Test (Brown 2000). The intervention consisted of both diet and exercise (lifestyle intervention). Energy deficit was 500–700 kcal/day supplemented with a daily multivitamin and counseling to consume adequate dietary calcium and vitamin D. The goal was 10% weight loss over the six-month intervention and weight maintenance for an additional six months. Exercise sessions consisted of 90 minutes of aerobic and resistance exercises, three days per week, at a moderate intensity (~75% peak heart rate) and progressed to 80–90% of peak heart rate. Resistance exercise started at 65% of one repetition maximum (1RM) and progressed to ~80% of 1RM.
Jump up ^ Zhang, Y; Proenca, R; Maffei, M; Barone, M; Leopold, L; Friedman, JM (Dec 1, 1994). “Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue”. Nature (Research Support). 372 (6505): 425–32. Bibcode:1994Natur.372..425Z. doi:10.1038/372425a0. PMID 7984236.
Overweight and obesity are increasingly common conditions in the United States. They are caused by the increase in the size and the amount of fat cells in the body. Doctors body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to screen and diagnose overweight and obesity. Obesity is a serious medical condition that can cause complications such as metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, cancers and sleep disorders. Treatment depends on the cause and severity of your condition and whether you have complications. Treatments include lifestyle changes, such as heart-healthy eating and increased physical activity, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved weight-loss medicines. For some people, surgery may be a treatment option.
Searches of MEDLINE (and MEDLINE In-Process), EMBASE, CINAHL and AGELINE were conducted to identify relevant studies from 1980 to September 2009. Additional studies were identified from searching bibliographies of retrieved articles and by consulting a clinical expert in the area. We identified English-language articles that addressed risk factors, differential diagnosis, prognosis, investigation or treatment of unintentional weight loss among adults 65 years of age or older. Further details on the search can be found in Appendix 1, available at www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/cmaj.101471/DC1. We excluded articles that specifically focused on weight loss associated with cancer or HIV infection. All types of articles were considered for inclusion except for case reports, editorials and meeting abstracts. All patients, regardless of where they lived, were included in the review. Two reviewers (S.S. and E.M.A or J.H-L) independently reviewed all identified citations to select relevant publications that met the inclusion criteria. In cases of doubt, full-text articles were retrieved for review and discussion.
Talking to your health care provider openly and honestly about your weight concerns is one of the best things you can do for your health. In some cases, you may be referred to an obesity specialist — if one is available in your area. You may also be referred to a behavioral counselor, dietitian or nutrition specialist.
In people with heart failure, those with a BMI between 30.0 and 34.9 had lower mortality than those with a normal weight. This has been attributed to the fact that people often lose weight as they become progressively more ill.[76] Similar findings have been made in other types of heart disease. People with class I obesity and heart disease do not have greater rates of further heart problems than people of normal weight who also have heart disease. In people with greater degrees of obesity, however, the risk of further cardiovascular events is increased.[77][78] Even after cardiac bypass surgery, no increase in mortality is seen in the overweight and obese.[79] One study found that the improved survival could be explained by the more aggressive treatment obese people receive after a cardiac event.[80] Another found that if one takes into account chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in those with PAD, the benefit of obesity no longer exists.[75]
Having obese residents increases health risks, and excess weight can also mean loss of mobility for residents, meaning they require crutches, walkers or wheelchairs. This limited ability to exercise or walk increases health risks, not to mention round-the-clock patient care.
Bittman is hardly alone in his reflexive dismissals. No sooner had McDonald’s and Burger King rolled out their egg-white sandwich and turkey burger, respectively, than a spate of articles popped up hooting that the new dishes weren’t healthier because they trimmed a mere 50 and 100 calories from their standard counterparts, the Egg McMuffin and the Whopper. Apparently these writers didn’t understand, or chose to ignore, the fact that a reduction of 50 or 100 calories in a single dish places an eater exactly on track to eliminate a few hundred calories a day from his or her diet—the critical threshold needed for long-term weight loss. Any bigger reduction would risk leaving someone too hungry to stick to a diet program. It’s just the sort of small step in the right direction we should be aiming for, because the obese are much more likely to take it than they are to make a big leap to wholesome or very-low-calorie foods.
The balance between calorie intake and energy expenditure determines a person’s weight. If a person eats more calories than he or she burns (metabolizes), the person gains weight (the body will store the excess energy as fat). If a person eats fewer calories than he or she metabolizes, he or she will lose weight. Therefore the most common causes of obesity are overeating and physical inactivity. Ultimately, body weight is the result of genetics, metabolism, environment, behavior, and culture.

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Allopurinol, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, antibiotics, anticholinergics, antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, levodopa, propranolol, selegiline (Eldypryl), spironolactone (Aldactone)
Excess of subcutaneous fat in proportion to lean body mass. Excess fat accumulation is associated with increase in size (hypertrophy) as well as number (hyperplasia) of adipose tissue cells. Obesity is variously defined in terms of absolute weight, weight:height ratio, distribution of subcutaneous fat, and societal and esthetic norms. Although faulty eating habits related to failure of normal satiety feedback mechanisms may be responsible for some cases, many obese people neither consume more calories nor eat different proportions of foodstuffs than nonobese people. Contrary to popular belief, obesity is not caused by disorders of pituitary, thyroid, or suprarenal gland metabolism. However, it is often associated with hyperinsulinism and relative insulin resistance. Studies of obese twins strongly suggest the presence of genetic influences on resting metabolic rate, feeding behavior, changes in energy expenditures in response to overfeeding, lipoprotein lipase activity, and basal rate of lipolysis. Environmental factors associated with obesity include socioeconomic status, race, geographic region of residence, season, urban, or rural residence, and being a member of a smaller family. Prevalence is greater when weight is measured during winter rather than summer; is much more common in the southeastern U.S., although northeastern and midwestern states also have high rates, a phenomenon independent of race, population density, and season.
1. Adams KF, Schatzkin A, Harris TB, Kipnis V, Mouw T, Ballard-Barbash T, Hollenbeck A, Leitzmann MF: Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 763– 778 [PubMed]
Michael Spitzer, a personal trainer and author of Fitness at 40, 50, 60 and Beyond, agrees, adding that “the true path to weight control and fitness after age 60 isn’t that much different than it is at any other stage of life. However, there are certain factors that need special consideration.”
Anne Roberson walks a quarter-mile down the road each day to her mailbox in the farming town of Exeter, deep in California’s Central Valley. Her daily walk and housekeeping chores are her only exercise, and her weight has remained stubbornly over 200 pounds some time now. Roberson is 68 years old, and she says it gets harder to lose weight as you get older: “You get to a certain point in your life and you say, ‘What’s the use?’ ”
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Are food choices flexible and well-suited to the individual? Are weight goals set by the client and the health professional? The program should consider your food likes and dislikes and your lifestyle when your weight-loss goals are planned.
For more information about these and other health problems associated with overweight and obesity, visit Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults [PDF-1.25MB].
Deloitte has centered on two key areas where it can leverage its strengths as a business service provider to have a positive impact for the long term on the communities in which it operates: education and workforce development.
Unintentional weight loss often signals serious pathology. Estimates suggest 13.3% of the population experiences unintentional weight loss, and up to 7% experiences a loss exceeding 5% of baseline weight.1 Elders are disproportionately impacted; 27% of frail elders over the age of 65 experience involuntary weight loss.2
Adults: A healthy weight for adults is usually when your BMI is 18.5 to less than 25. To figure out your BMI, use the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s online BMI calculator and compare it with the table below. You can also download the BMI calculator app for iPhone and Android.
Identifying and avoiding food triggers. Distract yourself from your desire to eat with something positive, such as calling a friend. Practice saying no to unhealthy foods and big portions. Eat when you’re actually hungry — not simply when the clock says it’s time to eat.
Brockman, G., Tsaih, S., Neuschi. C., Churchill, G., & Li, R. (November 4, 2008). Genetic factors contributing to obesity and body weight can act through mechanisms affecting muscle weight, fat weight or both. Physiological Genomics, 10, 1152.
If you haven’t been active for most of your life, trying to start an exercise program in your senior years may seem overwhelming. But Moreno suggests that you focus on what you can do, not on what you can’t do. “Start simple,” he says. “Walking, for example, gives you every exercise benefit that you need.”
8. Atti AR, Palmer K, Volpato S, Winblad B, De Ronchi D, Fratiglioni L: Late-life body mass index and dementia incidence: nine-year follow-up data from the Kungsholmen Project. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56: 111– 116 [PubMed]
Numerous dietary supplements that promise to help you shed weight quickly are available. The effectiveness, particularly the long-term effectiveness, and safety of these products are often questionable.
Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted.[196] Obese people are also paid less than their non-obese counterparts for an equivalent job; obese women on average make 6% less and obese men make 3% less.[212]

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Jump up ^ Sharifi-Mollayousefi A, Yazdchi-Marandi M, Ayramlou H, Heidari P, Salavati A, Zarrintan S, Sharifi-Mollayousefi A (February 2008). “Assessment of body mass index and hand anthropometric measurements as independent risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome”. Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 67 (1): 36–42. PMID 18335412.
Goodwin PJ, Segal RJ, Vallis M, et al. Randomized trial of a telephone-based weight loss intervention in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving letrozole: the LISA trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2014; 32(21):2231-2239.
An association between BMI and WC with colorectal cancer is seen particularly in men. Weight gain during adult life has been consistently associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in women after menopause.
“The dramatic increase has serious implications for the long-term health of those individuals and for the finances of our nation,” says Rhonda Randall, a senior adviser to the United Health Foundation and chief medical officer at UnitedHealthcare Retiree Solutions, which sells Medicare Advantage plans.
In response to this controversial study, the American Journal of Epidemiology published research in March contradicting Flegal’s findings. Using data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey, Ryan Masters and his colleagues argued people ages 75 to 84 with a grade 1 obesity have a 59 percent higher chance of mortality than their healthy peers. They also stated that mortality risks in obese people increase with age.
Also, where your weight is may matter. If it’s mostly around your stomach (the “apple” shape), that may be riskier than if you have a “pear” shape, meaning that your extra weight is mostly around your hips and buttocks.
The physical examination can aid in evaluating concerns prompted by history findings. Body weight without shoes should be assessed on a clinic scale. Evaluation of the oral cavity and dentition may indicate difficulty with chewing or swallowing. Heart, lung, gastrointestinal, and neurologic examinations evaluate for illnesses contributing to or causing weight loss.
Gastric bypass. This is the most effective weight loss surgery. However, it also carries a greater risk of complications, both short term and long term. A surgeon creates a small pouch in the upper part of the stomach. A hole is made in the small intestine beyond the normal stomach attachment. The pouch is attached to the hole, bypassing the rest of the stomach and the top part of the small intestine.
María José Echeverria, a spokeswoman for PepsiCo, said the company was fully compliant with the law, and had no interest in overturning it, but was only trying to protect its ability to use a locally registered trademark.
Results from this carefully designed study show the “diet-exercise group” preserved more lean muscle and bone density when compared to the other groups. They also gained significantly better physical function and were less frail than other groups, outperforming in all measured parameters. (See Figure A: Results of Physical Performance Test (PPT).)
One of the most common New Year’s resolutions sure to top lists in 2017? Losing weight. And while shedding unwanted pounds is hard at any age, it can be especially challenging for seniors. Still, losing weight and keeping it off is a worthwhile endeavor as doing so can improve both your health and quality of life. Here’s a closer look at the issue of weight loss for older adults, along with several tips aimed at helping seniors reach their weight loss goals.
Washington University School of Medicine. (2011, March 30). Diet-exercise combo best for obese seniors. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 9, 2018 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110330192212.htm
The benefits of taking control of your health and your life are undeniable, but most people are not sure where to start. The surgeons and staff at MIST are here to guide you through this life altering process and ultimately help you to achieve your weight loss goals.
There are many factors associated with unintentional weight loss. Assessment of unintentional weight loss should start with a comprehensive history, including questions about associated factors, and a physical examination. Investigations should be guided by the findings of the history and physical examination. Both nutritional and pharmacologic interventions have proven so far to be of only limited value. Although treatment remains a challenge, clinicians should attempt to identify and address factors that may be contributing to the weight loss.
As care providers for older adults, nurses are in a position to assist older adults who are obese in adopting changes to promote a healthier lifestyle. The primary goal is to achieve sustained lifestyle changes through dietary modifications, exercise, and use of community supports (Villareal et al., 2005). Strategies that promote lifestyle modifications include helping older adults who are obese to overcome related to dietary changes and physical activity. Two well-developed programs, as well as general considerations to facilitate safe dietary changes and safe increases in physical activity, will be discussed below.

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The three-decade, nationwide rise in obesity has resulted in $150 billion a year in obesity-related health care costs, according to the CDC, and researchers say that figure is projected to more than double to $344 billion before the end of the decade.
Jump up ^ Wright JD, Kennedy-Stephenson J, Wang CY, McDowell MA, Johnson CL (February 2004). “Trends in intake of energy and macronutrients – United States, 1971–2000”. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 53 (4): 80–82. PMID 14762332.
Karlson, E., Mandl, L., Aweh, G., Sangha, O., Liang, M., & Grodstein, F. (2003). Total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis: The importance of age, obesity, and other modifiable risk factors. American Journal of Medicine,114, 93-98.
In addition to suffering from poor physical health, overweight and obese children can often be targets of early social discrimination. The psychological stress of social stigmatization can cause low self-esteem which, in turn, can hinder academic and social functioning, and persist into adulthood. While research is still being conducted, there have been some studies showing that obese children are not learning as well as those who are not obese. Further, physical fitness has been shown to be associated with higher achievement.
That was the goal for Pamela Christensen, a 65-year-old technology manager in Garden City, New York, who’s lost – and kept off – 35 pounds since joining a gym two years ago. Since then, she’s relieved her joint discomfort, ditched her cane and boosted her stamina. “I didn’t want to be the grandma who everybody says, ‘She can’t get on the floor with us,'” Christensen says. “And little by little, I am less that person.”
Don’t hold your breath. Exhale during the effort part of an exercise. Don’t do too many sit-ups as the weight of the chest may impede your breathing. An alternative position to the sit-up for the overweight exerciser, is to stand with both hands against the wall and round the back while contracting the abdomen.
There were 61,317 deaths during the 10-year follow-up, with the overall risk of death highest among the study subjects who had the highest and lowest body weights, as determined by body mass index (BMI)body mass index (BMI), a ratio based on height and weight.
“Our research indicates that higher numbers of young and middle-age American adults are becoming obese at younger and younger ages,” researcher Joyce Lee, MD, MPH, a pediatric endocrinologist at the University of Michigan, says in a news release.
For most people, BMI provides a reasonable estimate of body fat. However, BMI doesn’t directly measure body fat, so some people, such as muscular athletes, may have a BMI in the obese category even though they don’t have excess body fat. Ask your doctor if your BMI is a problem.
Treatment for overweight and obesity depends on the cause and severity of your condition. Possible treatments include healthy lifestyle changes, behavioral weight-loss treatment programs, medicines, and possibly surgery. You may need treatments for any complications that you have.
Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that filter blood, removing extra water and waste products, which become urine. Your kidneys also help control blood pressure so that your body can stay healthy.
The main reason for weight gain in senior dogs is because their level of activity decreases. Joint problems and general muscle weakness may cause them to avoid exercise. If this happened to your dog, it’s time to look at your pet’s nutrition plan to increase his quality of life and prolong his lifespan. Before making any dietary adjustments and switching to senior dog food recipes, take the dog to the vet to test for any age-related illnesses.
Jump up ^ Ejerblad E, Fored CM, Lindblad P, Fryzek J, McLaughlin JK, Nyrén O (2006). “Obesity and risk for chronic renal failure”. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (Research Support). 17 (6): 1695–702. doi:10.1681/ASN.2005060638. PMID 16641153.
Women in the baby boomer generation are somewhat more likely than men of the same age to feel that they are overweight, and less likely to feel that their weight is “about right.” Fifty-nine percent of baby boomer women say they are overweight, compared with 48% of baby boomer men. This is particularly interesting given that according to CDC estimates, men are slightly more likely to be overweight (67%) than women (62%).
Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis[2] and asthma.[2][30] As a result, obesity has been found to reduce life expectancy.[2]
It contradicts a widely publicized study reported last year by researchers at the CDC. That study found the risk of death associated with being overweight or obese to be much lower than most public health experts believed.
There are no magic pills, no miracles in a bottle. The only way you have fighting chance of beating obesity is to change your lifestyle. No crash diet or miracle drug is going to cure what has now become an epidemic in the United States. The two best things you can do for yourself are 1) exercise on a regular basis and 2) control your caloric intake. Keep in mind that these factors are important for everyone, overweight or not, and regardless of whether or not you decide to have gastric bypass surgery.
• Psychiatric. Weight loss is depression’s key symptom and may be present with bipolar, personality, dysmorphic, and anxiety disorders, as well as substance abuse and alcoholism, and nicotine addiction. 5
He can’t stand, nor can he barely move. In the last 3 weeks, he has fallen FIVE times and couldn’t get up any of those times. He has had to call 911 each time to have them send the fire department to come lift him up. It’s taken five people each time to lift him up.
Cancer occurs when cells in one part of the body, such as the colon, grow abnormally or out of control. The cancerous cells sometimes spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States.3
During pregnancy, women gain weight so that their babies get proper nourishment and develop normally. After giving birth, some women find it hard to lose the weight. This may lead to obesity, especially after a few pregnancies.
Chronic Drinking – SeniorsCognitive Difficulty – SeniorsDepression – SeniorsDiabetes – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Education – SeniorsHigh Health Status – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Multiple Chronic Conditions – SeniorsObesity – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Overuse–MammographyOveruse–PSA TestPoor Mental Health Days – SeniorsSmoking – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Social Support – SeniorsSuicide – Senior
While losing weight is a simple concept in theory — expend more calories than you take in — it is a more complex process in reality. But for seniors, the “battle of the bulge” can be even harder to the natural slowing down of the metabolism. In other words, a 65-year-old might eat the same meal he ate at age 20 and yet burn calories at a slower rate. This can be confusing and frustrating for seniors as they watch the pounds creep up on the scale.
All subjects in the study were over 65, with some as old as 85 when the study began. Their average age was about 70. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups. One set of seniors was placed on a low-calorie diet to help them lose weight. Members of a second group attended exercise sessions three times a week, doing balance work, resistance training and aerobic exercise. A third group combined both the low-calorie diet and the exercise. The last group made no changes in diet or exercise habits.
“Obese patients are nearly 12 times more likely to suffer a complication following elective plastic surgery than their normal-weight counterparts” according to hopkinsmedicine.org (Ref. http://bit.ly/za1Vmh).
Use our Daily Food and Activity Diary or the United States Department of Agriculture’s online SuperTracker to record your daily food intake and physical activity. You, your doctor, or health care provider can use this diary to monitor your progress.
Phentermine (Fastin, Adipex P) — the other half of fen/phen — suppresses appetite by causing a release of norepinephrine in the body. Phentermine alone is still available for treatment of obesity but only on a short-term basis (a few weeks). The common side effects of phentermine include headache, insomnia, and nervousness. Fenfluramine (the fen of fen/phen) and dexfenfluramine (Redux) suppress appetite mainly by increasing release of serotonin by the cells. Both fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn from the market in September 1997 because of association of these two medications with pulmonary hypertension (a rare but serious disease of the arteries in the lungs) and association of fen/phen with damage to the heart valves. Since the withdrawal of fenfluramine, some have suggested combining phentermine with fluoxetine (Prozac), a combination that has been referred to as phen/pro. However, no clinical trials have been conducted to confirm the safety and effectiveness of this combination. Therefore, this combination is not an accepted treatment for obesity.
The study also found that a significant proportion of baby boomers who are not obese are overweight.  Health experts note that if baby boomers continue with present levels of weight and physical inactivity, they are going to become expensive.  “Experts know their medical costs due to obesity-related illnesses and conditions will grow,” Slome explains.  
Aerobic exercise can lead to improved cardiovascular function, better quality of sleep, improved mental health, weight loss, and enhanced immune function. Suggested aerobic activities for older adults include low-impact exercises such as walking, biking, low-impact aerobics, and water activities such as swimming or water aerobics.
Some modifications to the WHO definitions have been made by particular organizations.[28] The surgical literature breaks down class II and III obesity into further categories whose exact values are still disputed.[29]
The role of physical activity cannot be overstated when it comes to weight loss. For sedentary seniors moving toward more active lifestyles, starting small can help prevent injuries while avoiding burnout. Also essential? Choosing a program that you can actually stick with. This means honestly assessing your own physical capabilities and adopting a can-do attitude.
Over the next two months, her appetite improves and she gains four pounds. Her weight loss appears to have been the result of multiple factors, including social isolation, bereavement, chewing issues, decreased oral intake and possibly the use of NSAIDs. Risk factor modification appears to have been successful so you do not consider further nutritional or pharmacologic interventions at this time.
Not only are baby boomers more obese than the previous generation, they became more obese at an earlier age, and women in their 50s are the most likely to be obese [source: Trust for America’s Health].

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A supermarket shelf in Santiago. Each of the black nutrition labels indicates a product is high in one of four categories: salt, sugar, calories and fat. Credit Victor Ruiz Caballero for The New York Times
Medical treatment of obesity focuses on lifestyle changes such as eating less and increasing activity level. There are medications that can promote weight loss, although they work only in conjunction with eating less and exercising more.
Diabetes disproportionately affects older adults; a staggering 25 percent of adults age 60 and older have the disease. Without a significant strategy change in the public or private sectors, population growth on top of skyrocketing medical costs and an aging population will add an unbearable strain to an already overburdened healthcare system. These grim numbers accentuate the growing need for new strategies that will not simply react to the disease and manage symptoms, but prevent the disease from happening.
An electronic database search was conducted on MEDLINE and PubMed (both clinical and general) for English language articles, with no cutoff dates. Searches were conducted on 20, 23 and 26–27 January 2012, and again on 18 April, 24 May 2012 and 2 July 2012 to capture newly published material. Two broad search areas were categorized: (1) weight loss through caloric restriction, exercise or both; and (2) long-term maintenance of weight loss, feasibility and safety among older adults. In order to cast the widest net for these two areas of interest, five separate overlapping searches were performed, using the keywords: obese, obesity, older adults, elderly, weight loss, body composition, caloric restriction, lifestyle intervention, diet, exercise, function, long-term feasibility, maintenance, and safety.
Patricia Rockwood has been a professional copy editor and writer for more than 25 years. She is an avid gardener with a certified Florida backyard habitat. Rockwood has practiced yoga for more than 40 years and taught for much of that time. She is also a professional mosaic artist.
Cardiovascular disease. Coronary heart disease is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in older patients who are 65 years and older. It remains a leading cause of mortality in the US with 84% of persons 65 years or older dying from this disease (Hanna & Wenger, 2005).
Eat more nutritious foods that have “low energy density.” Low energy dense foods contain relatively few calories per unit weight (fewer calories in a large amount of food). Examples of low energy dense foods include vegetables, fruits, lean meat, fish, grains, and beans. For example, you can eat a large volume of celery or carrots without taking in many calories.
Obesity in older adults is ubiquitous in many developed countries and is related to various negative health outcomes, making it an important public health target for intervention. However, treatment approaches for obesity in older adults remain controversial due to concerns surrounding the difficulty of behavior change with advancing age, exacerbating the age-related loss of skeletal muscle and bone, and the feasibility of long-term weight maintenance and related health consequences. This review serves to systematically examine the evidence regarding weight loss interventions with a focus on obese (body mass index 30 kg/m2 and above) older adults (aged 65 years and older) and some proposed mechanisms associated with exercise and caloric restriction (lifestyle intervention). Our findings indicate that healthy weight loss in this age group can be achieved through lifestyle interventions of up to a one-year period. Most interventions reviewed reported a loss of lean body mass and bone mineral density with weight loss. Paradoxically muscle quality and physical function improved. Inflammatory molecules and metabolic markers also improved, although the independent and additive effects of exercise and weight loss on these pathways are poorly understood. Using our review inclusion criteria, only one small pilot study investigating long-term weight maintenance and associated health implications was found in the literature. Future research on lifestyle interventions for obese older adults should address the loss of bone and lean body mass, inflammatory mechanisms, and include sufficient follow up to assess long-term weight maintenance and health outcomes.
Franco OH, Steyerberg EW, Hu FB, Mackenbach J, Nusselder W. Associations of diabetes mellitus with total life expectancy and life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Arch Int Med 2007; 167: 1145–1151.
Treatment of obesity depends primarily on how overweight a person is and his or her overall health. However, to be successful, any treatment must affect life-long behavioral changes rather than short-term weight loss. “Yo-yo” dieting, in which weight is repeatedly lost and regained, has been shown to increase a person’s likelihood of developing fatal health problems than if the weight had been lost gradually or not lost at all. Behavior-focused treatment should concentrate on:
Obesity has reached epic proportions in the U.S. Rates of obesity have gone up from 12 to 20 percent of the population since 1991. This epidemic is not limited to adults; the percentage of young people who overweight has more than doubled in the past 20 years. Sixteen percent of children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years old are considered overweight.
When the BMI is above 25, a person is considered overweight. When it’s above 30, the person is obese. Although BMI is useful for men and women, it does have limitations. For example, BMI may overestimate body fat in individuals who have a highly muscular build such as athletes and underestimate it in people who have lost muscle (for example, those who are recovering from surgery or cancer).
Madeira Beach is looking beautiful, the weather is great, and things have returned almost completely to normal. We thank everyone for their concern and prayers, and also thank the authorities and utility folks who have done such a great job!
“It used to be thought that older patients don’t respond to treatment for obesity as well as younger patients,” Kahan says. “People assume that they couldn’t exercise as much or for whatever reason they couldn’t stick to diets as well. But we’ve disproven that.”
According to Jesse Slome, executive director of the American Association for Long-Term Care Insurance, a  baby boomer is somebody born between 1946 and about 1965.  “Boomers make up almost one in five U.S. citizens and have a significant impact on the economy,” Slome explains.  “Their impact of health care and long-term care costs could be more than this nation can bear.”
Identify temptations. Learn what environments or social activities, such as watching TV or going out with friends, may be keeping you from meeting your goals. Once you have identified them, use creative strategies to help keep you on track.  

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The health concerns raised about processing itself—rather than the amount of fat and problem carbs in any given dish—are not, by and large, related to weight gain or obesity. That’s important to keep in mind, because obesity is, by an enormous margin, the largest health problem created by what we eat. But even putting that aside, concerns about processed food have been magnified out of all proportion.
Body weight is directly associated with various cardiovascular risk factors. As BMI increases, so do blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or “bad”) cholesterol, triglycerides, blood sugar, and inflammation. These changes translate into increased risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular death:
Children: A healthy weight is usually when your child’s BMI is at the 5th percentile up to the 85th percentile, based on growth charts for children who are the same age and sex. To figure out your child’s BMI, use the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen and compare the BMI with the table below.
Patterson, R., Frank, L., Kristal, A., & White, E. (2004). A comprehensive examination of health conditions  associated with obesity in older adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27, 385-390.
Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309(1):71-82.
For the past year, President Trump has worked with the Republican Congress to dismantle crucial parts of Obama’s legacy, including affordable health care, progressive taxation, climate-change regulation, oversight of the financial system, and immigration reform. Discussions of Medicare and Medicaid cuts surfacing in recent weeks suggest that an effort to roll back Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society might be next.
Individual responsibility can only have its full effect where people have access to a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, at the societal level it is important to support individuals in following the recommendations above, through sustained implementation of evidence based and population based policies that make regular physical activity and healthier dietary choices available, affordable and easily accessible to everyone, particularly to the poorest individuals. An example of such a policy is a tax on sugar sweetened beverages.
Hoping to gain some firsthand insight into the issue while in L.A., I drove away from the wholesome-food-happy, affluent, and mostly trim communities of the northwestern part of the city, and into East L.A. The largely Hispanic population there was nonaffluent and visibly plagued by obesity. On one street, I saw a parade of young children heading home from school. Perhaps a quarter of them were significantly overweight; several walked with a slow, waddling gait.
Jump up ^ Molenaar EA, Numans ME, van Ameijden EJ, Grobbee DE (November 2008). “[Considerable comorbidity in overweight adults: results from the Utrecht Health Project]”. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd (English abstract) (in Dutch). 152 (45): 2457–63. PMID 19051798.
Herbal remedies, vitamins and minerals, all considered dietary supplements by the Food and Drug Administration, don’t have the same rigorous testing and labeling process as over-the-counter and prescription medications do.
These include lower intensity and mildly stressful exercises like water walking, swimming, walking on treadmill and lifting lesser amount of free weights. These cardiovascular workouts can keep the seniors fit and healthy. Slow aerobics and stretching exercises can also be incorporated in senior weight loss programs.
Gaining too much weight during pregnancy can have long-term effects for both mother and child. These effects include the mother will have overweight or obesity after the child is born. Another risk is that the baby may gain too much weight later as a child or as an adult.
Urinary incontinence, the unintentional leakage of urine. Chronic obesity can weaken pelvic muscles, making it harder to maintain bladder control. While it can happen to both sexes, it usually affects women as they age.