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A prospective trial in four long-term care facilities examined the role of megestrol acetate and optimal feeding assistance.21 For 63 days, megestrol (400 mg/d) was given to 17 residents who were eating less than 75% of most meals. They received either usual care or optimal feeding assistance. Results suggest that megestrol in combination with optimal mealtime feeding assistance significantly increased oral intake in frail long-term care residents but was not effective under usual care conditions.
Genetic studies have found that overweight and obesity can run in families, so it is possible that our genes or DNA can cause these conditions. Research studies have found that certain DNA elements are associated with obesity.
Obese people often have chronic low-level inflammation, which can, over time, cause DNA damage that leads to cancer. Overweight and obese individuals are more likely than normal-weight individuals to have conditions or disorders that are linked to or that cause chronic local inflammation and that are risk factors for certain cancers (26). For example, chronic local inflammation induced by gastroesophageal reflux disease or Barrett esophagus is a likely cause of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Obesity is a risk factor for gallstones, a condition characterized by chronic gallbladder inflammation, and a history of gallstones is a strong risk factor for gallbladder cancer (27). Chronic ulcerative colitis (a chronic inflammatory condition) and hepatitis (a disease of the liver causing inflammation) are risk factors for different types of liver cancer (28).
Jump up ^ Brownson RC, Boehmer TK, Luke DA (2005). “Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors?”. Annu Rev Public Health (Review). 26: 421–43. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144437. PMID 15760296.
The results of all the scrutiny of processed food are hardly scary, although some groups and writers try to make them appear that way. The Pew Charitable Trusts’ Food Additives Project, for example, has bemoaned the fact that the FDA directly reviews only about 70 percent of the ingredients found in food, permitting the rest to pass as “generally recognized as safe” by panels of experts convened by manufacturers. But the only actual risk the project calls out on its Web site or in its publications is a quote from a Times article noting that bromine, which has been in U.S. foods for eight decades, is regarded as suspicious by many because flame retardants containing bromine have been linked to health risks. There is no conclusive evidence that bromine itself is a threat.
In general, women collect fat in their hips and buttocks, giving their figures a “pear” shape. Men, on the other hand, usually collect fat around the belly, giving them more of an “apple” shape. (This is not a hard and fast rule; some men are pear-shaped and some women become apple-shaped, particularly after menopause.)
The body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to determine whether someone is affected by excess weight or obesity. This is a measurement that is calculated using a person’s weight and height. As the BMI increases, the likelihood of being affected by obesity increases as well. Physicians are required to calculate and record this number in their patient’s chart. As a screening tool, it helps them identify weight issues that need to be addressed. Nevertheless, there are instances where this marker is not completely accurate. This can happen in the young and old alike but for different reasons. As it doesn’t differentiate between the type of excess body weight, it cannot determine if the excess weight consists of muscle or fat.
Some people have tried combining more than one weight-loss drug or combining a weight-loss drug with other drugs for the purposes of losing weight. The safety and effectiveness of such drug “cocktails” is not known.
According to a study published by the National Institute of Health (NIH) options for oral nutrition support should be considered for any patient taking inadequate food and fluid to meet their requirements. The study lists options, as nutritionally complete pre-packaged drinks. The Ensure drink is one example.
This report issues a call for urgent action to combat the growing epidemic of obesity, which now affects developing and industrialized countries alike. Adopting a public health approach, the report responds to both the enormity of health problems associated with
Lipoplasty is a surgical procedure in which high-frequency sound waves are used to liquefy fat before it is removed with gentle suction. Lipoplasty does not prevent weight regain. Lipoplasty has a good safety record; risks of the procedure include infection, skin discoloration, and blood clots.

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Appropriate nutritional counseling through referral to a registered dietitian is recommended to ensure that the older adult’s daily nutritional requirements are met during weight-loss programs. The benefits and risks of weight reduction in older adults should be carefully considered. Loss of lean body mass, which is already diminished in older adults, may not be appropriate in persons over 65 years of age because the loss of fat-free mass in older adults is associated with significant morbidity and mortality (Flood & Newman, 2007). A weight loss program that minimizes muscle and bone loss is recommended for the older adult who is obese and who has functional impairments or metabolic complications that might be improved by weight loss (Villareal et al., 2005). This is best achieved through a moderate reduction in daily calorie intake (500-750 kcal/d). Appropriate nutritional counseling through referral to a registered dietitian is recommended to ensure that the older adult’s daily nutritional requirements are met during weight-loss programs. It is important that the diet continue to contain 1.0g/kg of protein and include 1500mg Ca/d, as well as 1000 IU vitamin D/d (Villareal et al.).
Jump up ^ Wilks, Desiree C.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Ekelund, Ulf; Thompson, Simon G.; Mander, Adrian P.; Turner, Rebecca M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Lindroos, Anna Karin (23 February 2011). “Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Fat Mass in Children: A Bias-Adjusted Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies”. PLoS ONE. 6 (2): e17205. Bibcode:2011PLoSO…617205W. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017205. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3044163 . PMID 21383837.
Skinny Guys: Start HereFat Guys: Start HereClick Here to put on lots of extra muscle mass on your skinny frame while gaining very little or no fat at all. Click Here to lose (burn fat) and build muscle at the same time but… Start here If you’re extremely overweight.
Some patients with obesity do not respond to healthy lifestyle changes and medicines. When these patients develop certain obesity-related complications, they may be eligible for the following surgeries.
Every adult should have his or her BMI calculated at least once a year. The American Heart Association offers an online BMI calculator for adults. Patients with a BMI of 30 or higher are considered obese and need treatment.
For example, some commercial diet plans require that you subscribe to diet food subscriptions. Sometimes, these foods are heavily processed and may provide more sodium than you need if you are trying to manage hypertension. Your doctor will be able to sort through your specific health history and recommend an eating plan that is both safe and effective for improved health.
Editor’s Note: The information in this article is intended for your educational use only; does not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Chopra Center’s Mind-Body Medical Group; and is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition and before undertaking any diet, supplement, fitness, or other health program.
But everything wasn’t fine. At the rehearsal dinner, while family and friends celebrated, Wilhelm’s father hardly touched his food. And by the day of the wedding, he was so weak that she says it was heartbreaking to look at him. “At the reception when my father and I danced together, I had my husband cut in, and my bridesmaid take my father back to his seat. I would have been devastated if he were to have fallen while we were dancing together.”
Even though medications and diets can help, the treatment of obesity cannot be a short-term “fix” but has to be a lifelong commitment to proper diet habits, increased physical activity, and regular exercise.
Top Dog Tips is here to provide dog owners with the most accurate and in-depth tips and advice on dog care, health, nutrition and training from the industry experts – veterinarians, dog trainers, groomers and animal scientists. We help dog owners effortlessly choose the best dog supplies on the market. We buy, test, review and rank pet products to help you avoid the bad stuff and purchase only what’s best for you and your dog.
Other reasons for not being active include relying on cars instead of walking, fewer physical demands at work or at home because of modern technology and conveniences, and lack of physical education in schools for children.
You may want to write down the amount of physical activity you’ve had each day and compare the calories you burned to those you took in. Use the Interactive Tool: How Many Calories Did You Burn? to see how many calories you burn through daily activities.
Various efforts have been made to redesign bodegas to emphasize healthier choices. I learned that one retooled bodega was nearby, and dropped in. It was cleaner and brighter than the others I’d seen, and a large produce case was near the entrance, brimming with an impressive selection of fresh-looking produce. The candy and other junky snack foods were relegated to a small set of shelves closer to the more dimly lit rear of the store. But I couldn’t help noticing that unlike most of the other bodegas I’d been to, this one was empty, except for me and a lone employee. I hung around, eventually buying a few items to assuage the employee’s growing suspicion. Finally, a young woman came in, made a beeline for the junk-food shelves, grabbed a pack of cupcakes, paid, and left.
10. Smith K, Greenwood C, Payette H, Alibhai S. An approach to the diagnosis of unintentional weight loss in older adults, part one: prevalence rates and screening. Geriatrics & Aging. 2006;9(10):679-685.
White fat tissue can be found around the kidneys and under the skin in the buttocks, thighs, and abdomen. This fat type stores energy, makes hormone  that control the way the body regulates urges to eat or stop eating, and makes inflammatory  substances that can lead to complications.
Another aim of this review was to report on weight maintenance and long-term health outcomes to determine if weight loss can be maintained beyond one year. It was unexpected that only one small follow-up pilot study fit our inclusion criteria (Waters et al. 2013).
Brown fat tissue is located in the upper back area of human infants. This fat type releases stored energy as heat energy when a baby is cold. It also can make inflammatory substances. Brown fat can be seen in children and adults.
This first step is an obvious one that you’ve probably heard or tried more times than you’d like to remember.  But it’s a necessary first step that, if achieved, will be the most rewarding and healthy weight loss option.
Despite these seemingly high percentages, it appears that many Americans underestimate their weight problems. According to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 64% of U.S. adults are overweight or obese.
The first step to reaching your ideal weight is knowing what that weight is. You may feel too heavy or to thin but actually be at a healthy weight. One way to compare your weight to your height is through the body mass index, or BMI. BMI may be used to screen for health problems, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), but it is not a health diagnostic.
Unintentional weight loss of more than 4% in a year appears to be an independent predictor of increased mortality (relative risk [RR] 2.43, 95% CI 1.34–4.41).4 In a prospective study of 41 836 women, conducted in the United States as part of the Iowa Women’s Health Study, one or more episodes of unintentional weight loss of more than 20 pounds during adulthood was associated with a 46%–57% higher rate of death.29 A prospective study of 4869 male patients older than 65 years from general practices in 24 towns across the United Kingdom found that unintentional weight loss was associated with higher mortality risk only among those with cancer (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.33–2.19) after adjustment for lifestyle characteristics and pre-existing disease.30 A retrospective chart review of 148 long-term care residents residing in the southeastern United States found that those who lost 5% or more of their body weight within one month were 4.6 times more likely to die within one year.31
A 5-10% weight reduction every six months is more achievable, sustainable and sufficient enough to reduce the risk of associated diseases. Gradual and steady weight loss will lead to better blood sugar control, lower blood pressure, decreased cholesterol and less stress on weight-bearing joints.
Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine–topiramate, and naltrexone–bupropion.[173] They result in weight loss after one year ranged from 3.0 to 6.7 kg over placebo.[173] Orlistat, liraglutide, and naltrexone–bupropion are available in both the United States and Europe, whereas lorcaserin and phentermine–topiramate are available only in the United States.[174] European regulatory authorities rejected the latter two drugs in part because of associations of heart valve problems with lorcaserin and more general heart and blood vessel problems with phentermine–topiramate.[174] Orlistat use is associated with high rates of gastrointestinal side effects[175] and concerns have been raised about negative effects on the kidneys.[176] There is no information on how these drugs affect longer-term complications of obesity such as cardiovascular disease or death.[5]
^ Jump up to: a b Kanazawa, M; Yoshiike, N; Osaka, T; Numba, Y; Zimmet, P; Inoue, S (2005). “Criteria and classification of obesity in Japan and Asia-Oceania”. World review of nutrition and dietetics. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. 94: 1–12. doi:10.1159/000088200. ISBN 3-8055-7944-6. PMID 16145245.
People who carry too much fat around the middle, rather than around the hips, are more likely to have health problems. In women, a waist size of 35 in. (88 cm) or more raises the chance for disease. In men, a waist size of 40 in. (101 cm) or more raises the chance for disease.1
It is well known that obesity contributes to health problems such as diabetes and heart disease. In addition, obese individuals may suffer from hypertension, arthritis and other conditions that make movement difficult or painful. However, according to the Mayo Clinic, even modest increase in activity can help people lose weight, and yoga provides modified routines that can be a significant part of that process. According to a 2005 study published in the journal “Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine,” yoga practice resulted in weight loss most strongly in study subjects who were overweight.
Which raises a question: If McDonald’s is taking these sorts of steps, albeit in a slow and limited way, why isn’t it more loudly saying so to deflect criticism? While the company has heavily plugged the debut of its new egg-white sandwich and chicken wraps, the ads have left out even a mention of health, the reduced calories and fat, or the inclusion of whole grains. McDonald’s has practically kept secret the fact that it has also begun substituting whole-grain flour for some of the less healthy refined flour in its best-selling Egg McMuffin.
Dana Larsen is a writer, artist, editor, dancer and food-enthusiast living in the Pacific Northwest. Originally from Alaska, Dana has a passion for the outdoors and finding life’s next adventure. She graduated with honors from the University of Washington with a degree in English and Communications, and her writing has appeared in a variety of digital and print publications. She loves connecting audiences with ideas and is also an advocate for enhancing care and support for those affected by Alzheimer’s and other dementias. View Dana’s Google Profile.
If you are obese, you should have a primary-care physician who follows you closely and monitors you for the known complications of obesity such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. The following are additional indications to see a health-care provider:
Skin calipers: This method measures the skinfold thickness of the layer of fat just under the skin in several parts of the body with calipers (a metal tool similar to forceps); the results are then used to calculate the percentage of body fat.
There were 61,317 deaths during the 10-year follow-up, with the overall risk of death highest among the study subjects who had the highest and lowest body weights, as determined by body mass index (BMI)body mass index (BMI), a ratio based on height and weight.
The researchers who conducted the earlier CDC study suggested that public health efforts and aggressive treatments aimed at preventing chronic diseases had greatly reduced the obesityobesity-related death risk.
Baby Boomers now is the time to address this critical issue. We must deal with this NOW if we are to continue to serve are parents and not be a burden on our children. Even as important is our quality of life and our ability to continue to be self-sufficient.

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Gastric cardia cancer: People who are obese are nearly twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop cancer in the upper part of the stomach, that is, the part that is closest to the esophagus (10).
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Obesity results from the accumulation of excess fat on the body. Obesity is considered a chronic (long-term) disease, like high blood pressure or diabetes. It has many serious long-term consequences for your health, and it is a leading cause of preventable deaths in the United States (with tobacco use and high blood pressure). Obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30. The BMI is a measure of your weight relative to your height.
The International Size Acceptance Association (ISAA) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) which was founded in 1997. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination.[224] These groups often argue for the recognition of obesity as a disability under the US Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA). The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity.[221]
As Asian populations develop negative health consequences at a lower BMI than Caucasians, some nations have redefined obesity; Japan have defined obesity as any BMI greater than 25 kg/m2[8] while China uses a BMI of greater than 28 kg/m2.[28]
In an attempt to address her risk factors, you advise her to have her dentures adjusted. Suspecting that the NSAIDS may be contributing to her nausea, you advise her to use acetaminophen for her knee pains instead. At your encouragement, she starts attending grief counselling and becomes involved in social activities, including a supper club, at her local seniors centre.
Fortunately, researchers are beginning to understand the differences between the wrong mix and a healthy one, as well as the specific factors that shape those differences. They hope to learn how to cultivate this inner ecosystem in ways that could prevent—and possibly treat—obesity, which doctors define as having a particular ratio of height and weight, known as the body mass index, that is greater than 30. Imagine, for example, foods, baby formulas or supplements devised to promote virtuous microbes while suppressing the harmful types. “We need to think about designing foods from the inside out,” suggests Jeffrey Gordon of Washington University in St. Louis. Keeping our gut microbes happy could be the elusive secret to weight control.
Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309(1):71-82.
Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.
The lack of response may also reflect a more general lack of awareness. In a 2014 letter to then newly appointed Surgeon General Vivek Murthy, the Obesity Association, a leading obesity educational and research group, wrote that “many individuals are not aware of the scope of the problem. We agree that more needs to be done to address obesity at the community level by providing more guidance and resources, so people have a better understanding of where and how to lead healthier lives.”
In the otherwise healthy older population, the combination of an expansive waist circumference or BMI, with high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, was linked to a modest decrease in performance on tests of motor speed, manual dexterity, and executive function (28). The Framingham Heart Study comprising male participants (age range 55–88 years) followed up over a period of 18 years revealed that obesity had an adverse effect on cognitive performance (29). In a Swedish cohort of nondemented adults who were followed up from age 70 to 88 years, high body mass was linked to increased propensity for dementia (30). The association appeared to be so profound that the risk for Alzheimer’s disease increased by 36% for every BMI unit at the age of 70 years. In population studies, such linkage is subject to the confounding effect of the natural history of Alzheimer’s disease often characterized by weight loss, which precedes the diagnosis of this condition (8). A recent meta-analysis of the literature suggested the existence of a significant U-shaped association between BMI and Alzheimer’s disease. The pooled effects of obesity on incident Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia revealed a 1.80- and 1.73-fold increase in risk, which was particularly evident in studies with long follow-up (>10 years) and young baseline age (<60 years). Of particular note was the finding in all the studies reviewed that weight gain and large waist circumference, or skinfold thickness, increased the risk of dementia (31). The amount of stomach acid you produce decreases with age or certain medications. This may put you at risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency and symptoms like depression and fatigue. Supplements and fortified foods, such as orange juice, milk and yogurt are usually well-absorbed by your body. This work was supported by grants from the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health and by the Foundation for Physical Therapy. Having a garden is a relaxing and fun hobby that provides low impact exercise, and also promotes savings on fresh flowers and produce. If you include herbs and vegetables you'll be able to enjoy the fruits of your own labor, which will become a healthy part of your routine. Linda G. Martin and Robert F. Schoeni, "Trends in Disability and Related Chronic Conditions Among the Forty-and-Over Population: 1997-2010," at an interagency conference, sponsored by the Administration for Community Living, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, U.S. Department of Education, and the Interagency Committee on Disability Research, and organized by the Center for Aging and Policy Studies at Syracuse University and the Michigan Center on the Demography of Aging at the University of Michigan, May 17-18, 2012. Structure House is the nation’s foremost provider of life-changing weight loss. We are more than just a retreat, wellness spa, diet center, or fitness camp. The Structure House difference is a holistic approach that blends nutrition, fitness and behavioral skills training to create long-term change. So whether you need a short wellness vacation to jump-start your health goals, or an all-inclusive healthy weight loss program, we are here for you. The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons.[148] The first group coexpresses neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and has stimulatory inputs to the LH and inhibitory inputs to the VMH. The second group coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and has stimulatory inputs to the VMH and inhibitory inputs to the LH. Consequently, NPY/AgRP neurons stimulate feeding and inhibit satiety, while POMC/CART neurons stimulate satiety and inhibit feeding. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Leptin inhibits the NPY/AgRP group while stimulating the POMC/CART group. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity.[148] [redirect url='https://betahosts.com/bump' sec='7']

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Although cyproheptadine has been studied in patients with cancer and cachexia,38 routine use in older adults with unintentional weight loss has not been studied. Dronabinol (Marinol) and human growth hormone have been studied in small, limited trials with mixed results for short-term, small weight gains. Dronabinol has been associated with significant adverse effects, particularly central nervous system toxicity. Human growth hormone has been associated with increased mortality.17
Kitahara CM, Flint AJ, Berrington de Gonzalez A, et al. Association between class III obesity (BMI of 40-59 kg/m2) and mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies. PLoS Medicine 2014; 11(7):e1001673.
Sleep apnea is a serious health risk associated with obesity. A person who has sleep apnea often snores heavily and stops breathing or takes very shallow breaths for short periods during sleep. Obesity increases the risk for sleep apnea, and excess fat stored around the neck can narrow the airway and make breathing difficult. Sleep apnea may cause daytime sleepiness and eventually lead to heart failure. Weight loss usually improves sleep apnea.
Take the first step to managing your weight from the comfort of your home. Use our BMI calculator to help you determine whether or not you are considered obese. If you are obese, or have one or more risk factors for obesity, our physicians can help. In cases of severe obesity, surgery may be an option. Learn more about obesity treatments at Stanford.
45. Larrieu S, Pérès K, Letenneur L, Berr C, Dartigues JF, Ritchie K, Février Alpérovitch A, Barberger-Gateau P: Relationship between body mass index and different domains of disability in older persons: the 3C study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28: 1555– 1560 [PubMed]
“We’re far from out of the woods when it comes to obesity. But we have many reasons to be optimistic thanks to parents, educators, business owners, health officials and other local leaders,” he added.
“We wanted to tease apart the effects of dieting and exercise in older people who are obese,” says principal investigator Dennis T. Villareal, MD, adjunct associate professor of medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. “In older adults, obesity exacerbates declines in physical performance and leads to frailty, impaired quality of life and increases in nursing home admissions. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity even among older people, it is important to find ways to combat the problem and help seniors remain healthier and more independent.”
Regular exercise: Physical activity is important because it reduces body fat and builds muscle. Exercise also has a direct effect in preventing diseases associated with obesity, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. It also helps regulate unhealthy fats, improves your mood, and even promotes better sleep.
My mom has to bring all of his meals to him. My mother can’t take it anymore – I fear she is close to having a mental breakdown. She flies off the handle and starts snapping/yelling at me and my sister for the littlest and most minor of things because she is frustrated with taking care of my father.
The impact of obesity on the chances of our living long, productive, and enjoyable lives has been so well documented at this point that I hate to drag anyone through the grim statistics again. But let me just toss out one recent dispatch from the world of obesity-havoc science: a study published in February in the journal Obesity found that obese young adults and middle-agers in the U.S. are likely to lose almost a decade of life on average, as compared with their non-obese counterparts. Given our obesity rates, that means Americans who are alive today can collectively expect to sacrifice 1 billion years to obesity. The study adds to a river of evidence suggesting that for the first time in modern history—and in spite of many health-related improvements in our environment, our health care, and our nondietary habits—our health prospects are worsening, mostly because of excess weight.
Too much weight is especially hazardous for an aging body. Obesity exacerbates bone and muscle loss, increases inflammation and significantly raises the risk of diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Excess weight also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, losing the ability to walk or dying earlier.
Obesity has a far-ranging negative effect on health. Each year obesity-related conditions cost over 150 billion dollars and cause an estimated 300,000 premature deaths in the US. The health effects associated with obesity include, but are not limited to, the following:
Greenberger NJ, et al. Treatment of obesity: The impact of bariatric surgery. In:  Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, & Endoscopy. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed March 9, 2015.
The dedication, commitment and contribution of inhabitants, general practitioners and pharmacists of the Ommoord district to the Rotterdam Study are gratefully acknowledged. The Rotterdam Study is funded by Erasmus MC and Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO); the Netherlands Organization for the Health Research and Development (ZonMw); the Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly (RIDE); the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science; the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sports; the European Commission (DG XII); and the Municipality of Rotterdam. KD is supported Erasmus Mundus Western Balkans (ERAWEB), a project funded by the European Commission. MK is supported by AXA Research Fund. MAI is supported by the Netherlands Heart Foundation (2012T008). OHF works in ErasmusAGE, a center for aging research across the life course funded by Nestlé Nutrition (Nestec Ltd.) and Metagenics Inc. Nestlé Nutrition (Nestec Ltd.) and Metagenics Inc. had no role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review or approval of the manuscript. The Rotterdam Study has been approved by the institutional review board (medical ethics committee) of the Erasmus Medical Center and by the medical ethics committee according to the Wet Bevolkingsonderzoek ERGO (Population Study Act Rotterdam Study), executed by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports of The Netherlands.
Obesity results from the accumulation of excess fat on the body. Obesity is considered a chronic (long-term) disease, like high blood pressure or diabetes. It has many serious long-term consequences for your health, and it is a leading cause of preventable deaths in the United States (with tobacco use and high blood pressure). Obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30. The BMI is a measure of your weight relative to your height.
Although testing should be directed toward areas of concern based on the history and physical examination, tests found to be of highest yield in identifying potential causes include stool hemoccult, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, upper gastrointestinal series, endoscopy and thyroid function tests.5 Computed tomographic screening offers no further information.5 In institutionalized older adults, hemoglobin level, total cholesterol and albumin are useful in making the diagnosis.13 There are a few studies that have looked at TNF-α levels,1 cerebrospinal fluid concentration of amino acids,14 plasma and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels,15 and plasma and cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide levels.16 However, these levels have limited value within routine clinical practice.
When we grow older, we tend to lose our muscle mass and it gets replaced with fat. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) may not change, but in reality, our fat-stores increase, as does the chance of being affected by obesity and its related diseases. BMI can also be inaccurate in seniors for another common reason. As we grow old, we often get shorter. This is due to osteoporosis and spinal vertebral issues that take away inches in older age. Since BMI is a measure calculated from height and weight, a change in height will change BMI as well. In fact, if a senior weighs the same, and his or her height is now less, then the BMI will be falsely higher. This could classify the senior as “overweight”, while in reality, that is not the case. Scientists and physicians still debate about a better measure for weight classification, but for now, BMI is the accepted one and physicians need to use it, while understanding its limitations. 
In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss.[167] In the long term; however, all types of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets appear equally beneficial.[167][168] A 2014 review found that the heart disease and diabetes risks associated with different diets appear to be similar.[169] Promotion of the Mediterranean diets among the obese may lower the risk of heart disease.[167] Decreased intake of sweet drinks is also related to weight-loss.[167] Success rates of long-term weight loss maintenance with lifestyle changes are low, ranging from 2–20%.[170] Dietary and lifestyle changes are effective in limiting excessive weight gain in pregnancy and improve outcomes for both the mother and the child.[171] Intensive behavioral counseling is recommended in those who are both obese and have other risk factors for heart disease.[172]
One of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service’s Healthy People 2010 initiative is to reduce the prevalence of adult obesity to 15% or less. Yet we are moving in the wrong direction — between 1976 and 2000 (a period of time in which most baby boomers came of age and entered middle age), adult obesity more than doubled, from 15% to 31%. The obesity problem is acute among baby boomers, yet many in this generation, particularly men, fail to recognize their weight problems.
18. Rydwik E, Lammes E, Frandin K, et al. Effects of a physical and nutritional intervention program for frail elderly people over age 75. A randomized controlled pilot treatment trial. Aging Clin Exp Res 2008;20:159–70 [PubMed]
Jump up ^ Ejerblad E, Fored CM, Lindblad P, Fryzek J, McLaughlin JK, Nyrén O (2006). “Obesity and risk for chronic renal failure”. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (Research Support). 17 (6): 1695–702. doi:10.1681/ASN.2005060638. PMID 16641153.
Plan regular physical activity with a friend. Find a fun activity that you both enjoy, such as Zumba, jogging, biking or swimming. You are more likely to stick with that activity if you and a friend have committed to it.  
This is almost double what it was in 1960, which means that more of us are getting heavier. An alarming trend is that weight problems begin earlier in life than ever before. Millions of kids are overweight and research shows that obese children are very likely to become obese adults.
Davidson sometimes sees iron deficiency in frail older patients. “They don’t eat enough red meat; they don’t get enough iron in the diet,” he says. Although the paleo diet was lower-ranking among the Best Diets, he says “it could be a good diet. It’s had a little bit of a hype to it, but the principles are not far off, such as people eating more complex carbohydrates and more lean meats.” He points out that constipation can be an issue for seniors on low-carb, low-fiber diets.
Being overweight or obese can cause plaque to accumulate in your arteries. If that plaque breaks free from an artery, it can create a blood clot, and if that clot is close to your brain, it can prevent blood and oxygen from reaching your brain, causing a stroke. The risk of having a stroke corresponds to BMI: high BMI = high risk, and low BMI = low risk. That’s one more good reason for losing excess weight.
The fact is, there is simply no clear, credible evidence that any aspect of food processing or storage makes a food uniquely unhealthy. The U.S. population does not suffer from a critical lack of any nutrient because we eat so much processed food. (Sure, health experts urge Americans to get more calcium, potassium, magnesium, fiber, and vitamins A, E, and C, and eating more produce and dairy is a great way to get them, but these ingredients are also available in processed foods, not to mention supplements.) Pollan’s “foodlike substances” are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (with some exceptions, which are regulated by other agencies), and their effects on health are further raked over by countless scientists who would get a nice career boost from turning up the hidden dangers in some common food-industry ingredient or technique, in part because any number of advocacy groups and journalists are ready to pounce on the slightest hint of risk.
You may have gained undesirable weight and your doctor may have instructed you to start a weight loss program. According to a study published in the U.S. National Library of Medicine, approximately 35 of U.S. Adults are overweight and an additional 30 percent are obese. (See the definitions of overweight and obese in the “What is my ideal weight” section above.) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, health conditions associated with obesity include:
A new federally funded national study has been designed to answer this sort of question, according to Freedman. The National Health and Aging Trends Study led by Johns Hopkins University researchers, is following more than 8,000 older Americans annually, to explore how their daily lives change as they age. Rather than relying exclusively on reports from participants, researchers are also giving short performance tests to measure physical and cognitive function.

“obesity in america health article icd 10 morbid obesity in pregnancy”

In addition to suffering from poor physical health, overweight and obese children can often be targets of early social discrimination. The psychological stress of social stigmatization can cause low self-esteem which, in turn, can hinder academic and social functioning, and persist into adulthood. While research is still being conducted, there have been some studies showing that obese children are not learning as well as those who are not obese. Further, physical fitness has been shown to be associated with higher achievement.
Physical activity. Many health benefits are associated with physical activity and getting the recommended amount of physical activity needed each week. Physical activity is an important factor in determining whether a person can maintain a healthy body weight, lose excess body weight, or maintain successful weight loss. Before starting any exercise program, ask your doctor about what level of physical activity is right for you. Visit Physical Activity Has Many Health Benefits for more information.
I’m not picking out rare, less healthy examples from these establishments. Check out their menus online: fat, sugar, and other refined carbs abound. (Café Gratitude says it uses only “healthy” fats and natural sweeteners; Akasha says its focus is not on “health food” but on “farm to fork” fare.) In fact, because the products and dishes offered by these types of establishments tend to emphasize the healthy-sounding foods they contain, I find it much harder to navigate through them to foods that go easy on the oil, butter, refined grains, rice, potatoes, and sugar than I do at far less wholesome restaurants. (These dishes also tend to contain plenty of sea salt, which Pollanites hold up as the wholesome alternative to the addictive salt engineered by the food industry, though your body can’t tell the difference.)
A Dutch study recently released in the Annals of Internal Medicine reported that people who are overweight at age 40 will shave three years off life expectancy on average. Being obese at age 40 shortens life expectancy by six to seven years.
Chronic Drinking – SeniorsCognitive Difficulty – SeniorsDepression – SeniorsDiabetes – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Education – SeniorsHigh Health Status – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Multiple Chronic Conditions – SeniorsObesity – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Overuse–MammographyOveruse–PSA TestPoor Mental Health Days – SeniorsSmoking – Relative Change from 1999 to 2014Social Support – SeniorsSuicide – Senior
High-tech anti-obesity food engineering is just warming up. Oxford’s Charles Spence notes that in addition to flavors and textures, companies are investigating ways to exploit a stream of insights that have been coming out of scholarly research about the neuroscience of eating. He notes, for example, that candy companies may be able to slip healthier ingredients into candy bars without anyone noticing, simply by loading these ingredients into the middle of the bar and leaving most of the fat and sugar at the ends of the bar. “We tend to make up our minds about how something tastes from the first and last bites, and don’t care as much what happens in between,” he explains. Some other potentially useful gimmicks he points out: adding weight to food packaging such as yogurt containers, which convinces eaters that the contents are rich with calories, even when they’re not; using chewy textures that force consumers to spend more time between bites, giving the brain a chance to register satiety; and using colors, smells, sounds, and packaging information to create the belief that foods are fatty and sweet even when they are not. Spence found, for example, that wine is perceived as 50 percent sweeter when consumed under a red light.
The clinical consequences of involuntary weight loss include functional decline, infections, decubitus ulcers, exacerbation of cognitive and mood disorders, and increased use of acute and long-term care facilities.4 Mechanisms for involuntary weight loss can include decreased intake, accelerated metabolism and increased caloric loss in urine or stool.5
Gadde, K.M., et al. “Effects of low-dose, controlled-release, phentermine plus topiramate combination on weight and associated comorbidities in overweight and obese adults (CONQUER): a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.” Lancet 377.9774 Apr. 16, 2011: 1341-1352.
Cancers of the colon, breast (after menopause), endometrium (the lining of the uterus), kidney, and esophagus are linked to obesity. Some studies have also reported links between obesity and cancers of the gallbladder, ovaries, and pancreas.
Everyone needs a goal and positive reasons to achieve that goal. Even losing a few pounds can provide you with cardiovascular benefits, so every step in the right direction is a step toward healthier living. Consider these reasons to work toward maintaining a healthy weight.
While policy guidelines suggest all adults get their heart rates up at least 150 minutes each week and strengthen their muscles twice a week, less than 8 percent of adults over age 70 do that, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But exercise – and particularly resistance training – is especially important among older adults to keep muscles and bones healthy. Fortunately, many programs at community centers, in gyms and even online can help older adults learn to move in ways that benefit their quality of life, experts say. Joe Acosta, for one, finds doing body weight exercises like pushups every other day at home helps ward off back pain. Other people his age looking to lose weight, he says, “have to make up their minds that they’re going to be active.”
Anna Medaris Miller is a Health & Wellness editor at U.S. News, where she writes consumer advice stories on fitness, nutrition, reproductive health, medical conditions, mental health and more. She also manages the Eat+Run blog and frequently appears as a health expert on local and national radio and TV shows. Prior to joining U.S. News, Anna wrote for The Washington Post, The Muse and Monitor on Psychology magazine, where she served as associate editor. Anna is a graduate of the University of Michigan and American University, where she earned her master’s degree in interactive journalism in 2014. Follow her on Twitter or email her at amiller@usnews.com.
Children and adults should be screened at least annually to see if they have a high or increasing body mass index  (BMI), which allows doctors to recommend healthy lifestyle changes to prevent overweight and obesity.
Fewer studies have examined possible associations between weight loss and cancer risk. Some of these have found decreased risks of breast, endometrial, colon, and prostate cancers among people who have lost weight. However, most of these studies were not able to evaluate whether the weight loss was intentional or unintentional (and possibly related to underlying health problems).
Physiological influences: Some researchers believe that every person has a predetermined weight that the body resists moving away from. Also, people of the same age, sex and body size often have different metabolic rates. This means their bodies burn food differently. Someone with a low metabolic rate may require fewer calories to maintain approximately the same weight as someone whose metabolic rate is high.
Gaining too much weight during pregnancy can have long-term effects for both mother and child. These effects include that the mother will have overweight or obesity after the child is born. Another risk is that the baby may gain too much weight later as a child or as an adult.
This is almost double what it was in 1960, which means that more of us are getting heavier. An alarming trend is that weight problems begin earlier in life than ever before. Millions of kids are overweight and research shows that obese children are very likely to become obese adults.
Lambert CP, Wright NR, Finck BN, Villareal DT. Exercise but not diet- induced weight loss decreases skeletal muscle inflammatory gene expression in frail obese elderly persons. J Appl Physiol. 2008;105:473–478. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
“We’re far from out of the woods when it comes to But we have many reasons to be optimistic thanks to parents, educators, business owners, health officials and other local leaders,” he added.
Diagnosis of obesity is made by observation and by comparing the patient’s weight to ideal weight charts. Many doctors and obesity researchers refer to the body mass index (BMI), which uses a height-weight relationship to calculate an individual’s ideal weight and personal risk of developing obesity-related health problems. Physicians may also obtain direct measurements of an individual’s body fat content by using calipers to measure skin-fold thickness at the back of the upper arm and other sites. The most accurate means of measuring body fat content involves immersing a person in water and measuring relative displacement; however, this method is very impractical and is usually only used in scientific studies requiring very specific assessments. Women whose body fat exceeds 30% and men whose body fat exceeds 25% are generally considered obese.
All subjects in the study were over 65, with some as old as 85 when the study began. Their average age was about 70. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups. One set of seniors was placed on a low-calorie diet to help them lose weight. Members of a second group attended exercise sessions three times a week, doing balance work, resistance training and aerobic exercise. A third group combined both the low-calorie diet and the exercise. The last group made no changes in diet or exercise habits.

“obesity bmi in children -obesity in america a growing threat”

The definition of obesity varies depending on what one reads. In general, overweight and obesity indicate a weight greater than what is considered healthy. Obesity is a chronic condition defined by an excess amount of body fat. A certain amount of body fat is necessary for storing energy, heat insulation, shock absorption, and other functions.

Your Body Mass Index is a calculation designed to determine the percentage of your weight that is comprised of fat.  A BMI between 20 and 25 is generally considered normal.  This is just an estimation and body types will vary. 

Including calisthenic exercises such as sit-ups, push-ups, and pull-ups is an option, but excess bodyweight significantly limits the number of repetitions that overweight or obese clients can perform. Therefore, these activities may limit improvement and be embarrassing for them to attempt. Designing programs that include the use of machines or free-weight equipment may avoid this problem, because resistance loads can be easily adjusted to match each client’s strength level. For example, the free-weight bench press works the same muscles as push-ups do, and the weight-assisted chin and dip machine is nearly identical to pull-ups in its effect on the muscles worked. Although your client may not have the strength to complete push-ups or pull-ups, load assignments in the bench press and weight-assisted chin and dip machine, respectively, can be reduced enough to enable him or her to perform the 8 to 12 reps recommended in chapter 4.

Adapted with permission from The clinical and cost-effectiveness of medical nutrition therapies: evidence and estimates of potential medical savings from the use of selected nutritional intervention. June 1996. Summary report prepared for the Nutrition Screening Initiative, a project of the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Dietetic Association, and the National Council on Aging, Inc.

24. Yeh SS, Hafner A, Chang CK, et al. Risk factors relating blood markers of inflammation and nutritional status to survival in cachectic geriatric patients in a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:1708–12 [PubMed]

Of course, as you grow older your dietary needs change and you’re less likely to recover quickly from fatigue or strain caused by exercise. There are three main things you need to ensure are in your diet to avoid this.

Along these lines, Gallup survey data also suggest a direct relationship between reported personal health status and reported personal weight situations among adults. Forty-two percent of those who say that their weight is “about right” also define their physical health as “excellent,” compared with just 13% of people who say that they are “very overweight.” People saying they are “very overweight” are more likely to describe their health as “fair” or “poor” (44%) than those who are “somewhat overweight” (24%), “about right” (15%), or “underweight” (27%).

According to the CDC, the prevalence of obesity in the United States differs among racial/ethnic groups. For example, in 2011–2012 among adults, non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence of obesity (47.8%) followed by Hispanics (42.0%), non-Hispanic whites (33.4%), and non-Hispanic Asians (10.9%) (5). Among children and adolescents ages 2–19 years, the prevalence of obesity in 2011–2012 was 21.9% among Hispanics, 19.5% among non-Hispanic blacks, 14.7% among non-Hispanic whites, and 8.6% among non-Hispanic Asians.

^ Jump up to: a b Bleich S, Cutler D, Murray C, Adams A (2008). “Why is the developed world obese?”. Annu Rev Public Health (Research Support). 29: 273–95. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090954. PMID 18173389.

Our model is designed to provide comfort, practical fitness, small group training and healthy, everyday meals. The goal is to provide a lifestyle you can replicate and maintain after you return home – without spending exorbitant amounts of money.

Other companies and research labs are trying to turn out healthier, more appealing foods by enlisting ultra-high pressure, nanotechnology, vacuums, and edible coatings. At the University of Massachusetts at Amherst’s Center for Foods for Health and Wellness, Fergus Clydesdale, the director of the school’s Food Science Policy Alliance—as well as a spry 70-something who’s happy to tick off all the processed food in his diet—showed me labs where researchers are looking into possibilities that would not only attack obesity but also improve health in other significant ways, for example by isolating ingredients that might lower the risk of cancer and concentrating them in foods. “When you understand foods at the molecular level,” he says, “there’s a lot you can do with food and health that we’re not doing now.”

Just as genetics plays a role in obesity, so does the environment. The environment includes the world around us; it influences access to healthy food and safe places to walk. What we eat, our level of physical activity, and our lifestyle behaviors are influenced by our environment. Our environment can prevent us from eating healthy foods and/or getting adequate exercise in a number of ways. Examples include the trend toward ‘eating out’ rather than preparing food in the home; high-fat, high-calorie foods in our workplace vending machines; neighborhoods that often lack sidewalks; and a deficit of readily accessible recreation areas.

A few minutes of stretching during the day can help keep muscles long and lean. Building muscle mass is good for cardiovascular health and also helps the body burn excess fat. Start with a simple routine and gradually build to it to keep a consistent level of challenge to your daily stretches. And be sure to talk to your doctor before starting a new exercise routine.

Qsymia (combination of phentermine and topiramate) was approved by the FDA in 2012. It is only approved for those with a BMI greater than 27 with weight-related conditions. When combined with diet and exercise, studies have shown that half of the participants lost 10% of their body weight and four-fifths lost 5% (which equates to 12 pounds in a 227 pound person). Topiramate is associated with a high risk of birth defects such as cleft lip and palate. Phentermine (an appetite suppressant) was one of the ingredients in fen-phen and is associated with an elevation in heart rate. Because of these potentially serious side effects, Qsymia is only available through mail order. Other side effects include tingling, dizziness, alterations in taste, insomnia, dry mouth, and constipation.

Finally, cumulative attrition of the most vulnerable fraction of the obese population brought about by premature mortality of those subjects who do not survive the late-midlife years leaves only the most biologically advantaged obese survivors for “nonbiased” epidemiological analysis of obesity in advanced years. If one accepts that obesity increases mortality in younger years, attempted comparison between age-matched obese and lean humans in the older age inevitably leads to the study of two highly unequal cohorts of which only one has been subjected to the Darwinian process of obesity-related attrition.

“Obesity has become the new smoking—it’s a major driver of ill health, with coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes highest on the list of preventable illnesses. Obesity also costs billions of dollars to our economy each year. Anything we can do to mitigate the damage being done to both generations of Australians by obesity will be hugely important for the future of our nation.”

And a study in a recent issue of the journal Demography–synthesizing the results of five national surveys—found increasing disability among those ages 55 to 64 between 2000 and 2008 (a group that included the oldest baby boomers).3 By contrast, disability levels continued to decline among the oldest Americans (ages 85 and older) and held steady among the elderly ages 65 to 84 during the same period, reported Vicki Freedman, a University of Michigan demographer and lead author.

The massive new study analyzes every major contested news story in English across the span of Twitter’s existence—some 126,000 stories, tweeted by 3 million users, over more than 10 years—and finds that the truth simply cannot compete with hoax and rumor. By every common metric, falsehood consistently dominates the truth on Twitter, the study finds: Fake news and false rumors reach more people, penetrate deeper into the social network, and spread much faster than accurate stories.

Texas law prohibits hospitals from practicing medicine. The physicians on the Methodist Health System medical staff are independent practitioners who are not employees or agents of Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Methodist Health System, or any of its affiliated hospitals.

^ Jump up to: a b Caballero B (March 2001). “Introduction. Symposium: Obesity in developing countries: biological and ecological factors”. J. Nutr. (Review). 131 (3): 866S–70S. doi:10.1093/jn/131.3.866s. PMID 11238776.

Most text on the National Cancer Institute website may be reproduced or reused freely. The National Cancer Institute should be credited as the source and a link to this page included, e.g., “Obesity and Cancer was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.”

Inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β and interleukin-6 have been implicated in cachexia and weight loss.1 Historically termed cachectin, TNF-α is considered one of the more prominent cytokines and is thought to be a primary mediator of the muscle wasting of cachexia; it is also believed to act synergistically with interleukin-1 β to promote cachexia.1 Cytokines may act both centrally, by inhibiting feeding behaviour, and peripherally, by decreasing gastric motility, gastric emptying and intestinal motility and by modifying gastric secretion.1 Tumour necrosis factor-α levels are elevated in several human disease states associated with cachexia and weight loss, including malignancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.1

We stimulate high-impact research. Our NHLBI Obesity Research continues discovering new insights about obesity that can lead to improved health care, practices, and policies to prevent or treat obesity and its heart, lung, and sleep consequences and translating research into practical strategies and tools for clinicians, patients, and the general public. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program includes participants with overweight and obesity, which may help us understand how genes contribute to overweight and obesity. The NHLBI Strategic Vision highlights ways we may support research over the next decade, including new efforts for overweight and obesity.

“The food they’re cooking is making people sick,” Pollan has said of big food companies. “It is one of the reasons that we have the obesity and diabetes epidemics that we do … If you’re going to let industries decide how much salt, sugar and fat is in your food, they’re going to put [in] as much as they possibly can … They will push those buttons until we scream or die.” The solution, in his view, is to replace Big Food’s engineered, edible evil—through public education and regulation—with fresh, unprocessed, local, seasonal, real food.

Copyright © 2018 The Senior List, LLC. All rights reserved. The Senior List® should be used for information entertainment purposes only. The Senior List and their writers, business partners and associates do not provide financial, legal or health related advice as a substitute for professional consultation. By using The Senior List.com you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites.

“medical solutions to obesity _obesity definition with percentage”

Common side effects of megestrol acetate include hypertension, gastrointestinal upset, insomnia and impotence; reported serious adverse events include adrenal insufficiency and thromboembolic events.28

A hiatus hernia is an abnormality in which where part of the stomach protrudes through a defect in the diaphragm and up into the chest. This can increase the possibility of “reflux acid” into the oesophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. Obesity is a “risk factor” re. development of a hiatus hernia (Ref. http://bit.ly/wPv1w2).

Searches of MEDLINE (and MEDLINE In-Process), EMBASE, CINAHL and AGELINE were conducted to identify relevant studies from 1980 to September 2009. Additional studies were identified from searching bibliographies of retrieved articles and by consulting a clinical expert in the area. We identified English-language articles that addressed risk factors, differential diagnosis, prognosis, investigation or treatment of unintentional weight loss among adults 65 years of age or older. Further details on the search can be found in Appendix 1, available at www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/cmaj.101471/DC1. We excluded articles that specifically focused on weight loss associated with cancer or HIV infection. All types of articles were considered for inclusion except for case reports, editorials and meeting abstracts. All patients, regardless of where they lived, were included in the review. Two reviewers (S.S. and E.M.A or J.H-L) independently reviewed all identified citations to select relevant publications that met the inclusion criteria. In cases of doubt, full-text articles were retrieved for review and discussion.

Well-publicized concerns over childhood obesity have led to a gradual leveling out of those numbers across the country; boomers are now the most likely group to be obese in California. They are approaching their senior years with large numbers already dealing with disability and chronic poor health related to excess weight. They face potentially shortened life spans – and an overburdened health care system faces additional spikes in cost.

Pregnancy. During pregnancy, a woman’s weight necessarily increases. Some women find this weight difficult to lose after the baby is born. This weight gain may contribute to the development of obesity in women.

[5] Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years: United States, 1963–1965 through 2013–2014. National Center for Health Statistics Data, Health E-Stats, July 2016. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_child_13_14/obesity_child_13_14.htm. Accessed July 25, 2017.

Evaluation of risks for heart disease in school children. The multigenerational Muscatine Heart Study followed children from 1970 to 1991 to study school-aged children for heart disease risk factors and to follow them throughout childhood into adulthood. The study continues to evaluate heart disease risk factors in the children of the initial study participants. Visit Muscatine Heart Study for more information about the results of this study.

Waist circumference is a less-common method used to measure obesity in an individual. This simple measurement indicates obesity and morbid obesity in adults by measuring your waist. To find your waist circumference, wrap a tape measure around the area above your hip bone and below your rib cage.

Patterson, R., Frank, L., Kristal, A., & White, E. (2004). A comprehensive examination of health conditions  associated with obesity in older adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27, 385-390.

Other conditions and illnesses that are associated with both weight gain and obesity include: hyperthyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and depression (NIH, 2006).  The older adults who are obese are more likely than those who are not obese to report symptoms of depression, such as feelings of sadness, worthlessness, and hopelessness (Center on an Aging Society, 2003). Lack of sleep may contribute to obesity, as well as certain drugs, such as steroids and some antidepressants that may stimulate the appetite, cause water retention, or slow the metabolism rate (NIH, 2008). Finally, the complex relationship between functional ability and lifestyle patterns merits attention as a contributor to obesity (Center on an Aging Society). Joint pain, decreased mobility, and activity intolerance may lead to weight gain because of decreased activity. Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience functional limitations associated with chronic illnesses that may begin a stress-pain-depression cycle that can result in lifestyle patterns leading obesity (Lorig et al., 2006).

“Generation X appears to have developed both obesity and diabetes much sooner when compared with Baby Boomers, which is a major concern on a number of fronts,” says co-author and University of Adelaide PhD student Rhiannon Pilkington, who is a member of the University’s Population Research & Outcome Studies group, School of Medicine.

Being an active participant in your care is important. One way to do this is by preparing for your appointment. Think about your needs and goals for treatment. Also, write down a list of questions to ask. These questions may include

Adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2004, the “WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health” describes the actions needed to support healthy diets and regular physical activity. The Strategy calls upon all stakeholders to take action at global, regional and local levels to improve diets and physical activity patterns at the population level.

The simplest method is to first calculate your body mass index(BMI).  If your BMI score is 40 or more, you are considered morbidly obese and have a high risk of developing the obesity health problems reviewed further down the page.

The three-decade, nationwide rise in obesity has resulted in $150 billion a year in obesity-related health care costs, according to the CDC, and researchers say that figure is projected to more than double to $344 billion before the end of the decade.

The short references to websites included in the table are not necessarily links: Copy and paste them into a browser for more information about these health risks of obesity from other sources. Also, these are just a few examples. Find more sources of information, studies, reports and papers by entering the name of the condition (e.g. diabetes) or body part (e.g. liver) into a search box or search engine together with the keyword “obesity”, e.g. [obesity liver].

Setting realistic goals. When you have to lose a significant amount of weight, you may set goals that are unrealistic, such as trying to lose too much too fast. Don’t set yourself up for failure. Set daily or weekly goals for exercise and weight loss. Make small changes in your diet instead of attempting drastic changes that you’re not likely to stick with for the long haul.

One of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service’s Healthy People 2010 initiative to reduce the prevalence of adult obesity to 15% or less. Yet we are moving in the wrong direction — between 1976 and 2000 (a period of time in which most baby boomers came of age and entered middle age), adult obesity more than doubled, from 15% to 31%. The obesity problem is acute among baby boomers, yet many in this generation, particularly men, fail to recognize their weight problems.

After my excursion to Whole Foods, I drive a few minutes to a Trader Joe’s, also known for an emphasis on wholesome foods. Here at the register I’m confronted with a large display of a snack food called “Inner Peas,” consisting of peas that are breaded in cornmeal and rice flour, fried in sunflower oil, and then sprinkled with salt. By weight, the snack has six times as much fat as it does protein, along with loads of carbohydrates. I can’t recall ever seeing anything at any fast-food restaurant that represents as big an obesogenic crime against the vegetable kingdom. (A spokesperson for Trader Joe’s said the company does not consider itself a “ ‘wholesome food’ grocery retailer.” Living Intentions did not respond to a request for comment.)

Every time your heart beats, it pumps blood through your arteries to the rest of your body. Blood pressure is how hard your blood pushes against the walls of your arteries. High blood pressure (hypertension) usually has no symptoms, but it may cause serious problems, such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure.

Bogers RP, Bemelmans WJ, Hoogenveen RT, et al. Association of overweight with increased risk of coronary heart disease partly independent of blood pressure and cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies including more than 300,000 persons.Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167:17208.

In cases like Wilhelm’s father’s experience, early action, says Fabius, is key. Though such weight loss isn’t always a signal of cancer, it is always a cause for concern. At the first sign of unhealthy weight loss, says Fabius, “get them to see a physician as soon as possible. Most cancers are treatable in their earliest stages.”

Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which blood sugar levels are above normal. High blood sugar is a major cause of heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, amputation, and blindness. In 2009, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.3

It is not necessary to achieve an “ideal weight” to derive health benefits from obesity treatment. Instead, the goal of treatment should be to reach and hold to a “healthier weight.” The emphasis of treatment should be to commit to the process of lifelong healthy living, including eating more wisely and increasing physical activity.

The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 5-19 has risen dramatically from just 4% in 1975 to just over 18% in 2016. The rise has occurred similarly among both boys and girls: in 2016 18% of girls and 19% of boys were overweight.

Obesity is mostly preventable through a combination of social changes and personal choices.[1] Changes to diet and exercising are the main treatments.[2] Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber.[1] Medications may be used, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption.[5] If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume or length of the intestines, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.[6][12]

^ Jump up to: a b Wolfe SM (21 August 2013). “When EMA and FDA decisions conflict: differences in patients or in regulation?”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 347: f5140. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5140. PMID 23970394.

Researchers at the University of Adelaide have confirmed that if current trends continue, Australia’s Generation X will overtake Baby Boomers for poor health, including rates of obesity and diabetes, which could have huge implications for healthcare and the workforce.

When you’re obese, your overall quality of life may be diminished. You may not be able to do things you used to do, such as participating in enjoyable activities. You may avoid public places. Obese people may even encounter discrimination.

… Conclusions: WC, and not BMI, explains obesity-related health risk. Thus, for a given WC value, overweight and obese persons and normal-weight persons have comparable health risks. However, when WC is dichotomized …

Jump up ^ Zhang, Y; Proenca, R; Maffei, M; Barone, M; Leopold, L; Friedman, JM (Dec 1, 1994). “Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue”. Nature (Research Support). 372 (6505): 425–32. Bibcode:1994Natur.372..425Z. doi:10.1038/372425a0. PMID 7984236.

Eating more calories than you use. The amount of calories you need will vary based on your sex, age, and physical activity level. Find out your daily calorie needs or goals with the Body Weight Planner.

Roberts recommends an adequate amount of daily protein: 1 gram of protein for each kg of body weight per day, minimum. Also try to up your protein intake a little more than the average person. Choose a diet that is low in fat and limited in starchy carbs to ensure you’re getting enough calories from the right kinds of foods.

The dedication, commitment and contribution of inhabitants, general practitioners and pharmacists of the Ommoord district to the Rotterdam Study are gratefully acknowledged. The Rotterdam Study is funded by Erasmus MC and Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO); the Netherlands Organization for the Health Research and Development (ZonMw); the Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly (RIDE); the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science; the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sports; the European Commission (DG XII); and the Municipality of Rotterdam. KD is supported Erasmus Mundus Western Balkans (ERAWEB), a project funded by the European Commission. MK is supported by AXA Research Fund. MAI is supported by the Netherlands Heart Foundation (2012T008). OHF works in ErasmusAGE, a center for aging research across the life course funded by Nestlé Nutrition (Nestec Ltd.) and Metagenics Inc. Nestlé Nutrition (Nestec Ltd.) and Metagenics Inc. had no role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review or approval of the manuscript. The Rotterdam Study has been approved by the institutional review board (medical ethics committee) of the Erasmus Medical Center and by the medical ethics committee according to the Wet Bevolkingsonderzoek ERGO (Population Study Act Rotterdam Study), executed by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports of The Netherlands.

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Choose a report:2018 Health of Women and Children Report2017 Annual Report2017 Health of Women Who Have Served2017 Senior Report2016 Annual Report2016 Health of Those Who Have Served Report2016 Health of Women and Children Report2016 Senior Report2015 Annual Report

If you plan to lose more than 15 to 20 pounds, have any health problems, or take medication on a regular basis, you should be evaluated by your doctor before beginning your weight-loss program. A doctor can assess your general health and any medical conditions that might be affected by dieting and weight loss. Also, a physician should be able to advise you on the need for weight loss, the appropriateness of the weight-loss program, and a sensible goal of weight loss for you. If you plan to use a very low-calorie diet (a special liquid formula diet that replaces all food intake for one to four months), you should do so under the close supervision of a health-care professional.

Bhargava A, Guthrie JF (2002). “Unhealthy eating habits, physical exercise and macronutrient intakes are predictors of anthropometric indicators in the Women’s Health Trial: Feasibility Study in Minority Populations”. British Journal of Nutrition (Randomized Controlled Trial). 88 (6): 719–28. doi:10.1079/BJN2002739. PMID 12493094.

The impact of obesity on male fertility is less clear. In a study by Hammoud and colleagues, the incidence of low sperm count (oligospermia) and poor sperm motility (asthenospermia) increased with BMI, from 5.3 and 4.5 percent, respectively, in normal-weight men to 15.6 and 13.3 percent in obese men. (24) In contrast, a study by Chavarro and colleagues found little effect of body weight on semen quality except at the highest BMIs (above 35), despite major differences in reproductive hormone levels with increasing weight. (25)

Living With will explain recommendations that your doctor may give, including lifelong healthy lifestyle changes and medical care to prevent your condition from recurring, getting worse, or causing complications.

Three years ago, when Nicole Wilhelm, a public relations executive in Jacksonville, Florida, was in the throes of wedding planning, she visited her 68-year-old father in Lucerne Valley, California. It quickly became apparent that something was wrong, says Wilhelm.

Some modifications to the WHO definitions have been made by particular organizations.[28] The surgical literature breaks down class II and III obesity into further categories whose exact values are still disputed.[29]

Jump up ^ Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Després JP, Willett WC, Hu FB (November 2010). “Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis”. Diabetes Care (Meta-analysis, Review). 33 (11): 2477–83. doi:10.2337/dc10-1079. PMC 2963518 . PMID 20693348.

Beyond that it’s a good idea to pick a multivitamin for your specific age group. Multivitamins that are marketed to seniors or adults over 50 years old usually contain more calcium and vitamins D and B12 with less iron. Ask your doctor if you need to supplement specific vitamins or minerals in addition to what’s in your multivitamin. Seniors are commonly deficient in vitamin D, for example. And of course, try to get most of your nutrients from healthy foods, such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds and lean meat, poultry and fish.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e Yosipovitch G, DeVore A, Dawn A (June 2007). “Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity”. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56 (6): 901–16, quiz 917–20. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.12.004. PMID 17504714.

^ Jump up to: a b Tsigos C, Hainer V, Basdevant A, Finer N, Fried M, Mathus-Vliegen E, Micic D, Maislos M, Roman G, Schutz Y, Toplak H, Zahorska-Markiewicz B (April 2008). “Management of Obesity in Adults: European Clinical Practice Guidelines” (PDF). The European Journal of Obesity. 1 (2): 106–16. doi:10.1159/000126822. PMID 20054170. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-26.

Adding to the problem is the fact that baby boomers weren’t raised with deprivation. To the contrary, an abundance of food – frozen food, canned food, soft drinks and snack food – filled many boomers’ childhood kitchens. The generation embraced fast food culture in their teens and 20s. The question for many of them now, in their 50s and 60s, is why they’re still eating like kids.

Cowley MA, Brown WA, Considine RV. Obesity: the problem and its management. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 26.

Environment plays a key role in shaping an individual’s habits and lifestyle. There are many environmental influences that can impact your health decisions. Today’s society has developed a more sedentary lifestyle. Walking has been replaced by driving cars, physical activity has been replaced by technology and nutrition has been overcome by convenience foods.

“Obesity wreaks so much havoc on one’s long-term survival capacity that obese adults either don’t live long enough to be included in the survey or they are institutionalized and therefore also excluded. In that sense, the survey data doesn’t capture the population we’re most interested in,” says Masters, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health & Society Scholar at Columbia’s Mailman School and the study’s first author.

Since fats and bile acids have a negative charge, Chitosan actively attracts and binds them, making them unavailable for absorption. It actually binds up to 12 times its weight of lipids (fats). It’s as if you are not eating the fat at all!

Strazzullo P, DElia L, Cairella G, Garbagnati F, Cappuccio FP, Scalfi L. Excess body weight and incidence of stroke: meta-analysis of prospective studies with 2 million participants.Stroke. 2010; 41:e41826.

Overweight and obesity is also common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  (PCOS). This is an endocrine condition that causes large ovaries and prevents proper ovulation, which can reduce fertility.

Children grow at different rates at different times, so it is not always easy to tell if a child is overweight. The CDC BMI charts are used to compare a child’s BMI with other children of the same sex and age. It is important that a child’s health care provider evaluates a child’s BMI, growth, and potential health risks due to excess body weight. An online tool for gauging the BMIs of children and teens can be found at: https://nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/Calculator.aspx

Step 1. A comprehensive medical examination is required, along with a medication regimen review and depression screening. Core laboratory tests are conducted, including an ultrasensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone test, urinalysis, and a fecal occult blood test.

By all means, let’s protect the environment. But let’s not rule out the possibility of technologically enabled improvements to our diet—indeed, let’s not rule out any food—merely because we are pleased by images of pastoral family farms. Let’s first pick the foods that can most plausibly make us healthier, all things considered, and then figure out how to make them environmentally friendly.

Diet modification incorporating patient preferences, softer food consistency to accommodate for chewing or swallowing disabilities, and assisted feeding may lead to weight gain and improved laboratory parameters; however, study results of this approach are mixed.28–30 Creating a more leisurely eating environment simulating an in-home dining experience may improve nutrition in nursing home residents.31

People with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher are considered obese. The term “obesity” is used to describe the health condition of anyone significantly above his or her ideal healthy weight. Don’t be discouraged by the term. It simply means you are 20% or more above your ideal weight, and you are not alone.

For people with obesity, weight loss based solely on lifestyle changes can be very difficult to achieve and even more challenging to maintain. Supporting strategies, such as obesity medications, can be important tools for effectively treating obesity in some individuals. Given the complex nature of the disease, no single drug is likely to fix the epidemic. Additional research and development efforts are needed for obesity treatments – as there are more than 100 drugs available for related diseases, like hypertension, but only 6 medications approved for the long-term treatment of obesity.

As with anyone, overweight and obesity can be issues for seniors, Campbell says. “People are living longer, so we’re seeing more of it in older adults.” And, she says, “As we get older, our calorie needs go down. People don’t need to eat as much as they did when they were 20 or 30.” Older women generally need anywhere from 1,600 to 2,200 calories per day, depending how active they are, Campbell says, while younger women need about 1,800 to 2,200 daily. For older men, the range is 2,000 to 2,800 calories per day, compared with 2,200 to 3,200 calories for younger men.

The results of this pilot study suggest that changes in weight, body composition, dietary intake, physical function, and insulin sensitivity following an intensive lifestyle therapy may be sustained long-term even without contact. However, this study was limited by the small sample size, high potential for selection bias, lack of a control group, and potential for under-reporting food intake. In addition, the participants who did not return for follow-up may have had outcomes that were different from those participating in this pilot study. Moreover, without a non-weight loss control group, it was not possible to separate the effects of weight loss from the aging process, per se on the variables of interest.

Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309: 71–82.

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough thyroid hormone. Lack of thyroid hormone will slow down your metabolism and cause weight gain. You’ll also feel tired and weak.

Most people are familiar with weight-for-height tables. Although such tables have existed for a long time, in 1943, the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company introduced their table based on policyholders’ data to relate weight to disease and mortality. Doctors and nurses (and many others) have used these tables for decades to determine if someone is overweight. The tables usually have a range of acceptable weights for a person of a given height.

BMI is a calculated value and approximates the body’s fat percentage. Actually measuring a person’s body fat percentage is not easy and is often inaccurate if the methods are not monitored carefully. The following methods require special equipment, trained personnel, can be costly, and some are only available in certain research facilities.

In the USA, the consumption of calories increased from 1,542 per day for women in 1971 to 1,877 per day in 2004. The figures for men were 2,450 in 1971 and 2,618 in 2004. Most people would expect this increase in calories to consist of fat – not so! Most of the increased food consumption has consisted of carbohydrates (sugars). Increased consumption of sweetened drinks has contributed significantly to the raised carbohydrate intake of most young American adults over the last three decades. The consumption of fast-foods has tripled over the same period.

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Endurance exercise when combined with a dietary weight loss program increases maximal oxygen consumption (Dick, 2004). Diet in conjunction with resistance and endurance exercises improves peak oxygen consumption as well. Nurses can teach patients with respiratory problems to do diaphragmatic or abdominal breathing to help strengthen respiratory muscles. Breathing exercises, as well as good posture, can help patients to exhale and inhale fully (Lorig et al., 2006). Pursed lip breathing may also be helpful for patients who are short of breath or breathless. Pursed breathing includes pursing the lips as if blowing a whistle; using diaphragmatic breathing out through pursed lips without any force; and remembering to relax the upper chest, arms shoulders, and arms while breathing out. Patients with sleep apnea need to be referred for sleep studies.
Underwater weighing (hydrostatic weighing): This method weighs a person underwater and then calculates lean body mass (muscle) and body fat. This method is one of the most accurate ones; however, it is generally done in special research facilities, and the equipment is costly.
Endometrial cancer: Obese and overweight women are two to about four times as likely as normal-weight women to develop endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus), and extremely obese women are about seven times as likely to develop the more common of the two main types of this cancer (7). The risk of endometrial cancer increases with increasing weight gain in adulthood, particularly among women who have never used menopausal hormone therapy (8).
To lose weight, seniors should implement a nutritious diet that include more fruits and vegetables. Consuming calcium, vitamins, protein rich foods like whole grains, whole wheat, cereals, lentils and eggs release the energy required for any physical activity. Senior weight loss is possible and can be achieved with a nutritious diet and regular work out.
Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA from fish itself, or fish oil supplements promote weight loss and will make your dog feel more satisfied. Omega-3s are also healthy for dogs in many other different ways and are particularly important for senior dogs.
The data showed that Sacramento boomers are more likely to be overweight than Californians living in every other part of the state except the San Joaquin Valley, where nearly four of every five boomers were overweight.
The prevalence of obesity in the United States is increasing in all age groups. During the past 30 years, the proportion of older adults who are obese has doubled. In this article the author describes the prevalence and causes of obesity among older adults as well as the consequences of obesity in older adults. Recommendations for interventions to address obesity are also provided. Differences between the two groups of older adults, those 50 to 65 years of age, and those over 65 years of age, will be addressed. The goal of the article is to raise nurses’ awareness of the challenges of obesity in older adults.
Villareal DT, Miller BV, III, Banks M, Fontana L, Sinacore DR, Klein S. Effect of lifestyle intervention on metabolic coronary heart disease risk factors in obese older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006b;84:1317–1323. [PubMed]
Manson JE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rosner B, Monson RR, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH.; “A prospective study of obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in women.” N Engl J Med. 1990 Mar 29;322(13):882-9.
Heart-healthy eating. Learn about which foods and nutrients are part of a healthy eating pattern. It’s important to eat the right amount of calories to maintain a healthy weight. If you need to lose weight, try to reduce your total daily calories gradually. Use the Body Weight Planner to find out your daily calorie needs and to set goals. Visit healthy recipes and plan for success. Talk with your doctor before beginning any diet or eating plan. Visit Chose My Plate or 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for more information.
Even if there’s nothing wrong with your health it’s quite common for older people to lose their appetite. You may be underweight simply because you’re not eating enough and your diet doesn’t give you sufficient energy or calories.
The physical performance test entailed such tasks as picking up a penny, walking 50 feet, standing up from a chair, lifting a book, climbing a flight of stairs and donning and removing a coat, the magazine report noted.
Make a plan for change. Work with your doctor to create a plan that will work for you. Ask family members and friends for help in keeping with your plan. Ask your doctor to recommend a dietitian to help you with meal planning.
Not only are baby boomers more obese than the previous generation, they became more obese at an earlier age, and women in their 50s are the most likely to be obese [source: Trust for America’s Health].
be established by 3 months of age and linked to ↓ energy expenditure in infants of obese mothers; diet-resistant obesity is characterized by an inability to lose weight despite ↓ caloric intake and ↑ exercise; a certain percentage of diet-resistant obesity is related to underreporting of actual caloric consumption and/or overreporting of physical activity, not due to low energy expenditure Etiology, 2º obesity Endocrine-hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome, hypogonadism–Fröhlich syndrome, polycystic ovaries, pseudohypoparathyroism Pathogenesis ↑ Lipid deposit in fat cells, ↓ mobilization of lipids from adipocytes, and ↓ lipid utilization; obesity mimics lab findings of type 2 DM–insulin resistance, ↑ glucose, ↑ cholesterol,
You can blame a lot of your weight gain on your metabolism. Beginning as early as your mid-twenties, body fat begins to increase while muscle mass decreases. And less muscle mass translates into a slower metabolic rate.
1. Adams KF, Schatzkin A, Harris TB, Kipnis V, Mouw T, Ballard-Barbash T, Hollenbeck A, Leitzmann MF: Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 763– 778 [PubMed]
1. Contact your local Area Agency on Aging. Federal, state and local resources can help families with caregiving, housing and other elder issues. Even if you can’t find a home who will accept your loved one, you may be able to get assistance in other ways — such as an expert in-home caregiver.
The area I found that’s most chockablock with commercial food options brackets the busy intersection of two main streets. However, like most areas I passed through nearby, this food scene was dominated not by fast-food restaurants but by bodegas (which, like most other types of convenience stores, are usually considered part of the low-income, food-desert landscape). I went into several of these mom-and-pop shops and saw pretty much the same thing in every one: A prominent display of extremely fatty-looking beef and pork, most of it fresh, though gigantic strips of fried pork skin often got pride of place. A lot of canned and boxed foods. Up front, shelves of candy and heavily processed snacks. A large set of display cases filled mostly with highly sugared beverages. And a small refrigerator case somewhere in the back sparsely populated with not-especially-fresh-looking fruits and vegetables. The bodega industry, too, seems to have plotted to addict communities to fat, sugar, and salt—unless, that is, they’re simply providing the foods that people like.
Unintentional weight loss of more than 4% in a year appears to be an independent predictor of increased mortality (relative risk [RR] 2.43, 95% CI 1.34–4.41).4 In a prospective study of 41 836 women, conducted in the United States as part of the Iowa Women’s Health Study, one or more episodes of unintentional weight loss of more than 20 pounds during adulthood was associated with a 46%–57% higher rate of death.29 A prospective study of 4869 male patients older than 65 years from general practices in 24 towns across the United Kingdom found that unintentional weight loss was associated with higher mortality risk only among those with cancer (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.33–2.19) after adjustment for lifestyle characteristics and pre-existing disease.30 A retrospective chart review of 148 long-term care residents residing in the southeastern United States found that those who lost 5% or more of their body weight within one month were 4.6 times more likely to die within one year.31
Just as genetics plays a role in obesity, so does the environment. The environment includes the world around us; it influences access to healthy food and safe places to walk. What we eat, our level of physical activity, and our lifestyle behaviors are influenced by our environment. Our environment can prevent us from eating healthy foods and/or getting adequate exercise in a number of ways. Examples include the trend toward ‘eating out’ rather than preparing food in the home; high-fat, high-calorie foods in our workplace vending machines; neighborhoods that often lack sidewalks; and a deficit of readily accessible recreation areas.
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.
Inactivity. If you’re not very active, you don’t burn as many calories. With a sedentary lifestyle, you can easily take in more calories every day than you burn through exercise and routine daily activities. Having medical problems, such as arthritis, can lead to decreased activity, which contributes to weight gain.
“The food they’re cooking is making people sick,” Pollan has said of big food companies. “It is one of the reasons that we have the obesity and diabetes epidemics that we do … If you’re going to let industries decide how much salt, sugar and fat is in your food, they’re going to put [in] as much as they possibly can … They will push those buttons until we scream or die.” The solution, in his view, is to replace Big Food’s engineered, edible evil—through public education and regulation—with fresh, unprocessed, local, seasonal, real food.
The weight-loss program should be directed toward a slow, steady weight loss unless your doctor feels your health condition would benefit from more rapid weight loss. Expect to lose only about a pound a week after the first week or two. With many calorie-restricted diets there is an initial rapid weight loss during the first one to two weeks, but this loss is largely fluid.
Once the family is working together to solve a mutual problem, the results are morelikely to be postive. As it is now, you and your mother are on one side against your father. This really isn’t helpful. The family as a unit can decide whether he needs to live in a different setting. A facility will use a hoyer lift to transfer him. You might look into buying or renting this device or other assistive devices as part of the family effort to deal successfully with this very complex issue.
Generally speaking, obesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than her or she burns. While we need food to provide us with sustenance to live and to provide us with the energy to remain active, when the balance between what we ingest and the amount of energy we expend is disrupted and we are taking in much more calories than we use, weight gain occurs. This can be especially difficult for older adults because they may not be able to get enough physical activity. Also, many adults age 65 and older experience hormonal changes, such as decreased growth hormone secretions and reduced responsiveness to thyroid hormone, which may cause the accumulation of fat. Other factors that may play a role in the development of obesity also include genetics, environmental influences, and other risk factors, which are listed below:
It is difficult to directly measure body fat. Body mass index (BMI) is a popular method of defining a healthy weight. BMI should be used as a guide, along with waist size, to help estimate the amount of body fat.
Obesity per se continues to contribute to mortality in advanced years. However, even if mortality is conceded to be unrelated to obesity at an older age, the unaffected risk of death remains, at best, an imperfect descriptive measure of a disease spread over multiple years of life. Obese, or overweight, older subjects with such presumed unimpaired longevity are nevertheless more likely to have hypertension and diabetes; develop coronary artery disease and possibly stroke; experience erectile dysfunction; suffer from accelerated loss of cognitive function, incontinence, frailty, osteoarthritis, and functional disability; and are dependent on others. The clustering of so many well-defined ailments resulting from, associated with, obesity, particularly in older subjects, is impressive enough to view obesity as a real primary disease that requires attention and medical care.
The diminished ability or the inability to conceive and have offspring. Infertility is also defined in specific terms as the failure to conceive after a year of regular intercourse without contraception.
A. The answer is YES. In fact, many of the risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and overweight, are also risk factors for dementia, in addition to genetic predisposition for the disease.

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In response to this controversial study, the American Journal of Epidemiology published research in March contradicting Flegal’s findings. Using data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey, Ryan Masters and his colleagues argued people ages 75 to 84 with a grade 1 obesity have a 59 percent higher chance of mortality than their healthy peers. They also stated that mortality risks in obese people increase with age.
Body composition changes with age. Lean body mass begins to decrease up to 0.7 lb (0.3 kg) per year in the third decade. This loss is offset by gains in fat mass that continue until 65 to 70 years of age. Total body weight usually peaks at 60 years of age with small decreases of 0.2 to 0.4 lb (0.1 to 0.2 kg) per year after 70 years of age. Therefore, substantial weight changes should not be attributed to normal anorexia of aging.10
The BMI is one way to tell whether you are at a normal weight, are overweight, or have obesity. It measures your weight in relation to your height and provides a score to help place you in a category:
Sexual function may also be affected by obesity. Data from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, (26) the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), (27) and the Massachusetts Male Aging Study (28) indicate that the odds of developing erectile dysfunction increase with increasing BMI. Of note, weight loss appears to be mildly helpful in maintaining erectile function. (29) The effect of obesity on female sexual function is less clear. In a recent French study, obese women were less likely than normal-weight women to report having had a sexual partner in the preceding 12 months, but the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was similar in both groups. (30) In a smaller survey of 118 women, Esposito and colleagues found that obese women had lower scores on the Female Sexual Function Index, with strong correlations between increasing BMI and problems with arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and satisfaction. (31)
The distribution of your body fat also plays a role in determining your risk of obesity-related health problems. There are at least two different kinds of body fat. Studies conducted in Scandinavia have shown that excess body fat distributed around the waist (apple-shaped figure, intra-abdominal fat) carries more risk than fat distributed on the hips and thighs (pear-shaped figure, fat under the skin).
A few minutes of stretching during the day can help keep muscles long and lean. Building muscle mass is good for cardiovascular health and also helps the body burn excess fat. Start with a simple routine and gradually build to it to keep a consistent level of challenge to your daily stretches. And be sure to talk to your doctor before starting a new exercise routine.
Jump up ^ Chiolero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J (1 April 2008). “Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Review). 87 (4): 801–09. doi:10.1093/ajcn/87.4.801. PMID 18400700.
As you age, you tend to lose muscle, especially if you’re less active. Muscle loss can slow down the rate at which your body burns calories. If you don’t reduce your calorie intake as you get older, you may gain weight. Midlife weight gain in women is mainly due to aging and lifestyle, but menopause also plays a role. Many women gain around five pounds during menopause and have more fat around the waist than they did before.
Older adults are working longer. By 2014, 23 percent of men and about 15 percent of women ages 65 and older were in the labor force, and these levels are projected to rise further by 2022, to 27 percent for men and 20 percent for women.
“The problem with using only primary care providers,” says Bonnie Modugno, a registered dietician in Santa Monica, Calif., “is that they completely ruled out direct reimbursement for the population of providers who are uniquely qualified and experienced working with weight management. I think that was a big mistake.”
Obesity treatment must acknowledge that even modest weight loss can be beneficial. For example, a modest weight loss of 5%-10% of the initial weight, and long-term maintenance of that weight loss can bring significant health gains, including
Phenylpropanolamine (Acutrim, Dextarim) is the only nonprescription weight-loss drug approved by the FDA These over-the-counter diet aids can boost weight loss by 5%. Combined with diet and exercise and used only with a doctor’s approval, prescription anti-obesity medications enable some patients to lose 10% more weight than they otherwise would. Most patients regain lost weight after discontinuing use of either prescription medications or nonprescription weight-loss products.
During the Renaissance some of the upper class began flaunting their large size, as can be seen in portraits of Henry VIII of England and Alessandro dal Borro.[15] Rubens (1577–1640) regularly depicted full-bodied women in his pictures, from which derives the term Rubenesque. These women, however, still maintained the “hourglass” shape with its relationship to fertility.[199] During the 19th century, views on obesity changed in the Western world. After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard.[15]
Agricultural policy and techniques in the United States and Europe have led to lower food prices. In the United States, subsidization of corn, soy, wheat, and rice through the U.S. farm bill has made the main sources of processed food cheap compared to fruits and vegetables.[102] Calorie count laws and nutrition facts labels attempt to steer people toward making healthier food choices, including awareness of how much food energy is being consumed.
Success in teaching yoga to the obese and seniors hinges on the teacher’s ability to create an atmosphere of acceptance and success. Many yoga poses will need to be adapted for these populations. For example, forward bends may be taught holding on to a sturdy chair for support or even while seated in the chair for students with poor balance, and students should be encouraged to practice the postures at half capacity to avoid strain or injury. Teachers should reinforce the attitude that even a little practice of yoga can have beneficial effects. Yoga sequences may need to be shorter than usual and include frequent rests.
“Everyone’s mother and brother has been telling them to eat more fruit and vegetables forever, and the numbers are only getting worse. We’re not going to solve this problem by telling people to eat unprocessed food.”
Sato F, Tamura Y, Watada H, Kumashiro N, Igarashi Y, Uchino H, Maehara T, Kyogoku S, Sunayama S, Sato H, Hirose T, Tanaka Y, Kawamori R. Effects of diet-induced moderate weight reduction on intrahepatic and intramyocellular triglycerides and glucose metabolism in obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3326–3329. [PubMed]
Body mass index (BMI) is used to determine if you or your child are underweight, healthy, or overweight or obese. Children are underweight if their BMI is below the 5th percentile, healthy weight if their BMI is between the 5th to less than the 85th percentile, overweight if their BMI is the 85th percentile to less than the 95th percentile, and obese if their BMI is the 95th percentile or above. Adults are underweight if their BMI is below 18.5, healthy weight if their BMI is 18.5 to 24.9, overweight if their BMI is 25 to 29.9, and obese if their BMI is 30 or above. *A child’s BMI percentile is calculated by comparing your child’s BMI to growth charts for children who are the same age and sex as your child.
If you are obese, you should have a primary-care physician who follows you closely and monitors you for the known complications of obesity such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. The following are additional indications to see a health-care provider:
Your program should include plans for weight maintenance after the weight-loss phase is over. It is of little benefit to lose a large amount of weight only to regain it. Weight maintenance is the most difficult part of controlling weight and is not consistently implemented in weight-loss programs. The program you select should include help in permanently changing your dietary habits and level of physical activity, and to alter a lifestyle that may have contributed to weight gain in the past. Your program should provide behavior modification help, including education in healthy eating habits and long-term plans to deal with weight problems. One of the most important factors in maintaining weight loss appears to be increasing daily physical activity. Try to be more active throughout the day and incorporate some simple calorie burners into your everyday routine. Even the most basic activities (such as taking an after-dinner walk, using the stairs at the mall or office instead of taking an escalator or elevator, park your car farther away so you have a longer walk) can get you prepared for more regular exercise like walking or jogging. You may choose to incorporate an individually tailored exercise program into your schedule.
• Functional. Decreased daily living skills and poverty negatively impact shopping and cooking. Poorly fitting, or lack of, dentures makes eating difficult. Caregiver neglect is another factor; the quality of the relationship between the person being fed and the feeder is a predictor of food intake.4 Loneliness and social isolation also are linked to decreased food intake.
Not only are baby boomers more obese than the previous generation, they became more obese at an earlier age, and women in their 50s are the most likely to be obese [source: Trust for America’s Health].
Evaluation of risks for heart disease in school children. The multigenerational Muscatine Heart Study followed children from 1970 to 1991 to study school-aged children for heart disease risk factors and to follow them throughout childhood into adulthood. The study continues to evaluate heart disease risk factors in the children of the initial study participants. Visit Muscatine Heart Study for more information about the results of this study.
The benefit also can’t be used by endocrinologists, who might be managing a person’s diabetes, or by cardiologists, who monitor patients with heart disease. Both conditions can be caused or made worse by excess weight.
BMI is a useful measure of overweight and obesity. It is calculated from your height and weight. BMI is an estimate of body fat and a good gauge of your risk for diseases that can occur with more body fat. The higher your BMI, the higher your risk for certain diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems, and certain cancers.
Note: The health risks associated with obesity mentioned above are just examples of some of the most common concerns, as might be included in first-level courses in health sciences e.g. A-Level Human Biology (16-18 year-olds in UK).
“I noticed that he was definitely thinner, but not so much as to cause concern,” she says. Still something didn’t seem right to Wilhelm, so she asked her father about his weight loss.”He said he had been to his doctor, so I didn’t worry,” she explains. “He was his usual upbeat self.”
According to an article in Annals of Pharmacotherapy, some medications cause weight gain. “Clinically significant weight gain is associated with some commonly prescribed medicines. There is wide interindividual variation in response and variation of the degree of weight gain within drug classes. Where possible, alternative therapy should be selected, especially for individuals predisposed to overweight and obesity.” (The Annals of Pharmacotherapy: Vol. 39, No. 12, pp. 2046-2054. DOI 10.1345/aph.1G33)
Jump up ^ Nestle, Marion (12 September 2016). “Invited Commentary: Food Industry Funding of Nutrition Research: The Relevance of History for Current Debates”. JAMA Internal Medicine. 176 (11): 1685–86. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5400. PMID 27618496.
The amount of vitamin B-6 you need increases as you get older. You need 1.7 milligrams daily if you are male and 1.5 milligrams if you are female. Eat chicken, fish, potatoes and fruit to meet your vitamin B-6 needs.
For individuals who are severely obese, dietary changes and behavior modification may be accompanied by surgery to reduce or bypass portions of the stomach or small intestine. Although obesity surgery is less risky as of 2003 because of recent innovations in equipment and surgical technique, it is still performed only on patients for whom other strategies have failed and whose obesity seriously threatens their health. Other surgical procedures are not recommended, including liposuction, a purely cosmetic procedure in which a suction device is used to remove fat from beneath the skin, and jaw wiring, which can damage gums and teeth and cause painful muscle spasms.
Weight-loss medication choices are more limited in older adults. This shortens the list of available medications for weight-loss. Side effects, existing medical conditions and interactions with other medications are the major barriers in prescribing weight-loss medications in the elderly. Bariatric surgery is being increasingly considered in older adults as well. The existing medical problems, surgical risk and benefits from the surgery need to be closely analyzed by the medical team and discussed with the patient to ensure an optimal decision and a satisfactory outcome.
Jump up ^ Oreopoulos A, Padwal R, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Fonarow GC, Norris CM, McAlister FA (July 2008). “Body mass index and mortality in heart failure: A meta-analysis”. Am. Heart J. (Meta-analysis, Review). 156 (1): 13–22. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2008.02.014. PMID 18585492.
Anna Medaris Miller is a Health & Wellness editor at U.S. News, where she writes consumer advice stories on fitness, nutrition, reproductive health, medical conditions, mental health and more. She also manages the Eat+Run blog and frequently appears as a health expert on local and national radio and TV shows. Prior to joining U.S. News, Anna wrote for The Washington Post, The Muse and Monitor on Psychology magazine, where she served as associate editor. Anna is a graduate of the University of Michigan and American University, where she earned her master’s degree in interactive journalism in 2014. Follow her on Twitter or email her at amiller@usnews.com.
A new survey revealed the number of overweight and obese baby boomers rose from 61% in 2003 to 72% in 2012, while younger adults ages 18 to 47 saw just a 2% increase in obesity rates during the same period, in the Sacramento, CA, area. Researchers also found one-fifth of obese baby boomers in the area had diabetes. Fifty-six percent had hypertension, compared with 23% of their normal-weight counterparts. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research