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Just as genetics plays a role in obesity, so does the environment. The environment includes the world around us; it influences access to healthy food and safe places to walk. What we eat, our level of physical activity, and our lifestyle behaviors are influenced by our environment. Our environment can prevent us from eating healthy foods and/or getting adequate exercise in a number of ways. Examples include the trend toward ‘eating out’ rather than preparing food in the home; high-fat, high-calorie foods in our workplace vending machines; neighborhoods that often lack sidewalks; and a deficit of readily accessible recreation areas.

Obesity can influence various aspects of reproduction, from sexual activity to conception. Among women, the association between obesity and infertility, primarily ovulatory infertility, is represented by a classic U-shaped curve. In the Nurses’ Health Study, infertility was lowest in women with BMIs between 20 and 24, and increased with lower and higher BMIs. (20) This study suggests that 25 percent of ovulatory infertility in the United States may be attributable to obesity. During pregnancy, obesity increases the risk of early and late miscarriage, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and complications during labor and delivery. (21) It also slightly increases the chances of bearing a child with congenital anomalies. (22) One small randomized trial suggests that modest weight loss improves fertility in obese women. (23)

Increased body mass has a negative impact on weight-bearing joints, and knee osteoarthritis is particularly common in obese men (58%) and women (68%) by the age of ≥65 years (41). The physical limitation caused by this condition is widely appreciated, but less attention is paid to the inevitable impact on pain and chronic overconsumption of analgesics that often underlie the development of drug-resistant hypertension and incipient nephropathy.

 The key to successful long-term weight loss is to focus less on “dieting,” which tends to be a short-term fix, and more on lifestyle changes, primarily healthy eating, and regular exercise. Your goal should be to make health, not appearance, your priority, meaning your weight loss lifestyle changes must include both diet and exercise.

Psychological factors. For some people, emotions influence eating habits. Many people eat excessively in response to emotions such as boredom, sadness, stress, or anger. While most overweight people have no more psychological disturbances than normal weight people, about 30% of the people who seek treatment for serious weight problems have difficulties with binge eating.

More than 30% of adults (50% of baby boomers) have this condition. The bad news is metabolic syndrome can kill you before you ever develop diabetes. Because it changes your cholesterol profile, increases inflammation, and raises your blood pressure levels in ways that are similar to those of diabetes, it can cause a heart attack or cyproheptadine has been studied in patients with cancer and cachexia,38 routine use in older adults with unintentional weight loss has not been studied. Dronabinol (Marinol) and human growth hormone have been studied in small, limited trials with mixed results for short-term, small weight gains. Dronabinol has been associated with significant adverse effects, particularly central nervous system toxicity. Human growth hormone has been associated with increased mortality.17

Obesity and Cardiovascular Death. In a meta-analysis of 26 observational studies that included 390,000 men and women, several racial and ethnic groups, and samples from the U.S. and other countries, obesity was significantly associated with death from CAD and cardiovascular disease. Women with BMIs of 30 or higher had a 62 percent greater risk of dying early from CAD and also had a 53 percent higher risk of dying early from any type of cardiovascular disease, compared with women who had BMIs in the normal range (18.5 to 24.9). Men with BMIs of 30 or higher had similarly elevated risks. (11)

Gordon’s team then repeated the experiment with one small twist: after giving the baby mice microbes from their respective twins, they moved the animals into a shared cage. This time both groups remained lean. Studies showed that the mice carrying microbes from the obese human had picked up some of their lean roommates’ gut bacteria—especially varieties of Bacteroidetes—probably by consuming their feces, a typical, if unappealing, mouse behavior. To further prove the point, the researchers transferred 54 varieties of bacteria from some lean mice to those with the obese-type community of germs and found that the animals that had been destined to become obese developed a healthy weight instead. Transferring just 39 strains did not do the trick. “Taken together, these experiments provide pretty compelling proof that there is a cause-and-effect relationship and that it was possible to prevent the development of obesity,” Gordon says.

As societies become increasingly reliant on energy-dense, big-portions, and fast-food meals, the association between fast-food consumption and obesity becomes more concerning.[100] In the United States consumption of fast-food meals tripled and food energy intake from these meals quadrupled between 1977 and 1995.[101]

Washington University School of Medicine. (2011, March 30). Diet-exercise combo best for obese seniors. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 9, 2018 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110330192212.htm

Enlisting support. Get your family and friends on board with your weight-loss goals. Surround yourself with people who will support you and help you, not sabotage your efforts. Make sure they understand how important weight loss is to your health. You might also want to join a weight-loss support group.

There is controversy in regard to carbohydrates and weight loss. When carbohydrates are restricted, people often experience rapid initial weight loss within the first two weeks. This weight loss is due mainly to fluid loss. When carbohydrates are added back to the diet, weight gain often occurs, simply due to a regain of the fluid.

Losing weight is difficult, and interventions that work in younger adults cannot be assumed to translate to older populations with co-morbidities, low muscle mass and frailty (Villareal 2004). The appropriate treatment approach for obesity remains highly contentious due to the lack of evidenced-based data demonstrating that long-term weight loss is net beneficial or harmful in this age group. There is evidence that successful weight loss is possible in adults 65 years and older (Villareal 2006a; Villareal 2006b; Villareal 2008; Frimel 2008; Lambert 2008; Shah 2009; Villareal 2011a; Armamento-Villareal 2012; Shah 2011; Kelly 2011). However, weight-loss trials have reported losses of lean body mass and bone mineral density, in addition to fat mass (Villareal 2006a; Villareal 2006b; Villareal 2008; Frimel 2008; Lambert 2008; Shah 2009; Villareal 2011a; Armamento-Villareal 2012; Shah 2011; Kelly 2011; Bales 2008). These negative outcomes discourage many geriatricians from advising weight loss to their obese older patients (Heiat 2001; Rossner 2001; Sorensen 2003; Villareal 2005; Zamboni 2005; Rolland 2006; Morley 2010), despite improvements in body composition, physical function, metabolic and cardiovascular parameters that accompany weight loss (Forsythe 2008; Anandacoomarasamy 2009; Cheung 2012; Erteck 2012). Given these positive functional and metabolic outcomes, it is somewhat surprising that advising weight loss in obese older adults is still shunned in the medical community (Houston 2009; Sommers 2011). Compounding the confusion surrounding risks versus benefits from intentional weight loss is the lack of human studies to elucidate the mechanisms associated with the loss of muscle and bone. Also lacking are trials with adequate follow-up to assess the behaviors associated with long-term maintenance of weight loss and health outcomes related to sustained weight loss.

Take up a physical hobby like dancing, yoga, or water aerobics instead of — or in addition to — something sedentary like bingo or bridge. Keeping up the physical activity will help you keep the mobility you have and may even increase flexibility and range of movement. And you may even make some new friends.

22. Abbott RD, Behrens GR, Sharp DS, Rodriguez BL, Burchfiel CM, Ross GW, Yano K, Curb JD: Body mass index and thromboembolic stroke in nonsmoking men in older middle age: the Honolulu Heart Program. Stroke 1994; 25: 2370– 2376 [PubMed]

“Everyone’s mother and brother has been telling them to eat more fruit and vegetables forever, and the numbers are only getting worse. We’re not going to solve this problem by telling people to eat unprocessed food.”

Fewer studies have examined possible associations between weight loss and cancer risk. Some of these have found decreased risks of breast, endometrial, colon, and prostate cancers among people who have lost weight. However, most of these studies were not able to evaluate whether the weight loss was intentional or unintentional (and possibly related to underlying health problems).

Improved medical care also could be contributing to rising disability, Martin suggested. People whose disabilities began early in life are now living longer. “It could be seen as good news: improved survival for people with Down syndrome or spinal cord injuries who might have not reached middle age in the past,” she said.

Obesity is associated with a modest risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity, this has had a significant impact on RA incidence and may account for much of the recent increase in the incidence of RA.A

Obesity is a disease that affects more than one-third of the U.S. adult population (approximately 78.6 million Americans). The number of Americans with obesity has steadily increased since 1960, a trend that has slowed in recent years but shows no sign of reversing. Today, 69 percent of U.S. adults are categorized as being affected by obesity or having excess weight.

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The UT MIST Center for Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery and UT COMMP specializes in weight-loss surgery and medical weight loss programs. Our board-certified surgeons perform traditional and minimally invasive robotic, laparoscopic, and endoscopic surgery, including gastric bypass, gastric sleeve surgery, LAP-BAND® surgery, duodenal switch, reflux surgery, hernia repair, and more. We see patients at the following UT MIST/UT COMMP locations: Houston, Bayshore, Bellaire, Katy, Missouri City, and Sugar Land, Texas.
Because researchers often treat baby boomers of color as belonging to one group, quality data on the individual status of specific racial populations is lacking, leading to insufficiently designed programs, policies, and services. The absence of data is a testament to the invisibility of baby boomers of color in society and deeply affects the practice of social work and other helping professions that require culturally sensitive approaches. Melvin Delgado rectifies this injustice by providing a comprehensive portrait of the status and unique assets of boomers of color. Using specific data, he grounds an understanding of boomersÕfinancial, medical, and emotional needs within a historical, socioeconomic, cultural, and political context, resulting in tailored recommendations for meeting the challenges of a growing population. His research focuses on African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Native American older adults and addresses issues of financial security, employment stability, housing, and health care, which are often complicated by linguistic and cultural differences. Rather than treat baby boomers of color as a financial burden on society and its resources, Delgado recognizes their strengths and positive contributions to families and communities, resulting in an affirming and empowering approach to service.
An early hint that gut microbes might play a role in obesity came from studies comparing intestinal bacteria in obese and lean individuals. In studies of twins who were both lean or both obese, researchers found that the gut community in lean people was like a rain forest brimming with many species but that the community in obese people was less diverse—more like a nutrient-overloaded pond where relatively few species dominate. Lean individuals, for example, tended to have a wider variety of Bacteroidetes, a large tribe of microbes that specialize in breaking down bulky plant starches and fibers into shorter molecules that the body can use as a source of energy.
^ Jump up to: a b Johnson F, Cooke L, Croker H, Wardle J (2008). “Changing perceptions of weight in Great Britain: comparison of two population surveys”. BMJ. 337: a494. doi:10.1136/bmj.a494. PMC 2500200 . PMID 18617488.
Overweight and obesity are known to increase blood pressure. High blood pressure is the leading cause of strokes. Excess weight also increases your chances of developing other problems linked to strokes, including high cholesterol, high blood sugar, and heart disease.
Jump up ^ Aune, Dagfinn; Sen, Abhijit; Norat, Teresa; Janszky, Imre; Romundstad, Pål; Tonstad, Serena; Vatten, Lars J. (16 February 2016). “Body Mass Index, Abdominal Fatness, and Heart Failure Incidence and MortalityCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE”. Circulation. 133 (7): 639–49. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.016801.
Ironically, weight loss itself, particularly rapid weight loss or loss of a large amount of weight, can make you more likely to get gallstones. Losing weight at a rate of about 1 pound a week is less likely to cause gallstones.
Jump up ^ Zhang, Y; Proenca, R; Maffei, M; Barone, M; Leopold, L; Friedman, JM (Dec 1, 1994). “Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue”. Nature (Research Support). 372 (6505): 425–32. Bibcode:1994Natur.372..425Z. doi:10.1038/372425a0. PMID 7984236.
One of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service’s Healthy People 2010 initiative is to reduce the prevalence of adult obesity to 15% or less. Yet we are moving in the wrong direction — between 1976 and 2000 (a period of time in which most baby boomers came of age and entered middle age), adult obesity more than doubled, from 15% to 31%. The obesity problem is acute among baby boomers, yet many in this generation, particularly men, fail to recognize their weight problems.
Smoking has a significant effect on an individual’s weight. Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4.4 kilograms (9.7 lb) for men and 5.0 kilograms (11.0 lb) for women over ten years.[139] However, changing rates of smoking have had little effect on the overall rates of obesity.[140]
If current trends continue, Australia’s Generation X will overtake Baby Boomers for poor health, including rates of obesity and diabetes, which could have huge implications for healthcare and the workforce. Researchers compared the health status of Baby Boomers (born from 1946-1965) and Generation X (1966-1980) at the same age range of 25-44 years and found that Generation X had significantly poorer levels of self-rated health, and higher levels of obesity and diabetes compared with Boomers, with no real difference in physical activity between the two groups.
If you are obese, you should have a primary-care physician who follows you closely and monitors you for the known complications of obesity such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. The following are additional indications to see a health-care provider:
Lack of access to healthy foods. Some people don’t live in neighborhoods with supermarkets that sell healthy foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Or, for some people, these healthy foods are too costly.
Diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes in older adults, results from interplay between genetic factors and environmental factors that contribute to obesity. Even a 15 pound weight gain can increase a person’s risk of diabetes by 50% (Daniels, 2006). There is an age-related increase in total body fat and visceral adiposity until age 65 that is often accompanied by diabetes or impaired glucose intolerance (Wilson & Kannel, 2007). In the Framingham Study 30-40% of people over 65 were found to have diabetes or glucose intolerance. Coronary disease is the most common and lethal sequel of type 2 diabetes. Lean-muscle mass begins to diminish after the age of 65. This decrease may be related to decreased physical activity, disability, anabolic hormone production, or increased cytokine activity. If calorie intake continues at the same rate while the muscle mass decreases, the older person will most likely experience fat weight gain (Tucker, 2006).
The rapid rise in the incidence of obesity in the United States since 1990 has prompted researchers to look for new treatments. One approach involves the application of antidiabetes drugs to the treatment of obesity. Metformin (Glucophage), a drug that was approved by the Food and Dug Administration (FDA) in 1994 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, shows promise in treating obesity associated with insulin resistance.
Similarly, you may lose weight on a crash diet, but you’re likely to regain it when you stop the diet. To lose weight — and keep it off — you have to adopt healthy-eating habits that you can maintain over time.
Jump up ^ Johnston, Bradley C.; Kanters, Steve; Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wu, Ping; Naji, Faysal; Siemieniuk, Reed A.; Ball, Geoff D. C.; Busse, Jason W.; Thorlund, Kristian; Guyatt, Gordon; Jansen, Jeroen P.; Mills, Edward J. (3 September 2014). “Comparison of Weight Loss Among Named Diet Programs in Overweight and Obese Adults”. JAMA. 312 (9): 923–33. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.10397. PMID 25182101.
All of the OTC products discussed above are not considered drugs and are therefore not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. As a result, there is little information on their effectiveness or safety. You should discuss any OTC weight loss products you are planning on taking or are taking with a health-care professional.
3. Receive a Facebook message out of the blue from Ken Kurson, a Big Important Male Editor at the New York Observer, saying he loves your work and wants you to consider writing for him instead. Push him off for six months, as you’re under contract.
Jump up ^ Moyer VA (4 September 2012). “Screening for and management of obesity in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine (Practice Guideline). 157 (5): 373–78. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00475. PMID 22733087.
Gordon theorizes that the gut community in obese mice has certain “job vacancies” for microbes that perform key roles in maintaining a healthy body weight and normal metabolism. His studies, as well as those by other researchers, offer enticing clues about what those roles might be. Compared with the thin mice, for example, Gordon’s fat mice had higher levels in their blood and muscles of substances known as branched-chain amino acids and acylcarnitines. Both these chemicals are typically elevated in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
The diminished ability or the inability to conceive and have offspring. Infertility is also defined in specific terms as the failure to conceive after a year of regular intercourse without contraception.
Flexibility and balance are also factors important to health that decrease with age. Leading a sedentary lifestyle can cause connective tissues to weaken and joints to stiffen. Ultimately, the lack of activity affects a person’s range of motion, balance and posture.
Gallbladder disease. Obesity is a major risk factor for gallstones because obesity is believed to reduce the amount of bile salts in bile, resulting in more cholesterol. Additionally, gallbladder emptying is decreased as a result of obesity (National Digestive Diseases Clearinghouse, 2004). Again, management of obesity, as described below, is the primary approach for decreasing the incidence of this gallbladder disease.
Jump up ^ Shick SM, Wing RR, Klem ML, McGuire MT, Hill JO, Seagle H (April 1998). “Persons successful at long-term weight loss and maintenance continue to consume a low-energy, low-fat diet”. J Am Diet Assoc. 98 (4): 408–13. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(98)00093-5. PMID 9550162.
Just wanted to post a heartfelt thanks to Doug for this fantastic site and all the work he does for seniors! Seriously overweight but otherwise healthy at 75, I ordered the DVD set and began on September 1, 2016. I started counting calories while eating healthy, and use the DVDs (rotating them) and my exercise bike almost every day. I have lost twenty pounds and many inches, but this has also beneficially affected my sleep, my digestion, and my relationships. Yes, I get sore, but follow his suggestions about that; I look on my soreness as a badge of honor when it happens! I feel so much stronger, so much more flexible, and so proud of myself that the weight loss is just an added bonus, not the primary goal anymore. Doug is a wonderful person and deserves our thanks!
Nevertheless, the follow-up study of weight and breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative (36) found that for women who were already overweight or obese at baseline, weight change (either gain or loss) was not associated with breast cancer risk during follow-up. However, for women who were of normal weight at baseline, gaining more than 5% of body weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk.
Orlistat is recommended only for people 18 years of age and over in combination with a diet and exercise regimen. People who have difficulties with the absorption of food or who are not overweight should not take orlistat. Overweight is defined by the U.S. National Institutes of Health as having a body mass index (BMI) of 27 or greater.
5. Kabakov E, Norymberg C, Osher E, Koffler M, Tordjman K, Greenman Y, Stern N: Prevalence of hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus: impact of the tightening definition of high blood pressure and association with confounding risk factors. J Cardiometab Syndr 2006; 1: 95– 101 [PubMed]
This study was a follow up of a one-year lifestyle intervention (Villareal 2011a). The participants remained in the community, with no contact by study personnel, until the 30-month follow-up point. The investigators recruited the first half of the participants who were randomized to the weight loss group (n=13) and diet plus exercise group (n=13) from this previously reported life-style intervention (Villareal 2011a). Of the potential participants available for recruitment, ten (38%) were lost to follow-up. The remaining sixteen participants recruited into the study were representative of the original cohort with regard to age, gender, and other demographic characteristics. Outcomes of interest in the follow-up study were changes in body weight and composition, physical function, quality of life, insulin sensitivity, BMD, and renal and liver function. Participants also completed the Block Brief 2000 Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to quantify their average daily energy intake over the previous year. Participants were included if they completed at least three days of food records, submitted the FFQ, and had daily energy intakes of more 500 kcal per day for women, and 800 kcal per day for men. At the 30-month follow-up compared to baseline, weight (101.5 ± 3.8 vs 94.5 ± 3.9 kg) and BMI (36.0 ± 1.7 vs 33.5 ± 1.7 kg/m2) remained significantly below baseline (all p<0.05). Fat free mass (56.7 ± 2.1 vs 56.9 ± 2.2 kg) and appendicular lean mass (24.1 ± 1.0 vs 24.1 ± 1.1kg) remained unchanged when compared to the 12-month point (end of trial) and the 30-month follow-up (all p>0.05). Improvements in the physical performance test (PPT 27 ± 0.7 vs 30.2 ± 0.6), insulin sensitivity (4.1 ± 0.8 vs 3.0 ± 0.6), and insulin area under the curve (12484 ± 2042 vs 9270 ± 1139 min.mg/dl) remained unchanged at 30 months compared to baseline (all p<0.05). Waist circumference and systolic blood pressure remained lower at 30 months compared to baseline (all p<0.05). Whole body and lumbar spine BMD did not change; however, total hip BMD progressively decreased from baseline to 30 months (0.985 ± .026 vs 0.941 ± .024 g/cm2; p<0.05). There were no adverse effects on liver or renal function. Thirteen participants met inclusion requirements for the dietary analysis. At baseline the average caloric intake was 2045 ± 178 kcal per day. At the 30-month follow-up, the FFQ estimated mean daily intake was 1427 ± 142 kcal per day. Overall, participants consumed an average of 619 ± 157 kcal per day less at 30 month follow-up compared to baseline (p<0.05). The lack of response may also reflect a more general lack of awareness. In a 2014 letter to then newly appointed Surgeon General Vivek Murthy, the Obesity Association, a leading obesity educational and research group, wrote that “many individuals are not aware of the scope of the problem. We agree that more needs to be done to address obesity at the community level by providing more guidance and resources, so people have a better understanding of where and how to lead healthier lives.” [redirect url='https://betahosts.com/bump' sec='7']

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There are no magic pills, no miracles in a bottle. The only way you have fighting chance of beating obesity is to change your lifestyle. No crash diet or miracle drug is going to cure what has now become an epidemic in the United States. The two best things you can do for yourself are 1) exercise on a regular basis and 2) control your caloric intake. Keep in mind that these factors are important for everyone, overweight or not, and regardless of whether or not you decide to have gastric bypass surgery.

Talk to your doctor to learn more about the benefits and risks of each type of surgery. Possible complications include bleeding, infection, internal rupture of sutures, or even death. Read gastric bypass surgery for more information.

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“Phen-fen” and Redux: These prescription drugs have been removed from the market in the United States and many other countries. They are linked to heart-valve problems and pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension affects the blood vessels in the lungs and is often fatal.

Other companies have embraced the logo system as a way to tout healthy offerings. Soprole, a Chilean dairy company, produced a commercial that features child newscasters explaining the label system in a way their peers can understand.

Obesity in pets is common in many countries. In the United States, 23–41% of dogs are overweight, and about 5.1% are obese.[231] The rate of obesity in cats was slightly higher at 6.4%.[231] In Australia the rate of obesity among dogs in a veterinary setting has been found to be 7.6%.[232] The risk of obesity in dogs is related to whether or not their owners are obese; however, there is no similar correlation between cats and their owners.[233]

The local numbers parallel a dangerous national health trend: Obesity is growing particularly fast among the nation’s baby boomers, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with roughly 30 percent of boomers falling into the obese category in 2012 compared with 24 percent a decade ago. CDC figures show that another 41 percent of boomers are overweight.

Jump up ^ Aune, D; Sen, A; Prasad, M; Norat, T; Janszky, I; Tonstad, S; Romundstad, P; Vatten, LJ (4 May 2016). “BMI and all cause mortality: systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of 230 cohort studies with 3.74 million deaths among 30.3 million participants”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 353: i2156. doi:10.1136/bmj.i2156. PMC 4856854 . PMID 27146380.

“Never,” declares Sir David Attenborough in the first episode of Blue Planet II, his latest hallucinatory swath of masterpiece nature television, “has there been a more crucial time to explore what goes on beneath the surface of the seas!” Attenborough is perorating from the prow of the research vessel Alucia as she plies indigo waters, blipping and whirring and swishing her sensors over the deep. “With revolutionary technology we can enter new worlds and shine a light on behaviors in ways that were impossible just a generation ago. We’ve also come to recognize an uncomfortable fact: The health of our oceans is under threat. They’re changing at a faster rate than ever before in human history.”

43. Saiqal CS, Wessells H, Pace J, Schonlau M, Wilt TJ: Urologic diseases in America Project: predictors and prevalence of erectile dysfunction in a racially diverse population. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 207– 212 [PubMed]

Underwater weighing (hydrostatic weighing): This method weighs a person underwater then calculates lean body mass (muscle) and body fat. This method is one of the most accurate ones; however, it is generally done in special research facilities, and the equipment is costly.

Physical activity and exercise help burn calories. The amount of calories burned depends on the type, duration, and intensity of the activity. It also depends on the weight of the person. A 200-pound person will burn more calories running 1 mile than a 120-pound person, because the work of carrying those extra 80 pounds must be factored in. But exercise as a treatment for obesity is most effective when combined with a diet and weight-loss program. Exercise alone without dietary changes will have a limited effect on weight because one has to exercise a lot to simply lose 1 pound. However regular exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle to maintain a healthy weight for the long term. Another advantage of regular exercise as part of a weight-loss program is a greater loss of body fat versus lean muscle compared to those who diet alone.

“If someone does lose 20 or 30 pounds, their metabolism goes down and they start to burn fewer calories,” Tsai says. “Our bodies are designed to regain weight, so it’s much easier to prevent obesity than to treat it.”

And yet those final days provided the father-daughter time she had always longed for. “I made meals for him, did his laundry, cleaned the house, drank beer on the porch with him, and just enjoyed his undivided attention,” she remembers. “We listened to his jazz records, and a lot of Louis Prima, and he told me stories about the ‘Old Vegas’ and how much better that was than today’s version.”

He is not able to do it because of his too excessive body weight. In his mind he must have acknowledged it. But he does not want it, as he considers it a luxury to be assisted in all things by others and provided food at his bed. So long as this is done to him, he will not try to shake his hand and legs.

Mauro Russo, managing director at Ferrero, the maker of the Kinder Surprise, said the law had been erroneously applied to their product because the toy is an intrinsic part of the treat, not a “promotional gadget,” as described by the legislation, that seeks to stimulate sales. He also disputed the notion that the product is unhealthy, noting that each egg contains 110 calories and that few consumers purchase more than one or two a year. “Kinder Surprise’s impact on obesity is very marginal,” he said.

A. The answer is YES. In fact, many of the risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and overweight, are also risk factors for dementia, in addition to genetic predisposition for the disease.

Excess weight is a known risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease. Obesity can also be linked an increased risk for developing some cancers. To clarify the effects of weight gain on cancer risk, researchers in 2007 conducted an analysis of many studies reported in medical journals that describe 282,137 cases of cancer. The researchers wanted to see if weight gain had an effect on the risk for certain cancer types.

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The healthcare costs of American adults with obesity amount to approximately $190 billion per year. Discrimination and mistreatment of person with obesity is widespread and, sadly, often considered socially acceptable.

The first goal of dieting is to stop further weight gain. The next goal is to establish realistic weight-loss goals. While the ideal weight corresponds to a BMI of 20-25, this is difficult to achieve for many people. Thus, success is higher when a goal is set to lose 10%-15% of baseline weight as opposed to 20%-30% or greater. It is also important to remember that any weight reduction in an obese person would result in health benefits.

Larson-Meyer DE, Heilbronn LK, Redman LM, Newcomer BR, Frisard MI, Anton S, Smith SR, Alfonso A, Ravussin E. Effect of calorie restriction with or without exercise on insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, fat cell size, and ectopic lipid in overweight subjects. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1337–1344. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Scoring: 0 to 2 points = You have good nutrition; recheck your nutritional score in six months. 3 to 5 points = You are at moderate nutritional risk, and you should see what you can do to improve your eating habits and lifestyle; recheck your nutritional score in three months. 6 or more points = You are at high nutritional risk, and you should bring this checklist with you the next time you see your physician, dietitian, or other qualified health care professional; talk with any of these professionals about the problems you may have, and ask for help to improve your nutritional status.

Kay Paggi, GCM, LPC, CGC, MA, is in private practice as a geriatric care manager and is on the advisory board for the Emeritus Program at Richland College. She has worked with seniors for nearly 20 years as a licensed professional counselor, certified gerontological counselor, and certified geriatric care manager.

The best diet for seniors is not always the diet program that is most popular or that is recommended for dieters in other age groups. It’s important for seniors to maintain muscle mass, to find an eating plan that provides proper nutrition, and that does not interfere with medications or the management of your medical conditions.

NIDDK supports research on the causes and consequences of obesity and potential prevention and treatment strategies, including behavioral, biomedical, surgical, and environmental approaches in adults and children. This research also provides an evidence base to inform patients, healthcare providers, payers, and policy makers.  NIDDK supports research on the biologic processes associated with body weight regulation, including genetic factors; neural circuits and tissue cross talk; adipocyte (fat cell) biology and the link between obesity and inflammation; the role of the microbiome (gut bacteria and other microbes), sleep and circadian rhythms; and other emerging areas that may lead to new prevention and treatment approaches.

BMI is usually expressed in kilograms per square metre, resulting when weight is measured in kilograms and height in metres. To convert from pounds per square inch multiply by 703 (kg/m2)/(lb/sq in).[25]

The body mass index (BMI) is a statistical measurement derived from your height and weight. Although it is considered to be a useful way to estimate healthy body weight, it does not measure the percentage of body fat. The BMI measurement can sometimes be misleading – a muscleman may have a high BMI but have much less fat than an unfit person whose BMI is lower. However, in general, the BMI measurement can be a useful indicator for the ‘average person’.

Genetic factors are difficult to change. However, people and places can play a role in helping children achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Families, communities, schools, out-of-school programs, medical care providers, faith-based institutions, government agencies, the media, food and beverage companies, and entertainment industries all influence the dietary and physical activity behaviors of children and adolescents.7-9

Future trials need to address specific exercise training modalities, calcium, Vitamin D and protein supplementation, and/or prescribing anti-resorptive therapy (e.g. in patients with low BMD to start with) during active weight loss. Trials specifically designed to investigate the complex interplay between exercise, caloric restriction, weight loss, diet composition, hormones, growth factors, and inflammatory markers are also needed. Finally, trials need to have adequate sample size with appropriate controls, and long follow-up periods are needed to determine how best to achieve sustained lifestyle change associated with optimal health outcomes in frail, obese older adults. With the 65+ age group representing the fastest growing segment of the population, and with a high prevalence of obesity, these studies should become a priority for public health research.

Some studies show that even a weight loss of 3 percent in older adults may significantly improve inflammation, blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar. However, the senior’s doctor should be consulted before beginning any weight loss program. Here are some typical suggestions for planned weight loss:

The report, “Aging in the United States,” examines recent trends and disparities among adults ages 65 and older, and how baby boomers will reshape America’s older population. In 2016, baby boomers will be between ages 52 and 70.

Once you find your measurement, you will want to find your weight classification that is accompanied on the BMI chart or calculator. Knowing your BMI is a good starting point in addressing your weight. If you find you are in an unhealthy range, you will want to talk with your doctor to address this issue.

Obesity per se continues to contribute to mortality in advanced years. However, even if mortality is conceded to be unrelated to obesity at an older age, the unaffected risk of death remains, at best, an imperfect descriptive measure of a disease spread over multiple years of life. Obese, or overweight, older subjects with such presumed unimpaired longevity are nevertheless more likely to have hypertension and diabetes; develop coronary artery disease and possibly stroke; experience erectile dysfunction; suffer from accelerated loss of cognitive function, incontinence, frailty, osteoarthritis, and functional disability; and are dependent on others. The clustering of so many well-defined ailments resulting from, or associated with, obesity, particularly in older subjects, is impressive enough to view obesity as a real primary disease that requires attention and medical care.

An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts, that affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be wished away. People with a depressive disease cannot merely “pull themselves together” and get better. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years.

The impact of obesity on male fertility is less clear. In a study by Hammoud and colleagues, the incidence of low sperm count (oligospermia) and poor sperm motility (asthenospermia) increased with BMI, from 5.3 and 4.5 percent, respectively, in normal-weight men to 15.6 and 13.3 percent in obese men. (24) In contrast, a study by Chavarro and colleagues found little effect of body weight on semen quality except at the highest BMIs (above 35), despite major differences in reproductive hormone levels with increasing weight. (25)

A sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity.[105] Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work,[106][107][108] and currently at least 30% of the world’s population gets insufficient exercise.[107] This is primarily due to increasing use of mechanized transportation and a greater prevalence of labor-saving technology in the home.[106][107][108] In children, there appear to be declines in levels of physical activity due to less walking and physical education.[109] World trends in active leisure time physical activity are less clear. The World Health Organization indicates people worldwide are taking up less active recreational pursuits, while a study from Finland[110] found an increase and a study from the United States found leisure-time physical activity has not changed significantly.[111] A 2011 review of physical activity in children found that it may not be a significant contributor.[112]

Certain medications may cause you to gain weight. These include some corticosteroids, antidepressants, and seizure medications. Medication can slow the rate at which your body burns calories, increase your appetite, or cause your body to hold extra water. All of these factors can lead to weight gain. If weight gain is a side effect of a medication you are taking, talk to your doctor about potentially switching to a different medication that isn’t associated with weight gain. 

Overweight and obesity and their associated health problems have a significant economic impact on health systems and the medical costs associated with overweight and obesity have both direct and indirect costs – direct medical costs may include preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services related to obesity, while indirect costs relate to loss of income from decreased productivity, restricted activity, absenteeism, and bed days and the income lost by premature death.

Some decades ago shopping consisted of walking down the road to the high street where one could find the grocers, bakers, banks, etc. As large out-of-town supermarkets and shopping malls started to appear, people moved from using their feet to driving their cars to get their provisions. In some countries, such as the USA, dependence on the car has become so strong that many people will drive even if their destination is only half-a-mile away.

These include lower intensity and mildly stressful exercises like water walking, swimming, walking on treadmill and lifting lesser amount of free weights. These cardiovascular workouts can keep the seniors fit and healthy. Slow and stretching exercises can also be incorporated in senior weight loss programs.

Last year the American Heart Association (AHA) officially recognized obesity as a definite risk factor for heart disease. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), after a 3-year review of medical studies, concluded that obesity is associated with:

Nutritional supplements are predominantly available in liquid form, but also come in puddings, bars, and soups. Nutritional supplements should provide extra calories but not replace scheduled meals. Liquid oral supplements allow for rapid gastric emptying and can be given two hours before a meal.29 Flavor enhancers such as ham, natural bacon, and roast beef flavors sprinkled on cooked food or added during food preparation may improve food consumption and weight gain, but study results have been mixed.32–34

High blood pressure and high cholesterol, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In one study, 70 percent of obese children had at least one CVD risk factor, while 39 percent had two or more.

Another useful method is to take a waist measurement because fat in the centre of the body (apple-shaped obesity) is much more strongly linked to health risks than fat more widely distributed on the arms and legs. Women with a waist of 80cm or greater and men with a waist of 94cm or greater are more likely to develop obesity-related health problems.

While this research paradox carries on, obesity in our elders can’t be ignored.  Being overweight or obese can be exacerbated in some people after retirement because they have more free time to sit around and aren’t as active as when they were younger or worked. On the other hand, baby boomers are being forced to delay retirement because of the economy. So many of those people are at desk jobs all day instead of being able to retire and be active.

Fructose is mainly metabolized in the liver, the target organ of the metabolic alterations caused by the consumption of this sugar. In this study, rats receiving fructose-containing beverages presented a pathology similar to metabolic syndrome, which in the short term causes lipid accumulation (hypertriglyceridemia) and fatty liver, and eventually leads to hypertension, resistance to insulin, diabetes and obesity.

Obesity is also a major risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus. The good news is that this may be preventable. In clinical studies, patients who were at a high risk of developing diabetes decreased their risk by almost 60% with less than 10% weight loss in three years.

Assess your weight loss since your last visit. A weight loss of approximately five percent in an overweight patient may improve the function of the fat tissue and help lower bad cholesterol and other substances that can predispose to complications.

It’s time for some straight talk: You weigh more than you did ten years ago, or even five years ago. The extra pounds didn’t arrive all at once but accumulated gradually before you even realized they were climbing on board. Now you’re looking at some serious extra poundage. But that’s to be expected as you get older, right? Wrong.

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Both surgical strategies entail changes in how food is processed in the body. While they are successful in helping some people lose weight, they also may cause cramps, diarrhea, and other unpleasant effects, as well as iron deficiency anemia. For more information, go to the article Surgery in the Treatment of Obesity.
Jump up ^ Gortmaker SL, Must A, Sobol AM, Peterson K, Colditz GA, Dietz WH (April 1996). “Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–1990”. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med (Review). 150 (4): 356–62. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1996.02170290022003. PMID 8634729.
Sleep apnea is a condition in which a person has one or more pauses in breathing during sleep. A person who has sleep apnea may suffer from daytime sleepiness, difficulty focusing, and even heart failure.
Villareal DT, Miller BV, III, Banks M, Fontana L, Sinacore DR, Klein S. Effect of lifestyle intervention on metabolic coronary heart disease risk factors in obese older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006b;84:1317–1323. [PubMed]
Villareal DT, Binder EF, Yarasheski KE, Williams DB, Brown M, Sinacore DR, Kohrt WM. Effects of exercise training added to ongoing hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in frail elderly women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51:985–990. [PubMed]
Three years ago, when Nicole Wilhelm, a public relations executive in Jacksonville, Florida, was in the throes of wedding planning, she visited her 68-year-old father in Lucerne Valley, California. It quickly became apparent that something was wrong, says Wilhelm.
Jump up ^ Nestle, Marion (12 September 2016). “Invited Commentary: Food Industry Funding of Nutrition Research: The Relevance of History for Current Debates”. JAMA Internal Medicine. 176 (11): 1685–86. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5400. PMID 27618496.
Obesity also affects cognition, which includes the way we process information, memory, comprehension, problem solving and decisions. These functions are known to deteriorate with age and studies show that they deteriorate more rapidly in the population affected by obesity. Since proper cognition help the elderly live fuller and more independent lives, this effect of obesity is more relevant than ever with older age.
Some wholesome foodies openly celebrate fat and problem carbs, insisting that the lack of processing magically renders them healthy. In singing the praises of clotted cream and lard-loaded cookies, for instance, a recent Wall Street Journal article by Ron Rosenbaum explained that “eating basic, earthy, fatty foods isn’t just a supreme experience of the senses—it can actually be good for you,” and that it’s “too easy to conflate eating fatty food with eating industrial, oil-fried junk food.” That’s right, we wouldn’t want to make the same mistake that all the cells in our bodies make. Pollan himself makes it clear in his writing that he has little problem with fat—as long as it’s not in food “your great-grandmother wouldn’t recognize.”
In June 2012, the FDA approved Belviq (lorcaserin hydrochloride) as a weight-loss medication. The medication works by controlling appetite (via serotonin activation). According to the FDA data, nearly half the patients using the medication lost at least 5% of their starting weight, which is more than double that lost by patients in the control group. This was only true for patients without type 2 diabetes.
Ephedra: This natural substance is essentially an herbal phen-fen. It is the active ingredient in MaHuang and is used as a stimulant and appetite suppressant. Ephedra resembles the amphetamines — the popular “diet drugs” that were banned in the 1970s — in that it is highly addictive. Ephedra is often combined with caffeine and aspirin (“the Stack”), which increases the thermogenic (fat-burning) effect of ephedra. Ephedra increases the risk of high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, insomnia, seizures, heart attack, stroke, and death. The FDA has recently banned ephedra because it has been linked to more than 100 deaths.
If you plan to lose more than 15 to 20 pounds, have any health problems, or take medication on a regular basis, you should be evaluated by your doctor before beginning your weight-loss program. A doctor can assess your general health and any medical conditions that might be affected by dieting and weight loss. Also, a physician should be able to advise you on the need for weight loss, the appropriateness of the weight-loss program, and a sensible goal of weight loss for you. If you plan to use a very low-calorie diet (a special liquid formula diet that replaces all food intake for one to four months), you should do so under the close supervision of a health-care professional.
The amount of physical activity you should do may be different from other people your age if you’re underweight, have mobility problems or a disability. Your GP or practice nurse can advise you about this.
Hedlund J, Hansson L-O, örtqvist Å. Short-and long-term prognosis for middle-aged and elderly patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: impact of nutritional and inflammatory factors. Scand J Infect Dis 1995; 27: 32–37.
The baby-boomer weight crisis is rapidly moving past their burden of buying plus-size clothing. Modern medicine will keep them alive longer than previous generations even with their increased need for care due to their weight gain. Their increased health care cost will push America into a debt crisis. One driver will be paying for extended medical care to medicate the life choices made by the boomer generation. The second driver will be the increased gross amounts the boomer generation will be paid from Social Security by living longer.
[1] How are overweight and obesity diagnosed? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/diagnosis.html. Updated July 13, 2012. Accessed October 4, 2012.
Setting realistic goals. When you have to lose a significant amount of weight, you may set goals that are unrealistic, such as trying to lose too much too fast. Don’t set yourself up for failure. Set daily or weekly goals for exercise and weight loss. Make small changes in your diet instead of attempting drastic changes that you’re not likely to stick with for the long haul.
The diet should be safe. It should include all of the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for vitamins, minerals, and protein. The weight-loss diet should be low in calories (energy) only, not in essential foodstuffs.
Studies identical twins, who have been raised apart, show that genes strongly influence a person’s weight. Vulnerability to weight gain and obesity tends to run in families. Your chances of being overweight are greater if one or both of your parents are overweight or obese.
There are mental complications as well. Obesity affects cognition, which includes the way we process information, memory, comprehension, problem solving, and decisions. These functions are known to deteriorate with age, and studies show that they deteriorate more rapidly in the population affected by obesity. Since proper cognition help seniors to live fuller and more independent lives, this effect of obesity is more relevant than ever as we age.
In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss.[167] In the long term; however, all types of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets appear equally beneficial.[167][168] A 2014 review found that the heart disease and diabetes risks associated with different diets appear to be similar.[169] Promotion of the Mediterranean diets among the obese may lower the risk of heart disease.[167] Decreased intake of sweet drinks is also related to weight-loss.[167] Success rates of long-term weight loss maintenance with lifestyle changes are low, ranging from 2–20%.[170] Dietary and lifestyle changes are effective in limiting excessive weight gain in pregnancy and improve outcomes for both the mother and the child.[171] Intensive behavioral counseling is recommended in those who are both obese and have other risk factors for heart disease.[172]

“childhood obesity pie chart _obesity in usa reasons”

Fiber keeps things moving in our digestive tracts, which helps eliminate unused and harmful substances. Keeping a healthy flow of digestion promotes weight loss while reducing inflammation. Getting fiber from plenty of fruits and vegetables in your diet is best, but adding a gentle fiber supplement can also increase weight loss.
In addition to suffering from poor physical health, overweight and obese children can often be targets of early social discrimination. The psychological stress of social stigmatization can cause low self-esteem which, in turn, can hinder academic and social functioning, and persist into adulthood. While research is still being conducted, there have been some studies showing that obese children are not learning as well as those who are not obese. Further, physical fitness has been shown to be associated with higher achievement.
NHLBI Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. We support the development of guidelines based on up-to-date research to evaluate and manage risk of heart disease in children and adolescents, including overweight and obesity. Visit Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents for more information.
The physical performance test entailed such tasks as picking up a penny, walking 50 feet, standing up from a chair, lifting a book, climbing a flight of stairs and donning and removing a coat, the magazine report noted.
For the older person with OA, the most important risk factor that can be modified is obesity. Karlson et al. (2003) noted during the Nurses’ Health Study that of all the hip-replacement risk factors examined, including BMI, hormone replacement after menopause, alcohol use, physical activity, and cigarette smoking, only BMI and cigarette smoking were associated with needing a hip replacement.
Jump up ^ Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C (January 2012). “The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach”. Journal of Health Economics. 31 (1): 219–30. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.10.003. PMID 22094013.
Though it’s difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don’t, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person’s odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Gaining weight as an adult increases the risk for several cancers, even if the weight gain doesn’t result in overweight or obesity. It isn’t known exactly how being overweight increases cancer risk. Fat cells may release hormones that affect cell growth, leading to cancer. Also, eating or physical activity habits that may lead to being overweight may also contribute to cancer risk.
Studies show that boomers currently have the highest level of obesity of any age group in Australia. However, new research by University of Adelaide PhD student Rhiannon Pilkington has revealed some alarming statistics. As part of her research, she has compared obesity levels between the two generations at equivalent ages.
Food safety is a major concern when it comes to your senior’s nutrition, as the immune system of older adults is not able to handle foodborne illness as well as younger adults, making them more susceptible to foodborne illnesses such as salmonella, E. coli, and other common food infections. For an elderly adult, a food-related illness can be life threatening, so ensuring that food is prepared in a way that meets food safety guidelines is essential. The National Institute on Aging and the FDA has prepared a video on how to keep food safe, and avoid getting sick from your food.
Last month, Coca-Cola began an advertising campaign for new versions of Sprite and Fanta that boasts the tagline “Free of Logos, Equally Rich” — a nod to the fact that they will no longer contain warning labels because the company replaced half the sugar with artificial sweetener.
5. Kabakov E, Norymberg C, Osher E, Koffler M, Tordjman K, Greenman Y, Stern N: Prevalence of hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus: impact of the tightening definition of high blood pressure and association with confounding risk factors. J Cardiometab Syndr 2006; 1: 95– 101 [PubMed]
“Of the ranked diets, both DASH and the Mediterranean diet can help people with both diabetes prevention and management,” Campbell says. They work because they encourage a variety of foods and make people aware of the carbs they consume, she adds. Both diets are mentioned in the latest nutrition guidelines ​from the American Diabetes Association.
The study included 6636 individuals (3750 women) aged 55 years and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed multistate life tables by using prevalence, incidence rate and hazard ratios (HR) for three transitions (free-of-CVD-to-CVD, free-of-CVD-to-death and CVD-to-death), stratifying by the categories of body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders.
First, these surgeries reduce the amount of food stored in the stomach and the amount of calories your body can take in. This can help your body restore energy balance. Second, these surgeries change the levels of certain hormones and the way the brain responds to these hormones to control hunger urges. After surgery, some people are less interested in eating or they prefer to eat healthier foods. In some cases, genetic differences may affect how much weight loss patients experience after bariatric  surgery.
The first goal of dieting is to stop further weight gain. The next goal is to establish realistic weight-loss goals. While the ideal weight corresponds to a BMI of 20-25, this is difficult to achieve for many people. Thus, success is higher when a goal is set to lose 10%-15% of baseline weight as opposed to 20%-30% or greater. It is also important to remember that any weight reduction in an obese person would result in health benefits.
“For the baby boomers, nothing will magically happen to change that,” Hamburg said. “Societal change will take time. It’s a matter of education and realizing the danger of going into retirement age with a less healthy life and more chronic disease. For the time being, the boomers are aging into obesity-related illnesses, which will translate into a cost crisis for health care and Medicare.”
Fructose is mainly metabolized in the liver, the target organ of the metabolic alterations caused by the consumption of this sugar. In this study, rats receiving fructose-containing beverages presented a pathology similar to metabolic syndrome, which in the short term causes lipid accumulation (hypertriglyceridemia) and fatty liver, and eventually leads to hypertension, resistance to insulin, diabetes and obesity.
One of the most important things you can do to reduce your stroke risk is to keep your blood pressure under control. Losing weight may help you lower your blood pressure. It may also improve your cholesterol and blood sugar, which may then lower your risk for stroke.
^ Jump up to: a b c Longo, Dan L.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wadden, Thomas A. (19 January 2017). “Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Management of Obesity”. New England Journal of Medicine. 376 (3): 254–66. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1514009. PMID 28099824.
We know perfectly well who within our society has developed an extraordinary facility for nudging the masses to eat certain foods, and for making those foods widely available in cheap and convenient forms. The Pollanites have led us to conflate the industrial processing of food with the adding of fat and sugar in order to hook customers, even while pushing many faux-healthy foods of their own. But why couldn’t Big Food’s processing and marketing genius be put to use on genuinely healthier foods, like grilled fish? Putting aside the standard objection that the industry has no interest in doing so—we’ll see later that in fact the industry has plenty of motivation for taking on this challenge—wouldn’t that present a more plausible answer to America’s junk-food problem than ordering up 50,000 new farmers’ markets featuring locally grown organic squash blossoms?
When used as substitutes for regular meals, meal substitutes are a convenient way to reduce calories as part of a low-calorie diet plan. typical meal substitute available in powder and liquid form is Slim-Fast. Ensure is another meal substitute available in both liquid and bars. Meal substitutes should provide protein and be low in fat and calories. The label should include the amount of calories per serving and the percentages of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. The total number of calories per serving is predetermined so it is easier to keep track of the daily consumption of calories. As with all dramatic changes in your diet, you should consult your health-care provider to make sure that these changes will not have negative consequences.
Several tools have been developed to aid physicians in remembering the multiple etiologies of unintentional weight loss. These include the mnemonic Meals on Wheels (medication effects; emotional problems, especially depression; anorexia nervosa; alcoholism; late-life paranoia; swallowing disorders; oral factors, such as poorly fitting dentures and caries; no money; wandering and other dementia-related behaviors; hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and hypoadrenalism; enteric problems; eating problems, such as inability to feed oneself; low-salt and low-cholesterol diet; stones; social problems, such as isolation and inability to obtain preferred foods).20 Another tool is the 9 D’s of weight loss in the elderly (dementia, dentition, depression, diarrhea, disease [acute and chronic], drugs, dysfunction [functional disability], dysgeusia, dysphagia).21
Ovarian cancer: Higher BMI is associated with a slight increase in the risk of ovarian cancer, particularly in women who have never used menopausal hormone therapy (24). For example, a 5-unit increase in BMI is associated with a 10% increase in risk among women who have never used menopausal hormone therapy (24).
Orlistat (Xenical 120 mg by prescription or Alli 60 mg available over the counter) is a medication approved by the FDA in 1999. Your doctor may prescribe it if you weigh more than 30% over your healthy body weight or have a BMI greater than 30. Over one year, people who followed a weight-loss diet and took orlistat lost an average of 13.4 pounds, almost 8 pounds more than people who used diet alone to lose weight. It works by reducing the absorption of fat from the intestine. Diarrhea and incontinence of stool may be side effects of this medicine.
Nevertheless, the follow-up study of weight and breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative (36) found that for women who were already overweight or obese at baseline, weight change (either gain or loss) was not associated with breast cancer risk during follow-up. However, for women who were of normal weight at baseline, gaining more than 5% of body weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk.
Metabolic syndrome – The National Cholesterol Education Program has identified metabolic syndrome as a complex risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome consists of six major components: abdominal obesity, elevated blood cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance with or without glucose intolerance, elevation of certain blood components that indicate inflammation, and elevation of certain clotting factors in the blood. In the US, approximately one-third of overweight or obese persons exhibit metabolic syndrome.
Osteoarthritis is a common joint condition that most often affects the knee, hip, and lower back joints. Carrying extra pounds places extra pressure on these joints and wear away the cartilage (tissue that cushions the joints) that normally protects them.
For most people who are overweight or obese, the safest and most effective way to lose weight is to eat less and exercise more. If you eat less and exercise more, you will lose weight. It is as simple as that. Any weight-loss program, including medical and surgical approaches, will also include decreasing caloric intake and exercise. There are no magic pills. Diets that sound too good to be true are just that.
Jump up ^ Weng HH, Bastian LA, Taylor DH, Moser BK, Ostbye T (2004). “Number of children associated with obesity in middle-aged women and men: results from the health and retirement study”. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) (Comparative Study). 13 (1): 85–91. doi:10.1089/154099904322836492. PMID 15006281.

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In fact, McDonald’s has quietly been making healthy changes for years, shrinking portion sizes, reducing some fats, trimming average salt content by more than 10 percent in the past couple of years alone, and adding fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and oatmeal to its menu. In May, the chain dropped its Angus third-pounders and announced a new line of quarter-pound burgers, to be served on buns containing whole grains. Outside the core fast-food customer base, Americans are becoming more health-conscious. Public backlash against fast food could lead to regulatory efforts, and in any case, the fast-food industry has every incentive to maintain broad appeal. “We think a lot about how we can bring nutritionally balanced meals that include enough protein, along with the tastes and satisfaction that have an appetite-tiding effect,” said Barbara Booth, the company’s director of sensory science.

The National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health, recommends four types of exercises that older Americans should include in their workout: endurance activities, such as walking, biking, or swimming; strength training, such as light weightlifting, to reduce age-related muscle loss; stretching, to maintain flexibility; and balance exercises, to reduce the likelihood of falls.

Eating too much or eating too little during your pregnancy can change your baby’s DNA and can affect how your child stores and uses fat later in life. Also, studies have shown that obese fathers have DNA changes in their sperm that can be passed on to their children.

A food stall in Santiago. Officials have been particularly alarmed by Chile’s childhood obesity rates, with over half of 6-year-old children overweight or obese. Credit Victor Ruiz Caballero for The New York Times

Obesity-related illnesses now cost $147 billion each year, according to research from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, medical costs associated with obesity increased from 6.5 percent of all medical spending in 1998 to about 9 percent in 2006.

Well-publicized concerns over childhood obesity have led to a gradual leveling out of those numbers across the country; boomers are now the most likely group to be obese in California. They are approaching their senior years with large numbers already dealing with disability and chronic poor health related to excess weight. They face potentially shortened life spans – and an overburdened health care system faces additional spikes in cost.

The first sculptural representations of the human body 20,000–35,000 years ago depict obese females. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent “fatness” in the people of the time.[15] Corpulence is, however, absent in both Greek and Roman art, probably in keeping with their ideals regarding moderation. This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese.[15]

The impact of obesity on the chances of our living long, productive, and enjoyable lives has been so well documented at this point that I hate to drag anyone through the grim statistics again. But let me just toss out one recent dispatch from the world of obesity-havoc science: a study published in February in the journal Obesity found that obese young adults and middle-agers in the U.S. are likely to lose almost a decade of life on average, as compared with their non-obese counterparts. Given our obesity rates, that means Americans who are alive today can collectively expect to sacrifice 1 billion years to obesity. The study adds to a river of evidence suggesting that for the first time in modern history—and in spite of many health-related improvements in our environment, our health care, and our nondietary habits—our health prospects are worsening, mostly because of excess weight.

Pregnancy. During pregnancy, a woman’s weight necessarily increases. Some women find this weight difficult to lose after the baby is born. This weight gain may contribute to the development of obesity in women.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Woodhouse R (2008). “Obesity in art: A brief overview”. Front Horm Res. Frontiers of Hormone Research. 36: 271–86. doi:10.1159/000115370. ISBN 978-3-8055-8429-6. PMID 18230908.

Dr. Jaime Burrows Oyarzún, the vice minister of public health, is confident the government will prevail in court. As chief arbiter of the new regulations, he often bears the brunt of industry ire. After the banning of Kinder Surprise, a company executive from Italy and the Italian ambassador to Chile accused him of waging “food terrorism” during a visit to his office, he recalled in an interview.

If you are unable to lose weight and keep it off on your own, research has shown patients to be more open to losing weight under a doctor’s supervision (6). Consider working with your primary care physician and asking for referrals to a dietitian, psychologist and even a personal trainer to assist in your efforts.

Feed more protein and fewer carbohydrates. Your dog needs very little carbohydrates in general, and most of those should be high fiber. The best diet for any dog, but especially senior dogs, is one high in protein, low in carbs and moderate in fat. The protein and fats will also make your dog feel more satiated and energetic.

19. Harris TB, Ballard-Barbasch R, Madans J, Makuc DM, Feldman JJ: Overweight, weight loss, and risk of coronary heart disease in older women: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 137: 1318– 1327 [PubMed]

More recently, investigators conducted a systematic review of 89 studies on weight-related diseases and then did a statistical summary, or meta-analysis, of the data. Of the 18 weight-related diseases they studied, diabetes was at the top of the risk list: Compared with men and women in the normal weight range (BMI lower than 25), men with BMIs of 30 or higher had a sevenfold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and women with BMIs of 30 or higher had a 12-fold higher risk. (4)

This article has presented formal programs nurses can use to help patients manage their weight along with general considerations to facilitate weight loss safely in older adults who are obese. As trusted and respected healthcare professionals, it is time for nurses to take the lead in combating the obesity epidemic.

“Baby boomers who are not obese and younger generations are going to have to foot the trillions of dollars in health care costs for the millions of unhealthy boomers,” Slome explains.  “Healthy boomers approaching retirement have very little time left to develop a plan so they are not left depending on already strapped government programs or forced to deplete whatever retirement savings they managed to squirrel away.”

As discussed above, behavior plays a large role in obesity. Modifying those behaviors that may have contributed to developing obesity is one way to treat the disease. A few suggested behavior modifiers include:

Fat cells, especially those stored around the waist,secrete hormones and other substances that fire inflammation. Although inflammation is an essential component of the immune system and part of the healing process, inappropriate inflammation causes a variety of health problems. Inflammation can the body less responsive to insulin and change the way the body metabolizes fats and carbohydrates, leading to higher blood sugar levels and, eventually, to diabetes and its many complications. (5) Several large trials have shown that moderate weight loss can prevent or delay the start of diabetes in people who are at high risk. (6-8)

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Even if you have a genetic predisposition towards obesity, it doesn’t mean you’re destined to become obese. Your lifestyle choices can have a profound effect on your weight and health. Follow these tips to give yourself the best chance of good health.

Hormonal changes, a high-calorie diet and decreased activity causes weight gain in senior women. Weight gain also seems to shift, away from other problem areas, like the hips and legs, and to the midsection. Fortunately, a few lifestyle changes can promote weight loss and help you maintain a healthy weight.

Villareal DT, Chode S, Parimi N, Sinacore DR, Hilton T, Armamento-Villareal R, Napoli N, Qualls C, Shah K. Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults. N Engl J Med. 2011a;364:1218–1229. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Having a garden is a relaxing and fun hobby that provides low impact exercise, and also promotes savings on fresh flowers and produce. If you include herbs and vegetables you’ll be able to enjoy the fruits of your own labor, which will become a healthy part of your routine.

Setting realistic goals. When you have to lose a significant amount of weight, you may set goals that are unrealistic, such as trying to lose too much too fast. Don’t set yourself up for failure. Set daily or weekly goals for exercise and weight loss. Make small changes in your diet instead of attempting drastic changes that you’re not likely to stick with for the long haul.

Oct. 31, 2013 — As growing numbers of America’s baby boomers reach retirement, neuroscientists are expanding their efforts to understand and treat one of the leading health issues affecting this population: … read more

In 2005, James Fallon’s life started to resemble the plot of a well-honed joke or big-screen thriller: A neuroscientist is working in his laboratory one day when he thinks he has stumbled upon a big mistake. He is researching Alzheimer’s and using his healthy family members’ brain scans as a control, while simultaneously reviewing the fMRIs of murderous psychopaths for a side project. It appears, though, that one of the killers’ scans has been shuffled into the wrong batch.

If you are at risk for type 2 diabetes, losing weight may help prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. If you have type 2 diabetes, losing weight and becoming more physically active can help you control your blood sugar levels and prevent or delay health problems. Losing weight and exercising more may also allow you to reduce the amount of diabetes medicine you take.

Roughly 35% of Americans age 65 years old and older were obese at the end of 2010, representing more than 13 million people (4), according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The total population of seniors is expected to swell in the coming years to 88.5 million people by 2050 from 40.2 million in 2010, according to CDC data.

Other non-prescription diet pills. Over-the-counter diet pills often contain ingredients that can increase heart rate and blood pressure. It is not clear how effective they are in producing weight loss that can be maintained over time. Common side effects include feeling jittery and nervous and having heart palpitations. Some experts believe they may be associated with an increased risk of stroke.

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Over two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese, and one in three Americans is obese. The prevalence of obesity in children has increased markedly. Obesity has also been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and the incidence of obesity nearly doubled from 1991 to 1998.

Even if you have one or more of these risk factors, it doesn’t mean that you’re destined to become obese. You can counteract most risk factors through diet, physical activity and exercise, and behavior changes.

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Beyond that it’s a good idea to pick a multivitamin for your specific age group. Multivitamins that are marketed to seniors or adults over 50 years old usually contain more calcium and vitamins D and B12 with less iron. Ask your doctor if you need to supplement specific vitamins or minerals in addition to what’s in your multivitamin. Seniors are commonly deficient in vitamin D, for example. And of course, try to get most of your nutrients from healthy foods, such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds and lean meat, poultry and fish.
People who are overweight or obese often have health problems that may increase the risk for heart disease. These health problems include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and high blood sugar. In addition, excess weight may cause changes to your heart that make it work harder to send blood to all the cells in your body.
Rucker, who is obese herself, says she doesn’t expect her older patients to lose a lot of weight. “I think you’ll see weight loss of 10 to 20 pounds, but whether you’re going to see people lose 50 to 100 pounds as they’re older, I doubt it,” says Rucker.
Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine–topiramate, and naltrexone–bupropion.[173] They result in weight loss after one year ranged from 3.0 to 6.7 kg over placebo.[173] Orlistat, liraglutide, and naltrexone–bupropion are available in both the United States and Europe, whereas lorcaserin and phentermine–topiramate are available only in the United States.[174] European regulatory authorities rejected the latter two drugs in part because of associations of heart valve problems with lorcaserin and more general heart and blood vessel problems with phentermine–topiramate.[174] Orlistat use is associated with high rates of gastrointestinal side effects[175] and concerns have been raised about negative effects on the kidneys.[176] There is no information on how these drugs affect longer-term complications of obesity such as cardiovascular disease or death.[5]
Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can have a negative effect on many systems in your body. People who are overweight or obese have a much greater risk of developing serious conditions, including:
Along these lines, Gallup survey data also suggest a direct relationship between reported personal health status and reported personal weight situations among adults. Forty-two percent of those who say that their weight is “about right” also define their physical health as “excellent,” compared with just 13% of people who say that they are “very overweight.” People saying they are “very overweight” are more likely to describe their health as “fair” or “poor” (44%) than those who are “somewhat overweight” (24%), “about right” (15%), or “underweight” (27%).
A major concern with weight loss for seniors is the accompanying loss of lean tissue, which can accelerate existing sarcopenia (age-related loss of muscle and strength). The result could also include reduction of bone mineral density that could worsen frailty and lead to greater risk of bone fractures and broken hips. Studies have yet to provide sufficient evidence, one way or another, as to whether or not weight loss provides a true enhancement to quality of life.
Liver cancer: People who are overweight or obese are up to twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop liver cancer. The association between overweight/obesity and liver cancer is stronger in men than women (11, 12).
Social and economic issues. Research has linked social and economic factors to obesity. Avoiding obesity is difficult if you don’t have safe areas to exercise. Similarly, you may not have been taught healthy ways of cooking, or you may not have money to buy healthier foods. In addition, the people you spend time with may influence your weight — you’re more likely to become obese if you have obese friends or relatives.
In many instances, determining waist circumference seems to be a valuable measurement that may give physicians guidance in weight matters for their patients. It is, and should be, used as an additional tool although this is not always standard of care at this time.
Compete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, serum glucose level, thyroid-stimulating hormone level, urinalysis, age-appropriate cancer screening, chest radiography, abdominal ultrasonography
The healthcare costs of American adults with obesity amount to approximately $190 billion per year. Discrimination and mistreatment of person with obesity is widespread and, sadly, often considered socially acceptable.
Avoid deep-fried foods, which have high fat content, and items such as ice cream and cheese that are made from dairy fat. Fast food is packed with salt and fats, so always favor homemade meals. Remember, drinks like soda are a huge source of calories in your diet. If you’re fighting obesity or any of its associated diseases such as diabetes, you may also want to avoid inflammatory foods such as those containing gluten or dairy.

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A condition in women characterized by irregular or no menstrual periods, acne, obesity, and excess hair growth. PCOS is a disorder of chronically abnormal ovarian function and hyperandrogenism (abnormally elevated androgen levels).
23. Yeh S, Wu SY, Levine DM, et al. Quality of life and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate: correlation between cytokine levels and nutritional status, appetite in geriatric patients with wasting syndrome. J Nutr Health Aging 2000; 4:246–51 [PubMed]
Today about 1 in 3 kids is overweight or obese. And studies show that overweight kids are likely to become overweight and obese adults. Scroll down to learn more about childhood obesity and its causes.
Let’s go shopping. We can start at Whole Foods Market, a critical link in the wholesome-eating food chain. There are three Whole Foods stores within 15 minutes of my house—we’re big on real food in the suburbs west of Boston. Here at the largest of the three, I can choose from more than 21 types of tofu, 62 bins of organic grains and legumes, and 42 different salad greens.
Orlistat (Xenical 120 mg by prescription or Alli 60 mg available over the counter) is a medication approved the FDA in 1999. Your doctor may prescribe it if you weigh more than 30% over your healthy body weight or have a BMI greater than 30. Over one year, people who followed a weight-loss diet and took orlistat lost an average of 13.4 pounds, almost 8 pounds more than people who used diet alone to lose weight. It works by reducing the absorption of fat from the intestine. Diarrhea and incontinence of stool may be side effects of this medicine.
Deciding what to do about your obesity in terms of treatment varies from person to person. If you or someone you know has obesity, addressing this issue early is an essential part of success. It is important to talk to your physician about your weight and work with him/her when deciding which treatment is right for you. There are several methods available to address your obesity.
Eating more calories than you use. The amount of calories you need will vary based on your sex, age, and physical activity level. Find out your daily calorie needs or goals with the Body Weight Planner.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma: People who are overweight or obese are about twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop a type of esophageal cancer called esophageal adenocarcinoma, and people who are extremely obese are more than four times as likely (9).
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Dibaise JK, Foxx-Orenstein AE (July 2013). “Role of the gastroenterologist in managing obesity”. Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (Review). 7 (5): 439–51. doi:10.1586/17474124.2013.811061. PMID 23899283.
Keep in mind that a good appetite does not rule out disease, because cats with certain conditions (e.g. hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition from malabsorption or maldigestion, internal parasites, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, nonsuppurative cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis complex) may have a normal or increased appetite. And if an owner reports that the cat is interested in food but is unable or reluctant to eat, consider dental disease, oral or pharyngeal masses or foreign bodies, chronic gingivitis-stomatitis,1 or retrobulbar masses or abscesses.
The baby-boomer weight crisis is rapidly moving past their burden of buying plus-size clothing. Modern medicine will keep them alive longer than previous generations even with their increased need for care due to their weight gain. Their increased health care cost will push America into a debt crisis. One driver will be paying for extended medical care to medicate the life choices made by the boomer generation. The second driver will be the increased gross amounts the boomer generation will be paid from Social Security by living longer.
Keep moving. Even though regular aerobic exercise is the most efficient way to burn calories and shed excess weight, any extra movement helps burn calories. Making simple changes throughout your day can add up to big benefits. Park farther from store entrances, rev up your household chores, garden, get up and move around periodically, and wear a pedometer to track how many steps you actually take over the course of a day.
You lose muscle mass as you age. Offset that by doing strength training. You can use weight machines at a gym, lighter weights you hold in your hands, or your own body weight for resistance like in yoga or Pilates. Keeping your muscle mass is key to burning more calories, says Joanna Li, RD, a nutritionist at Foodtrainers in New York.
A disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency. Dyslipidemias may be manifested by elevation of the total cholesterol, the “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the triglyceride concentrations, and a decrease in the “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration in the blood. Dyslipidemia comes under consideration in many situations including diabetes, a common cause of lipidemia. For adults with diabetes, it has been recommended that the levels of LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol, and triglyceride be measured every year. Optimal LDL cholesterol levels for adults with diabetes are less than 100 mg/dL (2.60 mmol/L), optimal HDL cholesterol levels are e4qual to or greater than 40 mg/dL (1.02 mmol/L), and desirable triglyceride levels are less than 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L).
Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, Geographical Information Systems, University of Adelaide, Level 4, 230 North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. Electronic address:jennifer.buckley@adelaide.edu.au.
The World Health Organization estimates that having too high a BMI is responsible for 21 percent of the cases of ischemic heart disease, 23 percent of ischemic stroke, 58 percent of type 2 diabetes, and 39 percent of hypertension. Obesity also increases the risk of some cancers, as well as the risk of nonfatal diseases, such as joint problems and infertility. (7)
350 pounds is the maximum weight a standard hospital bed can handle, and there is no national census to increase the weight or offer additional beds for heavier patients. Because of the expensive costs of the equipment, staffing issues and increased health problems, assisted living communities and nursing homes rarely accept more than a few markedly obese patients.
Carbohydrates from food are broken down into the sugar glucose, which is used as a source of energy. Once the energy needs are fulfilled, glucose molecules are stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a special energy starch. When glycogen stores become full, extra glucose is converted into fat and cholesterol.
Low levels of spontaneous physical activity is a major predictor of adipose tissue accumulation in humans, and total body movement, most of which is related to ambulation, is negatively correlated with fat mass (32).
This report issues a call for urgent action to combat the growing epidemic of obesity, which now affects developing and industrialized countries alike. Adopting a public health approach, the report responds to both the enormity of health problems associated with

“rapid weight loss senior |infant obesity calculator”

Martin’s team did find an encouraging trend: Disabilities related to hearing loss declined among people who are middle-aged. While the rock-and-roll music that baby boomers enjoyed might have taken a toll on hearing, improvements in industrial work settings, particularly noise abatement, likely offset it.

For women, a waist circumference over 35 inches (88 cm) along with a body mass index of 25 or more (“overweight” classification) places you at a high risk for obesity health problems.  If your waist is over 35 inches, the higher your BMI, the higher your risks.

There are many options for weight loss and as you’ll discover, not every option is appropriate for every patient. The journey to weight loss is different for everyone on your individual lifestyle and goals.

Boomers have a lot to gain by losing a little. Many already have obesity-related health conditions, such as diabetes or high blood pressure. Recent research indicates that an average reduction of 3.74 pounds (1.7 kilograms) per person would result in 178,000 fewer cases of coronary heart disease and 890,000 fewer diabetics [source: Goodwin].

Taking your health history. Your doctor may review your weight history, weight-loss efforts, exercise habits, eating patterns, what other conditions you’ve had, medications, stress levels and other issues about your health. Your doctor may also review your family’s health history to see if you may be predisposed to certain conditions.

Jump up ^ Carmienke, S; Freitag, M H; Pischon, T; Schlattmann, P; Fankhaenel, T; Goebel, H; Gensichen, J (20 March 2013). “General and abdominal obesity parameters and their combination in relation to mortality: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 67 (6): 573–85. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.61.

Any good diet plan will include exercise. It helps to increase metabolism and is one less opportunity to eat during the day. You should exercise for at least 30 minutes, five times a week. Regular exercise also helps your heart and lungs and lowers triglyceride levels that can cause heart disease. It also increases the HDL (“good cholesterol”) levels. Even simple measures such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator and short walks eventually add up to a lot of calories burned. Commercial fitness programs such as Boot Camp can help you start or improve upon a fitness program.

^ Jump up to: a b c Arendas K, Qiu Q, Gruslin A (2008). “Obesity in pregnancy: pre-conceptional to postpartum consequences”. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 30 (6): 477–88. doi:10.1016/s1701-2163(16)32863-8. PMID 18611299.

Jump up ^ Moyer VA (4 September 2012). “Screening for and management of obesity in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine (Practice Guideline). 157 (5): 373–78. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00475. PMID 22733087.

Erica Sanderson is a former content producer and editor for HealthCentral. Living with a chronic disorder that affects the lungs and instestine, Erica focused on covering digestive health and respiratory health. Topics included COPD, asthma, acid reflux, managing symptoms and medication.

*Results based on an aggregate of telephone interviews with 2,006 American adults, aged 18 and older, conducted from 2000 through 2002. For results based on the total sample, one can say with 95% confidence that the maximum margin of sampling error is ±2.4%.

Quitting smoking. Quitting smoking is often associated with weight gain. And for some, it can lead to enough weight gain that the person becomes obese. In the long run, however, quitting smoking is still a greater benefit to your health than continuing to smoke.

The goal of managing arthritis is to maintain the maximum use and function of the joint and the surrounding muscles, tendons, and ligaments (Lorig et al., 2006). Exercise is the key to meeting this goal. However, many people with OA and other joint diseases believe that exercise will cause their arthritis to flare up and increase the pain. This is a misperception that nurses can work to dispel. Stretching exercises of all muscle groups should be done ten minutes a day as well as daily active range of motion for all joints. Isotonic exercises, which move the joint in an arc, are also helpful. Aquatic exercise and walking are usually well tolerated by older adults with mild to moderate lower extremity OA (Resnick, 2001). Heat is also helpful in managing arthritis because it reduces stiffness and makes exercise easier. Rest periods between activities help to control the fatigue of arthritis, which is compounded by obesity.

I’m not picking out rare, less healthy examples from these establishments. Check out their menus online: fat, sugar, and other refined carbs abound. (Café Gratitude says it uses only “healthy” fats and natural sweeteners; Akasha says its focus is not on “health food” but on “farm to fork” fare.) In fact, because the products and dishes offered by these types of establishments tend to emphasize the healthy-sounding foods they contain, I find it much harder to navigate through them to foods that go easy on the oil, butter, refined grains, rice, potatoes, and sugar than I do at far less wholesome restaurants. (These dishes also tend to contain plenty of sea salt, which Pollanites hold up as the wholesome alternative to the addictive salt engineered by the food industry, though your body can’t tell the difference.)

Both the characteristics of obesity and the way it affects seniors can be different when compared to how obesity impacts younger adults. This is very important to know, as it may determine if and how obesity should be analyzed and treated in seniors.