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Primarily obesity is a result of an imbalance between our energy intake and our energy output. We generally take in too many calories, and burn too few. For some people, this is the simple and only answer to their dilemma.  All they need to do is adjust how much they are taking in, to the amount of activity they perform during the day. For most people though, in addition to just calorie counting, losing or maintaining a good weight involves other factors including genetics, physiology, culture, and psychological disposition.
In an exhaustive review of the data, released in 2007, an expert panel assembled by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that there was convincing evidence of an association between obesity and cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, colon and rectum, breast, endometrium, and kidney, and a probable association between obesity and gallbladder cancer. (15) Abdominal obesity and weight gain during adulthood were also linked with several cancers. A later systematic review and meta-analysis confirmed direct associations between obesity and cancers of the breast, colon and rectum, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, ovary, and pancreas. (4) Encouragingly, the Nurses’ Health Study has found that for overweight women who have never used hormone replacement therapy, losing weight after menopause-and keeping it off-cut their post menopausal risk by one half.
Older women in good health need at least 150 minutes of physical activity weekly, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Another option is one 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity weekly.
“I’m elated and horrified at the same time,” said Jim Walsh, a senior research associate at the MIT Security Studies Program and a board member of the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. “Elated because the parties are talking; horrified by the prospect of the two most unusual leaders in the world together in a room—what could possibly go wrong?”
Roberson has tried to lose weight before, but it was hard. “You hit a couple of rough weeks and you kinda slough off.” This time, Roberson says firmly, she will have to come back and answer to Rucker. That accountability, Rucker says will help her lose weight.
Last month, Coca-Cola began an advertising campaign for new versions of Sprite and Fanta that boasts the tagline “Free of Logos, Equally Rich” — a nod to the fact that they will no longer contain warning labels because the company replaced half the sugar with artificial sweetener.
Osteoarthritis, a chronic inflammation that damages the cartilage and bone in or around the affected joint. It can cause mild or severe pain and usually affects weight-bearing joints in people who are obese. It is a major cause of knee replacement surgery in patients who are obese for a long time.
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For older adults, being mildly overweight causes little harm, physicians say. But too much weight is especially hazardous for an aging body. Obesity increases inflammation, exacerbates bone and muscle loss and significantly raises the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes.
“Woe to you, because you build tombs for the prophets, and it was your ancestors who killed them.” Jesus’s rebuke to the Pharisees descended upon me on a cold January morning in 2017, in West Potomac Park in Washington, D.C. On that Monday, the national holiday dedicated to the man at whose memorial I stood, the capital bustled in anticipation of a more pressing political event. That’s why I was at the park, pondering this granite stone of hope, carved out of a mountain of despair. The memorial to Martin Luther King Jr. cast its shadow over me, its presence just as conflicted as those tombs.
Changes in the environments where young people spend their time—like homes, schools, and community settings—can make it easier to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Schools can adopt policies and practices that help young people eat more fruits and vegetables, get at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily, and eat fewer foods and beverages that are high in added sugars or solid fats.8,9, 17, 18
Body mass index is closely related to body fat percentage but is much easier to measure. Therefore, it is used by many primary-care providers to identify obesity. The greater your BMI, the higher your risk of developing health problems related to excess weight.
Inflammatory markers in particular have received much attention since the discovery in the 1990’s that adipocytes act as an endocrine organ (Forsythe 2008). It is now widely accepted that weight gain results in adipocyte hypertrophy, which leads to an increased in obesity-related inflammatory markers such as leptin, TNF-a, IL-6, while weight loss results in a decrease in these markers (Forsythe 2008). It is also known that adipocytes are not the only source of inflammatory molecules, with macrophages and muscle also secreting these molecules (Cao 2011). The complex interplay of weight loss and exercise with inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and regulatory pathways discussed in this review are represented in Figure 2.
It’s hard to change habits. You have to be ready. Make sure this is the right time for you. Are you ready to make a plan and stay on it? Do you have the support of your family and friends? Do you know what your first steps will be? Becoming healthier and staying that way is a lifelong effort.
Kopelman P., Caterson I. An overview of obesity management In:Peter G. Kopelman; Ian D. Caterson; Michael J. Stock; William H. Dietz (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 319–26. ISBN 1-4051-1672-2.
An important consideration when interpreting your BMI score is your waist circumference.  Used in conjunction with your body mass index, waist circumference is a direct predictor of obesity-related disease.
Eat less “energy dense foods.” Energy dense foods are high in fats and simple sugars. They generally have a high calorie value in a small amount of food. The United States government currently recommends that a healthy diet should have less than 30% fat. Fat contains twice as many calories per unit weight than protein or carbohydrates. Examples of high-energy dense foods include red meat, egg yolks, fried foods, high fat/sugar fast foods, sweets, pastries, butter, and high-fat salad dressings. Also cut down on foods that provide calories but very little nutrition, such as alcohol, non-diet soft drinks, and many packaged high-calorie snack foods.
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Fat Fast Shrinking Signal Diet-Recipes Arms immediately let people know “I’m fit!” or “I haven’t lifted more than a tub of ice cream in months.” To make it worse, your arms have to be ready for their close-up pretty much year-round. Get gorgeous toned arms with this 3 minute exercise and have confidence to show off your Do This One Unusual 10-Minute Trick Before Work To Melt Away 15+ Pounds of Belly Fat
Diabetes does not occur without any warning signs. Before someone’s blood sugar raises to a diabetic level, they will first develop prediabetes, a condition where blood sugar is elevated, but not yet high enough to be considered diabetes. 86 million adults, or 37 percent of the adult population, have prediabetes. Prediabetes is largely influenced by weight and age, which, as described above, are both on the rise.
Simply answer a few questions so we can figure out your weight loss goals and provide solutions for a lighter, healthier you. Our weight loss meal plans are designed to help real people achieve real and lasting success.
WEDNESDAY, May 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Older, obese adults need to shed weight, but dieting can worsen their frailty. A new study addresses this conundrum, suggesting seniors take up both aerobic and resistance exercise while slimming down.
Unintentional weight loss appears to be associated with an increased risk of death among both older adults living in care facilties and community-dwelling older adults. In general, the impact on life expectancy of treating the weight loss remains unclear.
Excess weight places mechanical and metabolic strains on bones, muscles, and joints. In the United States, an estimated 46 million adults (about one in five) report doctor-diagnosed arthritis. (1) Osteoarthritis of the knee and hip are both positively associated with obesity, and obese patients account for one-third of all joint replacement operations. (39) Obesity also increases the risk of back pain, lower limb pain, and disability due to musculoskeletal conditions.
Jump up ^ Oreopoulos A, Padwal R, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Fonarow GC, Norris CM, McAlister FA (July 2008). “Body mass index and mortality in heart failure: A meta-analysis”. Am. Heart J. (Meta-analysis, Review). 156 (1): 13–22. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2008.02.014. PMID 18585492.
Whether for you or your loved one, weight management can be challenging.  We know that having a healthy weight is good for us, but sometimes it is hard to sort through all the information out there.  Some trendy diets that seriously limit certain types of foods can be unhealthy.  It is important to keep in mind some healthy basics when changing your eating habits.  Download our tip sheet above and remember to speak to a physician before starting any new diet – especially if you have a chronic condition or are on regular medications.
Scoring: 0 to 2 points = You have good nutrition; recheck your nutritional score in six months. 3 to 5 points = You are at moderate nutritional risk, and you should see what you can do to improve your eating habits and lifestyle; recheck your nutritional score in three months. 6 or more points = You are at high nutritional risk, and you should bring this checklist with you the next time you see your physician, dietitian, or other qualified health care professional; talk with any of these professionals about the problems you may have, and ask for help to your nutritional status.
Feed more protein and fewer carbohydrates. Your dog needs very little carbohydrates in general, and most of those should be high fiber. The best diet for any dog, but especially senior dogs, is one high in protein, low in carbs and moderate in fat. The protein and fats will also make your dog feel more satiated and energetic.
In a paper published in the online journal PLOS ONE, University of Adelaide researchers compared the health status of Baby Boomers (born from 1946-1965) and Generation X (1966-1980) at the same age range of 25-44 years.
Consistent with cognitive epidemiological data, numerous studies confirm that obesity is associated with cognitive deficits.[145] Whether obesity causes cognitive deficits, or vice versa is unclear at present.

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In addition to helping you to lose a substantial amount of weight quickly, bariatric surgery can have a significant impact on obesity health problems.  When evaluating the effect of surgery on obesity health issues, research has found the following (7):
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which focuses on the nation’s public health, recently published research showing that in two states – Arkansas and Louisiana – more than 40 percent of boomers are obese. So are 30 percent of boomers in another 41 states, as well as almost 24 percent of Californians in that age category.
There is some debate, however, about whether it’s good for elderly people to lose weight, even if they are obese. Some studies have found an association between weight loss in seniors and mortality risk, but Villareal says many of those studies did not distinguish between voluntary weight loss and involuntary weight loss that may be related to illness.
HEIDI L. GADDEY, MD, is associate program director at the Ehrling Bergquist Family Medicine Residency Program, Offutt Air Force Base, Neb. At the time this article was written she was associate program director at the David Grant Medical Center Family Medicine Residency Program, Travis Air Force Base, Calif….
The medication is approved for patients who are obese (BMI >30) or overweight (BMQ >27) with one weight-related health issue. The predominant side effects were headache and dizziness, as well as fatigue. In patients with diabetes, low blood sugar was also a concern when taking Belviq.
In addition, NIDDK provides public inquiry response services and health information about weight management to people with obesity and to their families, health professionals, and the public. NIDDK received congressional authorization for the Weight-control Information Network (WIN). WIN provides the general public, health professionals, and the media with science-based, up-to-date, culturally relevant materials and tips.
“It’s typical for older adults to have less of an appetite as they age,” says Moreno. This often occurs, he says, because people become more sedentary and it becomes harder to stimulate hunger. Moreno suggests that a healthy diet for seniors should consist of smaller more frequent meals.
Obesity is a condition of having excess body weight. Adults with a body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) greater than 25 kg/m2 but less than 30 kg/m2 are considered overweight. Adults with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 are considered obese. An adult who is more than 100 pounds overweight or has a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese.
Environment plays a key role in shaping an individual’s habits and lifestyle. There are many environmental influences that can impact your health decisions. Today’s society has developed a more sedentary lifestyle. Walking has been replaced by driving cars, physical activity has been replaced by technology and nutrition has been overcome by convenience foods.
Jump up ^ National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (1998). Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults (PDF). International Medical Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1-58808-002-1.
Seniors are prone to different kinds of health disorders including cardiovascular problems, high blood sugar levels, hypertension, kidney and liver troubles or joint pains. These tend to be a hindrance when considering to lose weight. Yet, senior weight loss is definitely a possibility. With the present day health and wellness programs, diet, muscle training and weight loss exercises designed with seniors in mind, they can easily maintain a balanced weight and look fit.
Buying voluntary offsets can and should be a regular part of the casual environmentalist’s lifestyle, just like recycling or carpooling. In this series, we’ll explore the voluntary carbon market, how to participate and why now is the time for action.
Though it’s difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don’t, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person’s odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Munsell MF, Sprague BL, Berry DA, Chisholm G, Trentham-Dietz A. Body mass index and breast cancer risk according to postmenopausal estrogen-progestin use and hormone receptor status. Epidemiologic Reviews 2014; 36:114-136.
Jump up ^ Beydoun MA, Beydoun HA, Wang Y (May 2008). “Obesity and central obesity as risk factors for incident dementia and its subtypes: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Obes Rev (Meta-analysis). 9 (3): 204–18. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00473.x. PMC 4887143 . PMID 18331422.
Dr. Ann Mabe Newman received a Diploma in Nursing from The University of Virginia, a BSN from The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a MSN from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a DSN from The University of Alabama-Birmingham. She received CNE certification in 2007. Currently she is an Associate Professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte where she has served as President of the Faculty Senate and received the prestigious Bank of America and Governor’s Award for teaching excellence. Dr. Newman has also served on the State Board of Nursing for North Carolina and most recently on the American Nurses Association Congress on Nursing Practice and Economics. For the past 20 years she has maintained a research program on self-management in chronic illness, and she has published extensively on this topic. Dr. Newman’s work has focused on using the concept of self-efficacy to encourage clients, students, and community groups to accomplish things they thought were not possible. Ann notes that as a healthy, older person, her respect and admiration for older adults who persevere in spite of their chronic illnesses continues to grow.
Though Wilhelm’s ordeal with her father was painful and confusing, she has important advice for others. “People just totally rely on what the doctor says,” she says, wishing her father had a more attentive and proactive geriatrician. “We are not really a society that challenges a doctor’s advice; we seem to just be very accepting of what the doctor says.”
In general, women collect fat in their hips and buttocks, giving their figures a “pear” shape. Men, on the other hand, usually collect fat around the belly, giving them more of an “apple” shape. (This is not a hard and fast rule; some men are pear-shaped and some women become apple-shaped, particularly after menopause.)
A measure called the body mass index (BMI) is used to assess your weight relative to your height. It is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2). It can also be calculated for weight in pounds and height in inches.
Jump up ^ Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB (August 2006). “Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Review). 84 (2): 274–88. PMC 3210834 . PMID 16895873.
Because researchers often treat baby boomers of color as belonging to one group, quality data on the individual status of specific racial populations is lacking, leading to insufficiently designed programs, policies, and services. The absence of data is a testament to the invisibility of baby boomers of color in society and deeply affects the practice of social work and other helping professions that require culturally sensitive approaches. Melvin Delgado rectifies this injustice by providing a comprehensive portrait of the status and unique assets of boomers of color. Using specific data, he grounds an understanding of boomersÕfinancial, medical, and emotional needs within a historical, socioeconomic, cultural, and political context, resulting in tailored recommendations for meeting the challenges of a growing population. His research focuses on African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Native American older adults and addresses issues of financial security, employment stability, housing, and health care, which are often complicated by linguistic and cultural differences. Rather than treat baby boomers of color as financial burden on society and its resources, Delgado recognizes their strengths and positive contributions to families and communities, resulting in an affirming and empowering approach to service.
Baby boomers form the solid core of Dr. John Hernried’s practice as medical director of Sutter Weight Management Institute: His typical patient needs to lose more than 60 pounds, he said. But many of his boomer patients have been resigned to being heavy – and many more, even as they deal with diabetes and the prospect of knee-replacement surgery, are in denial as to what carrying extra pounds will do to their health.
27. Wassertheil-Smoller S, Fann C, Allman RM, Black HR, Camel GH, Davis B, Masaki K, Pressel S, Prineas RJ, Stamler J, Vogt TM: Relation of low body mass to death and stroke in the systolic hypertension in the elderly program: the SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 494– 500 [PubMed]
The researchers wanted to see what combination of exercise, along with dieting for weight loss, might be best. They randomly assigned 160 obese and sedentary adults, age 65 or older, to one of four groups: weight loss and aerobic training; weight loss and resistance training; or weight loss and a combination of both types of exercise. The fourth group served as controls and didn’t exercise or try to lose weight.
Jump up ^ Marantz PR, Bird ED, Alderman MH (March 2008). “A call for higher standards of evidence for dietary guidelines”. Am J Prev Med. 34 (3): 234–40. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2007.11.017. PMID 18312812.
There are a number of physical, psychological, and emotional issues that can arise as a result of obesity. In some instances the consequences of obesity can be life threatening, which is why excessive weight problems should be addressed as soon as possible. Some of the possible consequences of obesity include:
Even if there’s nothing wrong with your health it’s quite common for older people to lose their appetite. You may be underweight simply because you’re not eating enough and your diet doesn’t give you sufficient energy or calories.
The incidence of hypertension, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome intensifies with age, and aging per se is closely linked to increased prevalence of most of the abnormalities contributing to the metabolic syndrome (3). The incidence of the metabolic syndrome rises with increasing BMI, and a broader waist circumference is more common in men older than 65 years than in younger age-groups (3). The occurrence of the metabolic syndrome reaches peak levels in the 6th decade for men and the 7th decade for women, and a decline is noted only in the 8th decade for men and for some women in different ethnic groups (3). As recently outlined by the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research, older age and obesity are two of the most powerful risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension (4), and high blood pressure, in turn, is a major determinant of mortality and stroke incidence, particularly in senior years. BMI and abdominal obesity are significantly and independently associated with an increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and obesity contributes to the development of hypertension in diabetes in all ages, including old age (5). Hence, separation of abdominal adiposity from its closest sequels, i.e., the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes, is somewhat artificial, especially later in life. Adiposity strongly influences these risk factors, which, with the passage of time, may directly dominate the occurrence of complications. The strongest support for such a sequence of events is the fact that attempted weight loss is associated with lower all-cause mortality, regardless of age (6).
The BMI is one way to tell whether you are at a normal weight, are overweight, or have obesity. It measures your weight in relation to your height and provides a score to help place you in a category:
The risks of surgery include the usual complications of infection, blood clots in the lower extremities (deep vein thrombosis) and in the lungs (pulmonary embolism), and anesthesia risk. Specific long-term risks related to obesity surgery include lack of iron absorption and iron deficiency anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also develop and could lead to nerve damage (neuropathies). Rapid weight loss may also be associated with gallstones. Bariatric surgery should be performed at a center with a whole weight-loss program in place that includes dieticians and therapists and follow-up care.

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And the social and economic consequences of obesity — including higher healthcare costs, lost workplace productivity, and lower wages — are having profound effects throughout the United States and around the globe.
Although testing should be directed toward areas of concern based on the history and physical examination, tests found to be of highest yield in identifying potential causes include stool hemoccult, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, upper gastrointestinal series, endoscopy and function tests.5 Computed tomographic screening offers no further information.5 In institutionalized older adults, hemoglobin level, total cholesterol and albumin are useful in making the diagnosis.13 There are a few studies that have looked at TNF-α levels,1 cerebrospinal fluid concentration of amino acids,14 plasma and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels,15 and plasma and cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide levels.16 However, these levels have limited value within routine clinical practice.
You know that muscle mass decreases with age. (At age 50, you’ve got about 20% less muscle mass than you did when you were 20, and unfortunately it only goes downhill from there.) You also know that muscle loss equals a slower metabolism, which explains why you’re more likely to put on (and hold on to) those extra pounds that seem to creep up with every birthday. But there is something you can do about it: lift weights.
People who are now between 65 and 80 years old have seen their overall health improve compared to three years ago. And people who are aging into the senior community are far less likely to smoke than earlier generations.
Help! I don’t know what to do. My father is 61 years old and weighs about 500 pounds. He refuses to tell us exactly how much he weighs, but that is my best estimate. He’s about 5 feet 4 inches tall and his waist is 70 inches.
Liposuction is a surgical procedure that removes excess fat that is difficult to get rid of with diet and exercise. Liposuction does not prevent weight regain. Liposuction has a good safety record; risks of the procedure include infection and skin discoloration.
5. Graham M, Knight B. The many causes of involuntary weight loss: a 3-step approach to the diagnosis. www.hcplive.com/general/publications/Resident-and-Staff/2006/2006-11/2006-11_04. December 22, 2009.
Know and avoid the food traps that cause you to eat. Identify situations that trigger out-of-control eating. Try keeping a journal and write down what you eat, how much you eat, when you eat, how you’re feeling and how hungry you are. After a while, you should see patterns emerge. You can plan ahead and develop strategies for handling these types of situations and stay in control of your eating behaviors.
Nutrition experts say the measures are the world’s most ambitious attempt to remake a country’s food culture, and could be a model for how to turn the tide on a global obesity epidemic that researchers say contributes to four million premature deaths a year.
Hormones. Women tend to gain weight especially during certain events such as pregnancy, menopause, and in some cases, with the use of oral contraceptives. However, with the availability of the lower-dose estrogen pills, weight gain has not been as great a risk.
It’s never too late to begin a weight-control and exercise program. Along with a healthy diet, engaging in individually-appropriate physical activity—aerobics, resistance training, and flexibility exercises—can provide seniors a way toward feeling younger.
Calcium is also important for bone health, and above 50s are recommend to consume at least 1200mg a day. This can be a challenge, as with age often comes smaller appetites, so many people choose to take a supplement instead.
The first sculptural representations of the human body 20,000–35,000 years ago depict obese females. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent “fatness” in the people of the time.[15] Corpulence is, however, absent in both Greek and Roman art, probably in keeping with their ideals regarding moderation. This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese.[15]
An enormous amount of media space has been dedicated to promoting the notion that all processed food, and only processed food, is making us sickly and overweight. In this narrative, the food-industrial complex—particularly the fast-food industry—has turned all the powers of food-processing science loose on engineering its offerings to addict us to fat, sugar, and salt, causing or at least heavily contributing to the obesity crisis. The wares of these pimps and pushers, we are told, are to be universally shunned.
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Research has suggested that if you do not sleep enough your risk of becoming obese doubles. Research was carried out at Warwick Medical School at the University of Warwick. The risk applies to both adults and children. Professor Francesco Cappuccio and team reviewed evidence in over 28,000 children and 15,000 adults. Their evidence clearly showed that sleep deprivation significantly increased obesity risk in both groups.
NIH Obesity Research Task Force and Strategic Plan. We continue to support this larger NIH task force, that is committed to capitalizing on scientific research discoveries to develop new prevention methods and treatments for overweight and obesity. Visit NIH Obesity Research, NHLBI Obesity Research and the Strategic Plan for NIH Obesity Research for more information.
Stick to water. Skip high-calorie beverages, such as soda, fruit smoothies, and fancy coffee drinks. There are approximately nine packages of sugar and close to 150 calories in one 12-oz can of soda or juice. Smoothies and coffee drinks are often 250 -500 calories, excluding the whipped cream. Instead, choose low- or no-calorie drinks, such as green tea or fruit-infused water.
Here’s the good news: Losing just 10% of your excess weight can reduce your chances of developing heart disease. If you are severely overweight and lose more than that, the benefits to your cardiovascular health increase considerably.
A 73-year-old woman presents to your clinic complaining of unintentional weight loss. She reports having lost 15 lbs (6.8 kg) over the past year. Previously, her weight was 135 lbs (61.3 kg) and now it is 120 lbs (54.5 kg). She reports that she is eating three meals per day as usual.
Under the Affordable Care Act, one of the free Medicare benefits is weight loss counseling that takes place in the office of the senior’s primary care doctor. But despite the free service, which does not require a co-pay, only 50,000 people took advantage of it in 2013, according to the NPR report.

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Villareal DT, Miller BV, III, Banks M, Fontana L, Sinacore DR, Klein S. Effect of lifestyle intervention on metabolic coronary heart disease risk factors in obese older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006b;84:1317–1323. [PubMed]

A chart review of 10 000 patients in seven family practice centres in the southeastern United States, where 45 patients (with an average age of 72 years and 30 of whom were women) were identified as having substantial, unexplained weight loss, showed that a comprehensive history and physical examination have the greatest potential for eliciting the cause or causes of weight loss.5 Information about potential physiologic, psychological and social factors (e.g., dementia, immobility, bereavement, low income, social isolation) may prove vital to determining the cause as well as to the outcome (Box 1). All current prescribed and over-the-counter medications should be reviewed.2

350 pounds is the maximum weight a standard hospital bed can handle, and there is no national census to increase the weight or offer additional beds for heavier patients. Because of the expensive costs of the equipment, staffing issues and increased health problems, assisted living communities and nursing homes rarely accept more than a few markedly obese patients.

Obesity is a recognized contributing factor to urinary incontinence in older women and men (45). Although the precise underlying mechanism(s) is unclear, the apparent excessive weight and pressure applied on the bladder by the increased intra-abdominal fat mass appears to be a reasonable contributor to this complication.

All subjects in the study were over 65, with some as old as 85 when the study began. Their average age was about 70. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups. One set of seniors was placed on a low-calorie diet to help them lose weight. Members of a second group attended exercise sessions three times a week, doing balance work, resistance training and aerobic exercise. A third group combined both the low-calorie diet and the exercise. The last group made no changes in diet or exercise habits.

A sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity.[105] Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work,[106][107][108] and currently at least 30% of the world’s population gets insufficient exercise.[107] This is primarily due to increasing use of mechanized transportation and a greater prevalence of labor-saving technology in the home.[106][107][108] In children, there appear to be declines in levels of physical activity due to less walking and physical education.[109] World trends in active leisure time physical activity are less clear. The World Health Organization indicates people worldwide are taking up less active recreational pursuits, while a study from Finland[110] found an increase and a study from the United States found leisure-time physical activity has not changed significantly.[111] A 2011 review of physical activity in children found that it may not be a significant contributor.[112]

Waist measurement is also an important factor. People with apple or pot belly shapes, who tend to put on weight around their waist, have a higher risk of obesity-related health problems. This includes women with a waist measurement of greater than 35 inches and men with a waist measurement of greater than 40 inches.

Your caloric needs decrease as you age; therefore, for example, a woman over age 50 should cut back to between 1,600 and 2,000 calories a day, depending on her level of physical activity, according to the National Institute on Aging. If a lack of mobility is a hindrance to preparing healthy foods at home, don’t resort to calling for takeout. Instead, look into a grocery delivery service that allows you to place an order on the Internet and have it delivered to your doorstep. Eating enough food to keep up with the calories needed for movement is important, too — according to WebMD, seniors often grapple with preparing fresh, healthy foods at home due to difficulty chewing due to tooth pain or dentures, problems with indigestion and a declining sense of taste. Emotional problems such as depression or loneliness can play a role in both eating too little and eating too many of the wrong comfort foods. Visit a medical professional to determine a healthy diet for your physical and mental needs.

Two of the biggest problems that researchers must cope with are reverse causation-low body weight is often the result of chronic disease, rather than being a cause of it-and the effect of smoking. People with BMIs below 25 are a mix of healthy individuals and those who have lost weight due to cancer or some other disease that may or may not have been diagnosed. Smoking also confuses the issue because smokers tend to weigh less than their nonsmoking counterparts. When reverse causation and the adverse effects of smoking aren’t fully accounted for, death rates among lean individuals will be inflated and those among overweight and obese individuals will be diminished. That was a problem with a widely reported study based on data from NHANES, which estimated relatively low numbers of excess obesity-related deaths. (46) A careful critique of using the NHANES data to estimate mortality demonstrated that correcting for statistical biases significantly increased the estimate of excess deaths attributable to obesity. (47)

12. Uretsky S, Messerli FH, Bangalore S, Champion A, Cooper-Dehoff RM, Zhou Q, Pepine CJ: Obesity paradox in patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease. Am J Med 2007; 120: 863– 870 [PubMed]

People who carry too much fat around the middle, rather than around the hips, are more likely to have health problems. In women, a waist size of 35 in. (88 cm) or more raises the chance for disease. men, a waist size of 40 in. (101 cm) or more raises the chance for disease.1

Adults: A healthy weight for adults is usually when your BMI is 18.5 to less than 25. To figure out your BMI, use the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s online BMI calculator and compare it with the table below. You can also download the BMI calculator app for iPhone and Android.

Obesity rates among older adults have been increasing, standing at about 40 percent of 65-to-74-year-olds in 2009-2012, and putting more people at risk of chronic disease and disability (see image below).

Waters DL, Vawter R, Qualls C, Chode S, Armamento-Villareal R, Villareal DT. Long-term weight maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle intervention in frail, obese older adults. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17:3–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

The high rates of obesity and depression, and their individual links with cardiovascular disease, have prompted many investigators to explore the relationship between weight and mood. An analysis of 17 cross-sectional studies found that people who were obese were more likely to have depression than people with healthy weights. (17) Since the studies included in the analysis assessed weight and mood only at one point in time, the investigators could not say whether obesity increases the risk of depression or depression increases the risk of obesity. New evidence confirms that the relationship between obesity and depression may be a two-way street: A meta-analysis of 15 long-term studies that followed 58,000 participants for up to 28 years found that people who were obese at the start of the study had a 55 percent higher risk of developing depression by the end of the follow-up period, and people who had depression at the start of the study had a 58 percent higher risk of becoming obese. (18)

Washington University School of Medicine. (2011, March 30). Diet-exercise combo best for obese seniors. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 9, 2018 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110330192212.htm

One of the best sources for information about nutrition for seniors is from the USDA’s Food and Nutrition Center, where senior adults can find a wealth of health information about healthy aging, how to obtain home-delivered meals for seniors on a fixed income, a graphic guide to eating called Myplate for Older Adults, food labels, food safety, meal planning, food shopping, and ways to increase enjoyment with eating.

Seniors are prone to different kinds of health disorders including cardiovascular problems, high blood sugar levels, hypertension, kidney and liver troubles or joint pains. These tend to be a hindrance when considering to lose weight. Yet, senior weight loss is definitely a possibility. With the present day health and wellness programs, diet, muscle training and weight loss exercises designed with seniors in mind, they can easily maintain a balanced weight and look fit.

Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309(1):71-82.

Almost any of the commercial weight-loss programs can work but only if they motivate you sufficiently to decrease the amount of calories you eat or increase the amount of calories you burn each day (or both). What elements of a weight-loss program should a consumer look for in judging its potential for safe and successful weight loss? A responsible and safe weight-loss program should be able to document for you the five following features:

Jump up ^ Gortmaker SL, Must A, Sobol AM, Peterson K, Colditz GA, Dietz WH (April 1996). “Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–1990”. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med (Review). 150 (4): 356–62. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1996.02170290022003. PMID 8634729.

University of Adelaide. (2014, March 27). Gen X obesity a major problem for healthcare, workforce: Australian study. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 8, 2018 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140327095956.htm

Aging baby boomers are smoking and drinking less, but overweight and obesity are on the rise, according to a new report from the U.S. Census Bureau. That’s especially concerning when you consider the many other diseases and disabilities—including arthritis, type-2 diabetes, heart disease and hindered mobility—that can come with excess body weight.

Kelsey Casselbury has a Bachelor of Arts in journalism from Penn State-University Park and formal education in fitness and nutrition. Collins is an experienced blogger, editor and designer, who specializes in nutrition, fitness, weddings, food and parenting topics. She has been published in association and consumer publications, along with daily newspapers such as The Daily Times (Salisbury, Md.)

Morbid obesity may also be defined as being more than 100 pounds over your ideal weight, or having a BMI of 35 or more with an obesity-related condition such as high blood pressure or type 2 diabetes.

4. Calhoun DA, Jones D, Textor S, Goff DC, Murphy TP, Toto RD, White A, Cushman WC, White W, Sica D, Ferdinand K, Giles TD, Falkner B, Carey RM: American Heart Association Professional Education Committee Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Circulation 2008; 117: e510– e526 [PubMed]

Physical illnesses may also have secondary characteristics that lead to weight loss. For example, gall stones often result in decreased appetite and nausea, which causes them to avoid high-energy foods.

A baseline evaluation for unexplained, unintentional weight loss in older adults includes history, physical examination, laboratory tests, chest radiography, fecal occult blood testing, and possibly abdominal ultrasonography.

Studies show that boomers currently have the highest level of obesity of any age group in Australia. However, new research by University of Adelaide PhD student Rhiannon Pilkington has revealed some alarming statistics. As part of her research, she has compared obesity levels between the two generations at equivalent ages.

Orlistat (Xenical 120 mg by prescription or Alli 60 mg available over the counter) is a medication approved by the FDA in 1999. Your doctor may prescribe it if you weigh more than 30% over your healthy body weight or have a BMI greater than 30. Over one year, people who followed a weight-loss diet and took orlistat lost an average of 13.4 pounds, almost 8 pounds more than people who used diet alone to lose weight. It works by reducing the absorption of fat from the intestine. Diarrhea and incontinence of stool may be side effects of this medicine.

“obesity definition google scholar |icd 10 obesity due to excess calories”

Villareal DT, Miller BV, III, Banks M, Fontana L, Sinacore DR, Klein S. Effect of lifestyle intervention on metabolic coronary heart disease risk factors in obese older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006b;84:1317–1323. [PubMed]

Senior exercisers speak with Dennis T. Villareal, MD, while participating in a study to find effective ways to boost physical function and reduce frailty in the elderly. Both were obese when the study began but lost weight through a combination of diet and exercise.

Esophageal adenocarcinoma: People who are overweight or obese are about twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop a type of esophageal cancer called esophageal adenocarcinoma, and people who are extremely obese are more than four times as likely (9).

We fund research. Our Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, which includes our Clinical Applications and Prevention Branch, funds research to understand how overweight and obesity relate to heart disease. Our Division of Lung Diseases funds research on the impact of overweight and obesity on sleep disordered breathing. The research we fund today will help improve our future health. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research NHLBI is funding on overweight and obesity.

Being underweight can be especially serious for older people. It increases your risk of health problems, including bone fracture if you fall. It weakens your immune system, leaving you more susceptible to infections, and it increases your risk of being deficient in important nutrients such as vitamins and minerals.

Obesity is also a major risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus. The good news is that this may be preventable. In clinical studies, patients who were at a high risk of developing diabetes decreased their risk by almost 60% with less than 10% weight loss in three years.

If haven’t been active for most of your life, trying to start an exercise program in your senior years may seem overwhelming. But Moreno suggests that you focus on what you can do, not on what you can’t do. “Start simple,” he says. “Walking, for example, gives you every exercise benefit that you need.”

Jump up ^ Zametkin AJ, Zoon CK, Klein HW, Munson S (February 2004). “Psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity: a review of the past 10 years”. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry (Review). 43 (2): 134–50. doi:10.1097/00004583-200402000-00008. PMID 14726719.

Environmental: The world around us can have a significant impact on the development of obesity. What we eat, our level of physical activity, and our lifestyle choices are all influenced by our environment. Children who grew up in a household were parents did not eat healthy foods or chose to eat at fast food restaurants instead of preparing food at home may grow up to adopt these unhealthy eating habits. Additionally, there are some neighborhoods that do not have sidewalks or accessible recreation areas, making it more difficult for residents to engage in physical activity. It has also been suggested that those with lower education or who live in poverty are at an increased risk for becoming obese, which may due to the fact that high-calorie, processed food is less expensive and easier to make than healthier foods.

And the social and economic consequences of obesity — including higher healthcare costs, lost workplace productivity, and lower wages — are having profound effects throughout the United States and around the globe.

Putting a loved one in senior living can be challenging, but finding care for family members who are obese can not only be challenging, but time-consuming and costly. Learn more about America’s next big problem with the aging nation: rising obesity in seniors.

Since the food law was enacted two years ago, it has forced multinational behemoths like Kellogg to remove iconic cartoon characters from sugary cereal boxes and banned the sale of candy like Kinder Surprise that use trinkets to lure young consumers. The law prohibits the sale of junk food like ice cream, chocolate and potato chips in Chilean schools and proscribes such products from being advertised during television programs or on websites aimed at young audiences.

IsagenixHealth.net is your one-stop platform for learning about the science behind Isagenix products. With regular articles from our Research and Science Team and the Scientific Advisory Board, you can stay abreast of the latest evidence-based updates about weight management, healthy aging, and energy and performance. Keeping up with us is easy — bookmark our page, subscribe via email or RSS, like our Facebook Page, or follow us on Twitter. For more information about Isagenix, visit www.isagenix.com.

You don’t necessarily have to follow a specific diet, she says, “just a well-rounded diet with extra protein.” That means making the most of the calories you take in, she says, not just eating a bowl of cereal for dinner or making entire meals of toast and tea. “You don’t need animal protein in every meal,” says Campbell, who praises lentils, beans and chickpeas as great sources of inexpensive protein to round out meals. 

Many wholesome foodies insist that the food industry won’t make serious progress toward healthier fare unless forced to by regulation. I, for one, believe regulation aimed at speeding the replacement of obesogenic foods with appealing healthier foods would be a great idea. But what a lot of foodies really want is to ban the food industry from selling junk food altogether. And that is just a fantasy. The government never managed to keep the tobacco companies from selling cigarettes, and banning booze (the third-most-deadly consumable killer after cigarettes and food) didn’t turn out so well. The two most health-enlightened, regulation-friendly major cities in America, New York and San Francisco, tried to halt sales of two of the most horrific fast-food assaults on health—giant servings of sugared beverages and kids’ fast-food meals accompanied by toys, respectively—and neither had much luck. Michelle Obama is excoriated by conservatives for asking schools to throw more fruits and vegetables into the lunches they serve. Realistically, the most we can hope for is a tax on some obesogenic foods. The research of Lisa Powell, the University of Illinois professor, suggests that a 20 percent tax on sugary beverages would reduce consumption by about 25 percent. (As for fatty foods, no serious tax proposal has yet been made in the U.S., and if one comes along, the wholesome foodies might well join the food industry and most consumers in opposing it. Denmark did manage to enact a fatty-food tax, but it was deemed a failure when consumers went next door into Germany and Sweden to stock up on their beloved treats.)

Before we look at ways to beat the bulge, it is time to get real. Dogs are fatter than ever. It’s estimated that 53% of all dogs in the US are overweight or obese. That’s more than 40 million dogs. There are so many overweight dogs in the world that when we see a dog that is at a healthy weight, we immediately think she is too skinny and unhealthy.

Texas law prohibits hospitals from practicing medicine. The physicians on the Methodist Health System medical staff are independent practitioners who are not employees or agents of Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Methodist Health System, or any of its affiliated hospitals.

Data were collected using a monthly chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system in which a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages each month and interviewed using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI).

“childhood obesity pie chart _obesity in usa reasons”

Fiber keeps things moving in our digestive tracts, which helps eliminate unused and harmful substances. Keeping a healthy flow of digestion promotes weight loss while reducing inflammation. Getting fiber from plenty of fruits and vegetables in your diet is best, but adding a gentle fiber supplement can also increase weight loss.
In addition to suffering from poor physical health, overweight and obese children can often be targets of early social discrimination. The psychological stress of social stigmatization can cause low self-esteem which, in turn, can hinder academic and social functioning, and persist into adulthood. While research is still being conducted, there have been some studies showing that obese children are not learning as well as those who are not obese. Further, physical fitness has been shown to be associated with higher achievement.
NHLBI Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. We support the development of guidelines based on up-to-date research to evaluate and manage risk of heart disease in children and adolescents, including overweight and obesity. Visit Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents for more information.
The physical performance test entailed such tasks as picking up a penny, walking 50 feet, standing up from a chair, lifting a book, climbing a flight of stairs and donning and removing a coat, the magazine report noted.
For the older person with OA, the most important risk factor that can be modified is obesity. Karlson et al. (2003) noted during the Nurses’ Health Study that of all the hip-replacement risk factors examined, including BMI, hormone replacement after menopause, alcohol use, physical activity, and cigarette smoking, only BMI and cigarette smoking were associated with needing a hip replacement.
Jump up ^ Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C (January 2012). “The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach”. Journal of Health Economics. 31 (1): 219–30. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.10.003. PMID 22094013.
Though it’s difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don’t, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person’s odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Gaining weight as an adult increases the risk for several cancers, even if the weight gain doesn’t result in overweight or obesity. It isn’t known exactly how being overweight increases cancer risk. Fat cells may release hormones that affect cell growth, leading to cancer. Also, eating or physical activity habits that may lead to being overweight may also contribute to cancer risk.
Studies show that boomers currently have the highest level of obesity of any age group in Australia. However, new research by University of Adelaide PhD student Rhiannon Pilkington has revealed some alarming statistics. As part of her research, she has compared obesity levels between the two generations at equivalent ages.
Food safety is a major concern when it comes to your senior’s nutrition, as the immune system of older adults is not able to handle foodborne illness as well as younger adults, making them more susceptible to foodborne illnesses such as salmonella, E. coli, and other common food infections. For an elderly adult, a food-related illness can be life threatening, so ensuring that food is prepared in a way that meets food safety guidelines is essential. The National Institute on Aging and the FDA has prepared a video on how to keep food safe, and avoid getting sick from your food.
Last month, Coca-Cola began an advertising campaign for new versions of Sprite and Fanta that boasts the tagline “Free of Logos, Equally Rich” — a nod to the fact that they will no longer contain warning labels because the company replaced half the sugar with artificial sweetener.
5. Kabakov E, Norymberg C, Osher E, Koffler M, Tordjman K, Greenman Y, Stern N: Prevalence of hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus: impact of the tightening definition of high blood pressure and association with confounding risk factors. J Cardiometab Syndr 2006; 1: 95– 101 [PubMed]
“Of the ranked diets, both DASH and the Mediterranean diet can help people with both diabetes prevention and management,” Campbell says. They work because they encourage a variety of foods and make people aware of the carbs they consume, she adds. Both diets are mentioned in the latest nutrition guidelines ​from the American Diabetes Association.
The study included 6636 individuals (3750 women) aged 55 years and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed multistate life tables by using prevalence, incidence rate and hazard ratios (HR) for three transitions (free-of-CVD-to-CVD, free-of-CVD-to-death and CVD-to-death), stratifying by the categories of body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders.
First, these surgeries reduce the amount of food stored in the stomach and the amount of calories your body can take in. This can help your body restore energy balance. Second, these surgeries change the levels of certain hormones and the way the brain responds to these hormones to control hunger urges. After surgery, some people are less interested in eating or they prefer to eat healthier foods. In some cases, genetic differences may affect how much weight loss patients experience after bariatric  surgery.
The first goal of dieting is to stop further weight gain. The next goal is to establish realistic weight-loss goals. While the ideal weight corresponds to a BMI of 20-25, this is difficult to achieve for many people. Thus, success is higher when a goal is set to lose 10%-15% of baseline weight as opposed to 20%-30% or greater. It is also important to remember that any weight reduction in an obese person would result in health benefits.
“For the baby boomers, nothing will magically happen to change that,” Hamburg said. “Societal change will take time. It’s a matter of education and realizing the danger of going into retirement age with a less healthy life and more chronic disease. For the time being, the boomers are aging into obesity-related illnesses, which will translate into a cost crisis for health care and Medicare.”
Fructose is mainly metabolized in the liver, the target organ of the metabolic alterations caused by the consumption of this sugar. In this study, rats receiving fructose-containing beverages presented a pathology similar to metabolic syndrome, which in the short term causes lipid accumulation (hypertriglyceridemia) and fatty liver, and eventually leads to hypertension, resistance to insulin, diabetes and obesity.
One of the most important things you can do to reduce your stroke risk is to keep your blood pressure under control. Losing weight may help you lower your blood pressure. It may also improve your cholesterol and blood sugar, which may then lower your risk for stroke.
^ Jump up to: a b c Longo, Dan L.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wadden, Thomas A. (19 January 2017). “Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Management of Obesity”. New England Journal of Medicine. 376 (3): 254–66. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1514009. PMID 28099824.
We know perfectly well who within our society has developed an extraordinary facility for nudging the masses to eat certain foods, and for making those foods widely available in cheap and convenient forms. The Pollanites have led us to conflate the industrial processing of food with the adding of fat and sugar in order to hook customers, even while pushing many faux-healthy foods of their own. But why couldn’t Big Food’s processing and marketing genius be put to use on genuinely healthier foods, like grilled fish? Putting aside the standard objection that the industry has no interest in doing so—we’ll see later that in fact the industry has plenty of motivation for taking on this challenge—wouldn’t that present a more plausible answer to America’s junk-food problem than ordering up 50,000 new farmers’ markets featuring locally grown organic squash blossoms?
When used as substitutes for regular meals, meal substitutes are a convenient way to reduce calories as part of a low-calorie diet plan. typical meal substitute available in powder and liquid form is Slim-Fast. Ensure is another meal substitute available in both liquid and bars. Meal substitutes should provide protein and be low in fat and calories. The label should include the amount of calories per serving and the percentages of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. The total number of calories per serving is predetermined so it is easier to keep track of the daily consumption of calories. As with all dramatic changes in your diet, you should consult your health-care provider to make sure that these changes will not have negative consequences.
Several tools have been developed to aid physicians in remembering the multiple etiologies of unintentional weight loss. These include the mnemonic Meals on Wheels (medication effects; emotional problems, especially depression; anorexia nervosa; alcoholism; late-life paranoia; swallowing disorders; oral factors, such as poorly fitting dentures and caries; no money; wandering and other dementia-related behaviors; hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and hypoadrenalism; enteric problems; eating problems, such as inability to feed oneself; low-salt and low-cholesterol diet; stones; social problems, such as isolation and inability to obtain preferred foods).20 Another tool is the 9 D’s of weight loss in the elderly (dementia, dentition, depression, diarrhea, disease [acute and chronic], drugs, dysfunction [functional disability], dysgeusia, dysphagia).21
Ovarian cancer: Higher BMI is associated with a slight increase in the risk of ovarian cancer, particularly in women who have never used menopausal hormone therapy (24). For example, a 5-unit increase in BMI is associated with a 10% increase in risk among women who have never used menopausal hormone therapy (24).
Orlistat (Xenical 120 mg by prescription or Alli 60 mg available over the counter) is a medication approved by the FDA in 1999. Your doctor may prescribe it if you weigh more than 30% over your healthy body weight or have a BMI greater than 30. Over one year, people who followed a weight-loss diet and took orlistat lost an average of 13.4 pounds, almost 8 pounds more than people who used diet alone to lose weight. It works by reducing the absorption of fat from the intestine. Diarrhea and incontinence of stool may be side effects of this medicine.
Nevertheless, the follow-up study of weight and breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative (36) found that for women who were already overweight or obese at baseline, weight change (either gain or loss) was not associated with breast cancer risk during follow-up. However, for women who were of normal weight at baseline, gaining more than 5% of body weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk.
Metabolic syndrome – The National Cholesterol Education Program has identified metabolic syndrome as a complex risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome consists of six major components: abdominal obesity, elevated blood cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance with or without glucose intolerance, elevation of certain blood components that indicate inflammation, and elevation of certain clotting factors in the blood. In the US, approximately one-third of overweight or obese persons exhibit metabolic syndrome.
Osteoarthritis is a common joint condition that most often affects the knee, hip, and lower back joints. Carrying extra pounds places extra pressure on these joints and wear away the cartilage (tissue that cushions the joints) that normally protects them.
For most people who are overweight or obese, the safest and most effective way to lose weight is to eat less and exercise more. If you eat less and exercise more, you will lose weight. It is as simple as that. Any weight-loss program, including medical and surgical approaches, will also include decreasing caloric intake and exercise. There are no magic pills. Diets that sound too good to be true are just that.
Jump up ^ Weng HH, Bastian LA, Taylor DH, Moser BK, Ostbye T (2004). “Number of children associated with obesity in middle-aged women and men: results from the health and retirement study”. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) (Comparative Study). 13 (1): 85–91. doi:10.1089/154099904322836492. PMID 15006281.

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Several randomized clinical trials in breast cancer survivors have reported weight loss interventions that resulted in both weight loss and beneficial changes in biomarkers that have been linked to the association between obesity and prognosis (43, 44). However, there is little evidence about whether weight loss improves cancer recurrence or prognosis (45). The NCI-sponsored Breast Cancer WEight Loss (BWEL) Study, a randomized phase III trial that is currently recruiting participants, will compare recurrence rate in overweight and obese women who take part in a weight loss program after breast cancer diagnosis with that in women who do not take part in the weight loss program.
Diuretic herbs, which increase urine production, can cause short-term weight loss but cannot help patients achieve lasting weight control. The body responds to heightened urine output by increasing thirst to replace lost fluids, and patients who use diuretics for an extended period of time eventually start retaining water again anyway. In moderate doses, psyllium, a mucilaginous herb available in bulk-forming laxatives like Metamucil, absorbs fluid and makes patients feel as if they have eaten enough. Red peppers and mustard help patients lose weight more quickly by accelerating the metabolic rate. They also make people more thirsty, so they crave water instead of food. Walnuts contain serotonin, the brain chemical that tells the body it has eaten enough. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) can raise metabolism and counter a desire for sugary foods.
Doctors may also note how a person carries excess weight on his or her body. Studies have shown that this factor may indicate whether or not an individual has a predisposition to develop certain diseases or conditions that may accompany obesity. “Apple-shaped” individuals who store most of their weight around the waist and abdomen are at greater risk for cancer, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes than “pear-shaped” people whose extra pounds settle primarily in their hips and thighs.
Be wary of quick fixes. You may be tempted by fad diets that promise fast and easy weight loss. The reality, however, is that there are no magic foods or quick fixes. Fad diets may help in the short term, but the long-term results don’t appear to be any better than other diets.
The Pollanites seem confused about exactly what benefits their way of eating provides. All the railing about the fat, sugar, and salt engineered into industrial junk food might lead one to infer that wholesome food, having not been engineered, contains substantially less of them. But clearly you can take in obscene quantities of fat and problem carbs while eating wholesomely, and to judge by what’s sold at wholesome stores and restaurants, many people do. Indeed, the more converts and customers the wholesome-food movement’s purveyors seek, the stronger their incentive to emphasize foods that light up precisely the same pleasure centers as a 3 Musketeers bar. That just makes wholesome food stealthily obesogenic.
47. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Clarke R, Emberson J, Halsey J, Qizilbash N, Collins R, Peto R: Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 2009; 373: 1083– 1096 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
The results of this pilot study suggest that changes in weight, body composition, dietary intake, physical function, and insulin sensitivity following an intensive lifestyle therapy may be sustained long-term even without contact. However, this study was limited by the small sample size, high potential for selection bias, lack of a control group, and potential for under-reporting food intake. In addition, the participants who did not return for follow-up may have had outcomes that were different from those participating in this pilot study. Moreover, without a non-weight loss control group, it was not possible to separate the effects of weight loss from the aging process, per se on the variables of interest.
“We want to address the problem head-on,” he said. “Obesity creates incredible public health problems. We want to make BMI another vital sign, like blood pressure. Even if you’re just coming in because you have a cold, your BMI will be measured and tracked.
Studies have also shown that housewives in the 1950s were significantly slimmer than women today. This could be because their daily lives involved much more physical activity, including walking more and having fewer labour-saving devices.
Because researchers often treat baby boomers of color as belonging to one group, quality data on the individual status of specific racial populations is lacking, leading to insufficiently designed programs, policies, and services. The absence of data is a testament to the invisibility of baby boomers of color in society and deeply affects the practice of social work and other helping professions that require culturally sensitive approaches. Melvin Delgado rectifies this injustice by providing a comprehensive portrait of the status and unique assets of boomers of color. Using specific data, he grounds understanding of boomersÕfinancial, medical, and emotional needs within a historical, socioeconomic, cultural, and political context, resulting in tailored recommendations for meeting the challenges of a growing population. His research focuses on African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Native American older adults and addresses issues of financial security, employment stability, housing, and health care, which are often complicated by linguistic and cultural differences. Rather than treat baby boomers of color as a financial burden on society and its resources, Delgado recognizes their strengths and positive contributions to families and communities, resulting in an affirming and empowering approach to service.
However, not all was bleak for the boomers: They are less likely to smoke cigarettes than their parents, and were less likely to have emphysema or a heart attack, the study — which was published Feb. 4 in JAMA Internal Medicine — found.
One small case–control study (three publications) compared 14 patients who had anorexia with 10 control patients.14–16 The patients with anorexia had a median age of 78 (standard deviation [SD] 8) years and BMI of 18.4 (SD 0.6) kg/m2 in the absence of any organic or mental disorders. Data from the control group were collected retrospectively by reviewing 24 hospital records of persons over 65 years of age in whom a lumbar puncture had been performed to rule out a meningeal syndrome. The 10 patients in the control group were selected because they were nonsmokers and had a normal body weight (i.e., within 10% of their ideal body weight). The study primarily focused on examining the changes in anthropometric parameters, amino acids, neuropeptides and cytokine levels associated with anorexia. Of the 14 anorectic patients, five received treatment with megestrol acetate (480 mg/day) for six months. There were no changes in anthropometric parameters with treatment. The only significant changes in laboratory parameters were an increase in plasma transferrin level (p < 0.05) and an increase in CSF β-endorphin levels (p < 0.05). Yan, L.L, Daviglus, M.L., Liu, K., Pirzada, A., Garside, D.B., Schiffer, L., et al. (2004). Body mass index and health-related quality of life in adults 65 years and older. Obesity Research, 12, 69-76. Order blood tests to screen for complications. A lipid panel test can check if you have high cholesterol or triglyceride levels in your blood. A liver function test can determine if your liver is working properly. A fasting glucose test can find out if you have prediabetes or diabetes. © 2004-2018 All rights reserved. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Haslam DW, James WP (2005). "Obesity". Lancet (Review). 366 (9492): 1197–209. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67483-1. PMID 16198769. Involuntary weight loss is a predictor of mortality. Studies report that 9% to 38% of people die within 1 to 2½ years following weight loss.1,2 Increased hospitalizations, in-hospital complications, increased risk for institutionalization, increased comorbidities, delayed recovery from injury, delayed wound healing, increased falls, decreased functional abilities, and an overall poorer quality of life are consequences of involuntary weight loss.2,3,8 Mortality is 4 times higher for those with a 5% weight loss within 1 month.6 Improved medical care also could be contributing to rising disability, Martin suggested. People whose disabilities began early in life are now living longer. "It could be seen as good news: improved survival for people with Down syndrome or spinal cord injuries who might have not reached middle age in the past," she said. As many as 85% of dieters who do not exercise on a regular basis regain their lost weight within two years. In five years, the figure rises to 90%. Repeatedly losing and regaining weight (yo yo dieting) encourages the body to store fat and may increase a patient's risk of developing heart disease. The primary factor in achieving and maintaining weight loss is a life-long commitment to regular exercise and sensible eating habits. Among a cohort of 250 residents of a Dutch nursing home, after adjusting for age and sex, a significant relationship was seen between body weight and mobility (p < 0.0001), appetite (p < 0.001), thirst (p < 0.01) and consumption of extra food (p < 0.0001).10 In multivariate analysis, only difficulties in bringing food to the mouth and chewing were significantly associated with weight loss. Similarly, in a cross-sectional study involving 109 patients (99% male) admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit in the United States, oral problems were the strongest predictor of substantial, involuntary weight loss in the year before admission.11 If the most-influential voices in our food culture today get their way, we will achieve a genuine food revolution. Too bad it would be one tailored to the dubious health fantasies of a small, elite minority. And too bad it would largely exclude the obese masses, who would continue to sicken and die early. Despite the best efforts of a small army of wholesome-food heroes, there is no reasonable scenario under which these foods could become cheap and plentiful enough to serve as the core diet for most of the obese population—even in the unlikely case that your typical junk-food eater would be willing and able to break lifelong habits to embrace kale and yellow beets. And many of the dishes glorified by the wholesome-food movement are, in any case, as caloric and obesogenic as anything served in a Burger King. Nearly 40 percent of U.S. adults have obesity, and ​​more than 18 percent of children and teens also have obesity. This condition disproportionately affects people from certain racial and ethnic groups and those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Some studies have shown that people who eat wholesomely tend to be healthier than people who live on fast food and other processed food (particularly meat), but the problem with such studies is obvious: substantial nondietary differences exist between these groups, such as propensity to exercise, smoking rates, air quality, access to health care, and much more. (Some researchers say they’ve tried to control for these factors, but that’s a claim most scientists don’t put much faith in.) What’s more, the people in these groups are sometimes eating entirely different foods, not the same sorts of foods subjected to different levels of processing. It’s comparing apples to Whoppers, instead of Whoppers to hand-ground, grass-fed-beef burgers with heirloom tomatoes, garlic aioli, and artisanal cheese. For all these reasons, such findings linking food type and health are considered highly unreliable, and constantly contradict one another, as is true of most epidemiological studies that try to tackle broad nutritional questions. Patricia Rockwood has been a professional copy editor and writer for more than 25 years. She is an avid gardener with a certified Florida backyard habitat. Rockwood has practiced yoga for more than 40 years and taught for much of that time. She is also a professional mosaic artist. Whether you're at risk of becoming obese, currently overweight or at a healthy weight, you can take steps to prevent unhealthy weight gain and related health problems. Not surprisingly, the steps to prevent weight gain are the same as the steps to lose weight: daily exercise, a healthy diet, and a long-term commitment to watch what you eat and drink. Being overweight increases a person’s risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and other serious medical conditions that impact quality of life and have substantial economic consequences for our healthcare system. The increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children and adults is a serious concern for Texas. "This comparison paints a very poor picture of Generation X. It gives rise to major concerns for the future health of Gen X and Australia's ability to cope with that burden," says Pilkington, who is conducting her research in the University's Population Research & Outcome Studies group, School of Medicine. [redirect url='https://betahosts.com/bump' sec='7']

“obesity diagnosis code icd 10 _definition for obesity hypoventilation syndrome”

Nadia B. Pietrzykowska, MD, FACP, is a Board Certified and fellowship trained Obesity Medicine Specialist, Physician Nutrition Specialist and Health Coach. She is the Founder and Medical Director of “Weight & Life MD,” a Center for Healthy Weight, Nutrition and Lifestyle opening soon in New Jersey.
An important determinant of body-fat mass is the relationship between energy intake and expenditure. Obesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than she/he burns. We need calories to sustain life and have the energy be active; yet to maintain a desirable weight, we need to balance the amount of  energy we ingest in the form of food with the energy we expend (National Institutes of Health [NIH]), 2006). Weight gain occurs when the balance is tipped and we take in more calories than we burn. Most studies indicate that how much we eat does not decline with advancing age (Gary, Hunt, VanderJagt, & Vellas, 1992). Therefore it is likely that a decrease in energy expenditure, particularly in the 50- to 65-year-old age group, contributes to the increase in body fat as we age. In those 65 years of age and older, hormonal changes that occur during aging may cause the accumulation of fat. Aging is associated with a decrease in growth hormone secretions, reduced responsiveness to thyroid hormone, decline in serum testosterone, and resistance to leptin (Corpas, Harman, & Blackman, 1993). Resistance to leptin could cause a decreased ability to regulate appetite downward (Villareal et al., 2005). Genetic, environmental and social, as well as several other factors can all contribute to obesity. These factors will be discussed below.
The National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES I) showed that people who engage in limited recreational activity were more likely to gain weight than more active people. Other studies have shown that people who engage in regular strenuous activity gain less weight than sedentary people.
Waist circumference is a less-common method used to measure obesity in an individual. This simple measurement indicates obesity and morbid obesity in adults by measuring your waist. To find your waist circumference, wrap a tape measure around the area above your hip bone and below your rib cage.
It’s important to know where one stands with their weight, as it is extremely relevant not only for the treatment, but also for the prevention of many chronic diseases. As we discussed so far, just screening for overweight or obesity isn’t a simple task, and obesity can be missed or overestimated in the elderly population even more so than in younger adults.
Villareal DT, Chode S. Parimi N, Sinacore DR, Hilton T, Armamento-Villareal R, Napoli N, Qualls C, Shah K. Weight loss, exercise or both and physical function in obese older adults, The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364(13), pp. 1218-1229. March 31, 2011.
Muscle mass decreases from about 45 percent of your total body weight in your youth to about 27 percent by the time you reach age 70. And the drop in hormones that accompanies menopause also precipitates a decrease in muscle mass, triggering even more weight gain for women. Your body fat, meanwhile, can double, even if your weight remains the same.
Endometrial cancer: Obese and overweight women are two to about four times as likely as normal-weight women to develop endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus), and extremely obese women are about seven times as likely to develop the more common of the two main types of this cancer (7). The risk of endometrial cancer increases with increasing weight gain in adulthood, particularly among women who have never used menopausal hormone therapy (8).
Baby boomer’s health woes from obesity, which include an increased risk for arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure, may contribute to a surge in Medicare costs now that they’ve started turning 65. Baby boomers are considered the generation born from 1946 to 1964.
A group in Amsterdam, meanwhile, is investigating whether transferring feces from lean to overweight people will lead to weight loss. U.S. researchers tend to view such “fecal transplants” as imprecise and risky. A more promising approach, says Robert Karp, who oversees National Institutes of Health grants related to obesity and the microbiome, is to identify the precise strains of bacteria associated with leanness, determine their roles and develop treatments accordingly. Gordon has proposed enriching foods with beneficial bacteria and any nutrients needed to establish them in the gut—a science-based version of today’s probiotic yogurts. No one in the field believes that probiotics alone will win the war on obesity, but it seems that, along with exercising and eating right, we need to enlist our inner microbial army.
Compared to younger populations, elderly people tend to be on more medications. It’s critical that you talk to your doctor or health care professional before beginning a new diet regimen. There are a multitude of food and drug interactions that can be detrimental to your health, especially for blood thinners or cholesterol and blood pressure medications. Your physician knows your prescription history and can forewarn you on which foods to avoid.
23. Yeh S, Wu SY, Levine DM, et al. Quality of life and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate: correlation between cytokine levels and nutritional status, appetite in geriatric patients with wasting syndrome. J Nutr Health Aging 2000; 4:246–51 [PubMed]
An early hint that gut microbes might play a role in obesity came from studies comparing intestinal bacteria in obese and lean individuals. In studies of twins who were both lean or both obese, researchers found that the gut community in lean people was like a rain forest brimming with many species but that the community in obese people was less diverse—more like a nutrient-overloaded pond where relatively few species dominate. Lean individuals, for example, tended to have a wider variety of Bacteroidetes, a large tribe of microbes that specialize in breaking down bulky plant starches and fibers into shorter molecules that the body can use as a source of energy.
Putting a loved one in senior living can be challenging, but finding care for family members who are obese can not only be challenging, but time-consuming and costly. Learn more about America’s next big problem with the aging nation: rising obesity in seniors.
Herbal remedies, vitamins and minerals, all considered dietary supplements by the Food and Drug Administration, don’t have the same rigorous testing and labeling process as over-the-counter and prescription medications do.
A state of excess body fat, which is a premorbid addiction disorder, defined as 20% above an individual’s standard weight (the ideal body weight is 21 kg/m2; a person is considered obese with a body weight above 30 kg/m2).
Obesity is best defined by using the body mass index. The body mass index is calculated using a person’s height and weight. The body mass index (BMI) equals a person’s weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared. Since BMI describes body weight relative to height, it is strongly correlated with total body fat content in adults. An adult who has a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and an adult who has a BMI over 30 is considered obese. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal weight.
23. The clinical and cost-effectiveness of medical nutrition therapies: evidence and estimates of potential medical savings from the use of selected nutritional intervention. June 1996. Summary report prepared for the Nutrition Screening Initiative.
Meningioma: The risk of this slow-growing brain tumor that arises in the membranes surrounding the brain and the spinal cord is increased by about 50% in people who are obese and about 20% in people who are overweight (16).
The AP’s poll was conducted from June 3-12 by Knowledge Networks of Menlo Park, Calif., and involved online interviews with 1,416 adults, including 1,078 baby boomers born between 1946 and 1964. Knowledge Networks used traditional telephone and mail sampling methods to randomly recruit respondents. People selected who had no Internet access were given it free.
Nevertheless, the follow-up study of weight and breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative (36) found that for women who were already overweight or obese at baseline, weight change (either gain or loss) was not associated with breast cancer risk during follow-up. However, for women who were of normal weight at baseline, gaining more than 5% of body weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk.
Regular exercise. To effectively lose weight, most people need to do moderate intensity exercise for 60 minutes most days of the week. Add more activity during the day. Take the stairs and get up often from your desk or sofa.
Kidney cancer: People who are overweight or obese are nearly twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop renal cell cancer, the most common form of kidney cancer (13). The association of renal cell cancer with obesity is independent of its association with high blood pressure, a known risk factor for kidney cancer (14).
Top Dog Tips is here to provide dog owners with the most accurate and in-depth tips and advice on dog care, health, nutrition and training from the industry experts – veterinarians, dog trainers, groomers and animal scientists. We help dog owners effortlessly choose the best dog supplies on the market. We buy, test, review and rank pet products to help you avoid the bad stuff and purchase only what’s best for you and your dog.
Obesity had no effect on total life expectancy in older individuals, but increased the risk of having CVD earlier in life and consequently extended the number of years lived with CVD. Owing to increasing prevalence of obesity and improved treatment of CVD, we might expect more individuals living with CVD and for a longer period of time.
This work was supported by grants from the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health and by the Foundation for Physical Therapy.
With her wedding just days away, Wilhelm tried to get to the bottom of her father’s alarming transformation. Because he was diabetic, his primary care physician assumed the weight loss was diabetes-related and treated the problem as such. Wilhelm, that the condition might be more serious, tried insisting that her father go to the hospital, but he wouldn’t hear of it.
Every weight-loss plan is based on one simple principle: calorie intake vs calorie output. To lose weight, a dog must consume fewer calories than they burn a day. Start by counting your dog’s calories accurately. Instead of feeding ‘free-choice’ or giving your dog one or two meals a day, change to feeding your dog several small meals a day. That way you’ll be able to control and monitor exactly how much they eat.
Also, our busy lives make it harder to plan and cook healthy meals. For many of us, it’s easier to reach for prepared foods, go out to eat, or go to the drive-through. But these foods are often high in saturated fat and calories. Portions are often too large. Work schedules, long commutes, and other commitments also cut into the time we have for physical activity.
The benefits of taking control of your health and your life are undeniable, but most people are not sure where to start. The surgeons and staff at MIST are here to guide you through this life altering process and ultimately help you to achieve your weight loss goals.
A supermarket shelf in Santiago. Each of the black nutrition labels indicates a product is high in one of four categories: salt, sugar, calories and fat. Credit Victor Ruiz Caballero for The New York Times
Inflammatory markers in particular have received much attention since the discovery in the 1990’s that adipocytes act as an endocrine organ (Forsythe 2008). It is now widely accepted that weight gain results in adipocyte hypertrophy, which leads to an increased in obesity-related inflammatory markers such as leptin, TNF-a, IL-6, while weight loss results in a decrease in these markers (Forsythe 2008). It is also known that adipocytes are not the only source of inflammatory molecules, with macrophages and muscle also secreting these molecules (Cao 2011). The complex interplay of weight loss and exercise with inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and regulatory pathways discussed in this review are represented in Figure 2.
According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) “Not everyone gains weight when they stop smoking. Among people who do, the average weight gain is between 6 and 8 pounds. Roughly 10 percent of people who stop smoking gain a large amount of weight – 30 pounds or more.”

“obesity epidemic reddit obesity epidemic with decline in physical activity”

The widespread availability of nutritional guidelines[90] has done little to address the problems of overeating and poor dietary choice.[91] From 1971 to 2000, obesity rates in the United States increased from 14.5% to 30.9%.[92] During the same period, an increase occurred in the average amount of food energy consumed. For women, the average increase was 335 calories (1,400 kJ) per day (1,542 calories (6,450 kJ) in 1971 and 1,877 calories (7,850 kJ) in 2004), while for men the average increase was 168 calories (700 kJ) per day (2,450 calories (10,300 kJ) in 1971 and 2,618 calories (10,950 kJ) in 2004). Most of this extra food energy came from an increase in carbohydrate consumption rather than fat consumption.[93] The primary sources of these extra carbohydrates are sweetened beverages, which now account for almost 25 percent of daily food energy in young adults in America,[94] and potato chips.[95] Consumption of sweetened drinks such as soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, and energy and vitamin water drinks is believed to be contributing to the rising rates of obesity[96][97] and to an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.[98] Vitamin D deficiency is related to diseases associated with obesity.[99]
You may sometime hear about grandpa that smoked all his life and is still doing just fine. It doesn’t mean that smoking does not affect people’s health. While everybody else has died from cancer or other lung diseases at a younger age, grandpa is now older and doing well while still smoking like a chimney, as he may just happen to have a sort of resistance to the harmful effects of smoking. This may explain the “obesity paradox” and why some older adults affected by obesity seem to do better than their normal weight counterparts. This said, there is no final word on whether overweight and obesity are protective in the older population and more studies are needed. Nevertheless, reluctance is sometimes seen in implementing weight-loss regimens in the elderly, and it may be due at least in part to these uncertainties.
Nicklas BJ, Ambrosius W, Messier SP, Miller GD, Penninx BWJH, Loeser RF, Palla S, Bleecker E, Pahor M. Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:544–551. [PubMed]
Some nutrition advocates wonder how long the law will survive in its current form. Mr. Piñera, the former president who was recently elected to the office again and will succeed Ms. in March, is a conservative businessman who vetoed the food bill in 2011 during his first term in office. Instead, his administration backed a nutrition initiative, financed by multinational food companies, that emphasized healthy recipes, exercise and moderation when it comes to junk food. The campaign was the project of the first lady, Cecilia Morel Montes.
The authors point out that lower-income households headed by older adults rely on Social Security for the majority of their income, while higher-income elderly households rely on a mix of Social Security, earnings, and asset income.
An excess of subcutaneous fat in proportion to lean body mass. Excess fat accumulation is associated with increase in the size (hypertrophy) as well as the number (hyperplasia) of adipose tissue cells. Obesity is variously defined in terms of absolute weight, weight:height ratio, distribution of subcutaneous fat, and societal and esthetic norms. Measures of weight in proportion to height include relative weight (RW, body weight divided by median desirable weight for a person of the same height and medium frame according to actuarial tables), body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and ponderal index (kg/m3). These do not differentiate between excess adiposity and increased lean body mass. In contrast, subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and determination of the waist:hip ratio help define the regional deposition of fat and differentiate the more medically significant central obesity from peripheral obesity in adults. No single cause can explain all cases of obesity. Ultimately it results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although faulty eating habits related to failure of normal satiety feedback mechanisms may be responsible for some cases, many obese people neither consume more calories nor eat different proportions of foodstuffs than nonobese persons. Contrary to popular belief, obesity is not caused by disorders of pituitary, thyroid, or adrenal gland metabolism. However, it is often associated with hyperinsulinism and relative insulin resistance. Studies of obese twins strongly suggest the presence of genetic influences on resting metabolic rate, feeding behavior, changes in energy expenditures in response to overfeeding, lipoprotein lipase activity, and basal rate of lipolysis. Environmental factors associated with obesity include socioeconomic status, race, region of residence, season, urban living, and being part of a smaller family. The prevalence of obesity is greater when weight is measured during winter rather than summer. Obesity is much more common in the southeastern U.S., although the northeastern and midwestern states also have high rates, a phenomenon independent of race, population density, and season.
A follow-up study was recently released in the American Journal of Public Health, in which Masters and his colleagues found that obesity accounts for 18 percent of deaths in people ages 40 to 85. This estimate is more than four times higher than researchers previously thought. Due to environmental factors—more sedentary lifestyle, processed foods—the study says each generation is obese for a longer period than the former, a factor not considered in previous estimates.
Caring.com is a leading online destination for caregivers seeking information and support as they care for aging parents, spouses, and other loved ones. We offer thousands of original articles, helpful tools, advice from more than 50 leading experts, a community of caregivers, and a comprehensive directory of caregiving services.
The study included 6636 individuals (3750 women) aged 55 years and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed multistate life tables by using prevalence, incidence rate and hazard ratios (HR) for three transitions (free-of-CVD-to-CVD, free-of-CVD-to-death and CVD-to-death), stratifying by the categories of body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders.
Gacci M, Sebastianelli A, Salvi M, et al. Role of abdominal obesity for functional outcomes and complications in men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: results of the Multicenter Italian Report on Radical Prostatectomy (MIRROR) study. Scandinavian Journal of Urology 2014; 48(2):138-145.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). In this procedure, your stomach is separated into two pouches with an inflatable band. Pulling the band tight, like a belt, the surgeon creates a tiny channel between the two pouches. The band keeps the opening from expanding and is generally designed to stay in place permanently.
^ Jump up to: a b c Arendas K, Qiu Q, Gruslin A (2008). “Obesity in pregnancy: pre-conceptional to postpartum consequences”. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 30 (6): 477–88. doi:10.1016/s1701-2163(16)32863-8. PMID 18611299.
The first step must be to evaluate each diet to confirm whether it is actually good for your health. There is little point in undertaking a diet which will allow you to eat all your favorite foods but will not make you any healthier. Once you have removed the diets which are not actually healthy your list will be much shorter.
Support groups. You can find camaraderie and understanding in support groups where others share similar challenges with obesity. Check with your doctor, local hospitals or commercial weight-loss programs for support groups in your area, such as Weight Watchers.
Some weight-loss specialists say that the Medicare requirement that the counseling occur with a primary care physician makes it difficult for individuals to use the service. Appointments with physicians may take time to schedule. They believe that dietitians, weight-loss specialists or even other professionals should be able to offer such counseling.
The simplest method is to first calculate your body mass index(BMI).  If your BMI score is 40 or more, you are considered morbidly obese and have a high risk of developing the obesity health problems reviewed further down the page.
Credentials: Diets which are created or endorsed by medical professionals are more likely to provide good advice. This does not mean any diet endorsed by a professional is good but it does have a better chance of being healthy.
American Obesity Association: This group itself is not for profit, but it is made up of several types of sponsors, including professional groups such as the American College of Nutrition as well as health-insurance interests, for-profit companies such as drug and biotechnology companies, and weight-loss interests such as Jenny Craig, Inc., and Weight Watchers, Inc. The group’s purpose is to change the way obesity is perceived and to end discrimination against obese people, as well as to find more effective strategies for preventing and “curing” obesity. It uses lobbying, advocacy, and education to achieve these goals.
The researchers argue that previous studies of longevity and obesity were biased due to limitations of the National Health Interview Survey, or NHIS, which provides information on obesity. For example, the survey excludes those who are institutionalized, such as in a hospital or nursing home — a segment largely made up of seniors. Consequently, the data is overrepresented by older respondents who are healthy, including the relatively healthy obese. What’s more, many obese people fail to make it to age 65 and therefore don’t live long enough to participate in studies of older populations.
Today 72 percent of boomer men and 67 percent of boomer women are overweight or obese. By 2030, this generation will experience almost double the incident of having all three chronic conditions of hypertension, heart disease and diabetes. These three chronic health conditions are tied to this generation’s weight gain. The boomer generation is in a weight crisis that is about to go over the health care cliff.

“grades of obesity based on bmi +obesity defined by medical community”

Jump up ^ Keith SW, Redden DT, Katzmarzyk PT, Boggiano MM, Hanlon EC, Benca RM, Ruden D, Pietrobelli A, Barger JL, Fontaine KR, Wang C, Aronne LJ, Wright SM, Baskin M, Dhurandhar NV, Lijoi MC, Grilo CM, DeLuca M, Westfall AO, Allison DB (2006). “Putative contributors to the secular increase in obesity: Exploring the roads less traveled”. Int J Obes (Lond) (Review). 30 (11): 1585–94. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803326. PMID 16801930.
Association between obesity and stroke in advanced age has been inconsistent and may be sex-related. The Canadian Cardiovascular Health study did not find obesity to be a predisposing factor for stroke in older subjects (21). Conversely, the Honolulu Heart Program, which over a 22-year period prospectively followed up a cohort of 1,163 nonsmoking men aged 55–68 years, found that the rate of thromboembolic stroke rose significantly with increasing levels of BMI (22). In subjects from the Framingham Offspring Study aged 50–81 years, the 10-year population attributable risk of stroke was greater for the metabolic syndrome than for diabetes, particularly in women (27 vs. 5%), owing to its greater prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the general population (23). Obesity did not affect stroke rates in Korean men (24). A Spanish stroke registry of 2,000 consecutive stroke patients identified obesity as one significant predictor of stroke in women (mean age 75 years), but not in men (25). A similar identification of obesity as a risk factor for atherothrombotic brain infarction in older female but not male subjects was also reported by Aronow et al. (26). In a post hoc analysis of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly (SHEP) trial, the lowest BMI quintile was associated with increased occurrence of stroke rather than obesity (27), but after introduction of control of multiple confounders, the relation of BMI to death or stroke rate in the placebo group became insignificant. Overall, we interpret this mixed outcome of the attempt to clarify whether obesity is a contributor to the etiology of stroke in the elderly as a simple reflection of the dominant roles of hypertension, including obesity-related hypertension, as well as adiposity-related diabetes in this setting.
Sleep apnea and respiratory problems – Sleep apnea, which causes people to stop breathing for brief periods, interrupts sleep throughout the night and causes sleepiness during the day. It also causes heavy snoring. Respiratory problems associated with obesity occur when added weight of the chest wall squeezes the lungs and causes restricted breathing. Sleep apnea is also associated with high blood pressure.
Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer and while it was once an issue only in high income countries, overweight and obesity has now dramatically risen in low- and middle-income countries.Such countries are now facing a “double burden” of disease, for while they continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and under-nutrition, they are also experiencing a rapid upsurge in chronic disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings.
“I’m elated and horrified at the same time,” said Jim Walsh, a senior research associate at the MIT Security Studies Program and a board member of the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. “Elated because the parties are talking; horrified by the prospect of the two most unusual leaders in the world together in a room—what could possibly go wrong?”
Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis[2] and asthma.[2][30] As a result, obesity has been found to reduce life expectancy.[2]
Surgery. In general, weight-loss surgery (called bariatric surgery) be considered if your BMI is 40 or greater, or your BMI is 30-35 or greater and you have at least one medical condition directly related to obesity. In addition, you must have participated in a structured weight loss program without success.
And yet those final days provided the father-daughter time she had always longed for. “I made meals for him, did his laundry, cleaned the house, drank beer on the porch with him, and just enjoyed his undivided attention,” she remembers. “We listened to his jazz records, and a lot of Louis Prima, and he told me stories about the ‘Old Vegas’ and how much better that was than today’s version.”
Sleep apnea is a serious health risk associated with obesity. A person who has sleep apnea often snores heavily and stops breathing or takes very shallow breaths for short periods during sleep. Obesity increases the risk for sleep apnea, and excess fat stored around the neck can narrow the airway and make breathing difficult. Sleep apnea may cause daytime sleepiness and eventually lead to heart failure. Weight loss usually improves sleep apnea.
No drugs are approved by the FDA for involuntary weight loss. Existing data supporting pharmacologic agents come mostly from small studies. Pharmacologic management results in short-term weight gain (approximately 3-7 lb)11 but does not improve long-term health and mortality. Side effects from orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anabolic medications limit their use. Cyproheptadine and dronabinol may promote weight gain; central nervous system toxicity is a concern. Patients receiving megestrol and dronabinol usually gain weight, but weight is primarily adipose tissue, not lean body mass.12 Human growth hormone and other anabolic agents promote weight gain but are associated with increased mortality. Anticytokine therapies, antileptin therapies, and anti-inflammatory medications are under investigation.9 â– 
Losing 5 to 10 percent of your weight may lower your chances of developing heart disease. If you weigh 200 pounds, this means losing as little as 10 pounds. Weight loss may improve blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood flow.
Many explanations have been put forth for associations between BMI and social class. It is thought that in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness. In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns.[134] Attitudes toward body weight held by people in one’s life may also play a role in obesity. A correlation in BMI changes over time has been found among friends, siblings, and spouses.[136] Stress and perceived low social status appear to increase risk of obesity.[135][137][138]
Unintentional weight loss in persons older than 65 years is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The most common etiologies are malignancy, nonmalignant gastrointestinal disease, and psychiatric conditions. Overall, nonmalignant diseases are more common causes of unintentional weight loss in this population than malignancy. Medication use and polypharmacy can interfere with taste or cause nausea and should not be overlooked. Social factors may contribute to unintentional weight loss. A readily identifiable cause is not found in 16% to 28% of cases. Recommended tests include a complete blood count, basic metabolic panel, liver function tests, thyroid function tests, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, glucose measurement, lactate dehydrogenase measurement, and urinalysis. Chest radiography and fecal occult blood testing should be performed. Abdominal ultrasonography may also be considered. When baseline evaluation is unremarkable, a three- to six-month observation period is justified. Treatment focuses on the underlying cause. Nutritional supplements and flavor enhancers, and dietary modification that takes into account patient preferences and chewing or swallowing disabilities may be considered. Appetite stimulants may increase weight but have serious adverse effects and no evidence of decreased mortality.
Washington University School of Medicine’s 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient care institutions in the nation, currently ranked fourth in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.
Likewise, increasing your activity level is largely a matter of changing your attitude. You don’t have to become a marathon runner. Thirty minutes of aerobic activity five days a week will make a significant difference in your health. Look for ways to increase your activity level doing things you enjoy.
The BMI does not tke count for mass of muscle versus mass of fat. A BMI both below and above the so-called normal values can be healthy if there is little fat, but well developed muscle mass. And a person with a BMI less that 18.5 can be too fat if the muscle mass is very scant, but much fat.
Jump up ^ Finkelstein EA, Fiebelkorn IA, Wang G (1 January 2003). “National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: How much, and who’s paying”. Health Affairs. Online (May). doi:10.1377/hlthaff.w3.219.
Dennis T. Villareal, Suresh Chode, Nehu Parimi, David R. Sinacore, Tiffany Hilton, Reina Armamento-Villareal, Nicola Napoli, Clifford Qualls, Krupa Shah. Weight Loss, Exercise, or Both and Physical Function in Obese Older Adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 2011; 364 (13): 1218 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1008234
Some patients with obesity do not respond to healthy lifestyle changes and medicines. When these patients develop certain obesity-related complications, they may be eligible for the following surgeries.
Studies that have focused on inheritance patterns rather than on specific genes have found that 80% of the offspring of two obese parents were also obese, in contrast to less than 10% of the offspring of two parents who were of normal weight.[124] Different people exposed to the same environment have different risks of obesity due to their underlying genetics.[125]
Jump up ^ Flegal, Katherine M.; Kit, Brian K.; Orpana, Heather; Graubard, Barry I. (2 January 2013). “Association of All-Cause Mortality With Overweight and Obesity Using Standard Body Mass Index Categories”. JAMA. 309 (1): 71–82. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.113905. PMID 23280227.
The aging of the baby boom generation could fuel a 75 percent increase in the number of Americans ages 65 and older requiring nursing home care, to about 2.3 million in 2030 from 1.3 million in 2010, the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) projects in a new report.