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Monsanto presents a series on what it means to be “Climate Smart” in the world of agriculture. The series will cover the role of climate change in impacting food security, agriculture, weather patterns and society at large.
[6] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: the evidence report. www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/guidelines/archive/clinical-guidelines-obesity-adults-evidence-report. Published September 1998. Accessed July 25, 2017.
31. Beydoun MA, Beydoun HA, Wang Y: Obesity and central obesity as risk factors for incident dementia and its subtypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2008; 9: 204– 218 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
[4] National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf (PDF, 1.35 MB) . Updated 2017. Accessed October 2017.
Carbohydrates from food are broken down into the sugar glucose, which is used as a source of energy. Once the energy needs are fulfilled, glucose molecules are stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a special energy starch. When glycogen stores become full, extra glucose is converted into fat and cholesterol.
Before your doctor will prescribe medicines or surgery, he or she will probably want you to work on healthier eating and activity for at least 6 months. Even if your doctor gives you medicines or recommends surgery, you will need to keep your new healthy habits for the rest of your life.
For children and adolescents (younger than 20 years of age), overweight and obesity are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) BMI-for-age growth charts, which are available at http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/clinical_charts.htm:
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The data showed that Sacramento boomers are more likely to be overweight than Californians living in every other part of the state except the San Joaquin Valley, where nearly four of every five boomers were overweight.
Studies of identical twins, who have been raised apart, show that genes strongly influence a person’s weight. Vulnerability to weight gain and obesity tends to run in families. Your chances of being overweight are greater if one or both of your parents are overweight or obese.
Villareal DT, Binder EF, Yarasheski KE, Williams DB, Brown M, Sinacore DR, Kohrt WM. Effects of exercise training added to ongoing hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in frail elderly women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51:985–990. [PubMed]
Several areas of research are exploring mechanisms that link obesity and cancer (29, 46). One research area involves understanding the role of the microbes that live in the human gastrointestinal tract (collectively called the gut microbiota, or microbiome) in both type 2 diabetes and obesity. Both conditions are associated with dysbiosis, an imbalance in the collection of these microbes. For example, the gut microbiomes of obese people are different from, and less diverse than, those of non-obese people. Imbalances in the gut microbiota are associated with inflammation, altered metabolism, and genotoxicity, which may in turn be related to cancer. Experiments in mice show that the microbiome may influence the efficacy of some types of cancer treatment, particular immunotherapy (47, 48). Researchers are beginning to think about ways to change the microbiota of cancer patients to improve their outcomes.
The report, ” The State of Obesity: Better Policies for a Healthier America,” found that 26.9 percent of Coloradans ages 45 to 64 are obese in the state, followed by 21.9 percent of people ages 26 to 44 being classified as obese.

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The BMI is a measure of your weight in relation to your height, and your waist circumference measures your abdominal fat. Combining these with information about your additional risk factors will give you an idea of your risk for developing obesity-associated diseases.
The medication is approved for patients who are obese (BMI >30) or overweight (BMQ >27) with one weight-related health issue. The predominant side effects were headache and dizziness, as well as fatigue. In patients with diabetes, low blood sugar was also a concern when taking Belviq.
Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks that come with overweight and obesity. If most of your fat is around your waist rather than at your hips, you’re at a higher risk for heart disease and type 2 diabetes. This risk goes up with a waist size that is greater than 35 inches for women or greater than 40 inches for men. To correctly measure your waist, stand and place a tape measure around your middle, just above your hipbones. Measure your waist just after you breathe out.
Fortunately, there are lots of weight-loss options available for boomers, and all the good ones revolve around an age-old formula for shedding pounds: eating less and exercising more. That’s something any generation can get behind.
Gout is a disease that affects the joints that is caused by high levels of a substance called uric acid in the blood. The large amount of uric acid can form into solid or crystal-like masses that deposit in the joints. Gout is more common in overweight people and the risk of developing the disorder increases with higher body weights.
Although cyproheptadine has been studied in patients with cancer and cachexia,38 routine use in older adults with unintentional weight loss has not been studied. Dronabinol (Marinol) and human growth hormone have been studied in small, limited trials with mixed results for short-term, small weight gains. Dronabinol has been associated with significant adverse effects, particularly central nervous system toxicity. Human growth hormone has been associated with increased mortality.17
Some wholesome foodies openly celebrate fat and problem carbs, insisting that the lack of processing magically renders them healthy. In singing the praises of clotted cream and lard-loaded cookies, for instance, a recent Wall Street Journal article by Ron Rosenbaum explained that “eating basic, earthy, fatty foods isn’t just a supreme experience of the senses—it can actually be good for you,” and that it’s “too easy to conflate eating fatty food with eating industrial, oil-fried junk food.” That’s right, we wouldn’t want to make the same mistake that all the cells in our bodies make. Pollan himself makes it clear in his writing that he has little problem with fat—as long as it’s not in food “your great-grandmother wouldn’t recognize.”
Neuroscientist James Fallon discovered through his work that he has the brain of a psychopath, and subsequently learned a lot about the role of genes in personality and how his brain affects his life.
Lee JS, Visser M, Tylavsky FA, Kritchevshy SB, Schwartz AV, Sahyoun N, Harris TB, Newman AB. Weight loss and regain and effects on body composition: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:78–83. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
An initial step in detecting liver damage is a simple blood test to determine the presence of certain liver enzymes in the blood. Under normal circumstances, these enzymes reside within the cells of the liver. But when the liver is injured, these enzymes are spilled into the blood stream, and can lead to diseases like fatty liver, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hepatitis. Several medications also can increase liver enzyme test results.
In the second paper, all CVD risk factors significantly improved in the diet and exercise group (Villareal 2006b). Specific mechanisms were not proposed, but the discussion focused on medical care costs related to metabolic coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors that were ameliorated by the intervention (Table 1). In the third paper (Villareal 2008), bone turnover was measured by type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), osteocalcin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. There was a marked increase in serum CTX (~100-fold) and osteocalcin (~60-fold) concentrations in response to weight loss indicating that bone resorption and formation, respectively, were stimulated. Moreover, the increases in both CTX and osteocalcin concentrations correlated with decreases in hip bone mineral density (BMD), suggesting that weight-loss induced bone loss was due to increased bone turnover, with greater stimulation of bone resorption than bone formation. However, the clinical significance of the decrease in BMD was not clear as all participants had high baseline BMD Z-scores, and none had evidence of osteoporosis following weight loss. The investigators argued that BMD was not lost in the spine, which implies that the exercises were more effective in preserving BMD at this site. Exact mechanisms for loss of BMD with weight loss are not currently elucidated, but it was suggested that weight loss decreases the mechanical stress on the hip, without negatively impacting the spine or wrist. Weight loss was also associated with a 25% reduction in serum leptin that was highly correlated with decreased hip BMD. No such relationship was found between decreasing estradiol and changes in BMD. Leptin was discussed in the context of its inhibiting action on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand levels (Burguera 2001) and osteoblast differentiation (Cornish 2002). Levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), cortisol, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) did not change in response to loss, which suggests that these bone-active hormones were not involved with the loss of BMD in the hip. Vitamin D supplementation during the trial did not reach optimal serum concentrations and whether higher dose Vitamin D supplementation could have slowed bone loss, was raised by the investigators. It was also noted that bone quality was not measured and could have been positively impacted by the exercise training intervention.
…high-calorie, processed food is less expensive and quicker to prepare than fresh fruits and vegetables. Poverty and lower levels of education have also been linked to obesity (NIH, 2006). It has been suggested that one reason why poverty and lower educational levels are risk factors for obesity is that high-calorie, processed food is less expensive and quicker to prepare than fresh fruits and vegetables (NIH, 2006). Through observation and the anecdotes patients have shared with me, I have come to believe the social environment indeed contributes to the increasing prevalence of obesity. To date, only a few research studies have focused on this factor.
Treatment should focus on the underlying cause. This often involves a multidisciplinary team, including dentists; dietitians; speech, occupational, or physical therapists; and social service workers. Common strategies to address unintentional weight loss in older adults are dietary changes, environmental modifications, nutritional supplements, flavor enhancers, and appetite stimulants.27
Your doctor may diagnose overweight and obesity based on your medical history, physical exams that confirm you have a high body mass index (BMI) and possibly a high waist circumference, and tests to rule out other medical conditions.
Documenting such differences does not mean the discrepancies are responsible for obesity, however. To demonstrate cause and effect, Gordon and his colleagues conducted an elegant series of experiments with so-called humanized mice, published last September in Science. First, they raised genetically identical baby rodents in a germ-free environment so that their bodies would be free of any bacteria. Then they populated their guts with intestinal microbes collected from obese women and their lean twin sisters (three pairs of fraternal female twins and one set of identical twins were used in the studies). The mice ate the same diet in equal amounts, yet the animals that received bacteria from an obese twin grew heavier and had more body fat than mice with microbes from a thin twin. As expected, the fat mice also had a less diverse community of microbes in the gut.
A full thyroid panel is needed to identify hypothyroidism in dogs. Your vet will put your dog on thyroid supplementation and ask you to bring him in for periodic re-testing. If all goes well, he should slim down and get back some of his energy, keeping in mind that senior dogs aren’t as active as when they were younger.
Diabetes: Type 2 diabetes was once called adult-onset diabetes. Now with the rise in childhood obesity, there is a dramatic rise in the number of children suffering from type 2 diabetes. Untreated, this can be a life-threatening condition.
At last, it’s time to toss that scale that’s collecting dust under your bathroom vanity. “At advanced ages, you cannot afford to lose muscle, organ tissue, or bone mass,” says Huizenga, “which means focusing on the number on the scale is especially inappropriate.” Instead, invest in a body fat measurement tool (such as calipers or an electrical impedance device) or simply just measure your waist size. The general rule of thumb is that your waist size should be no more than half your height. So, a woman who’s 5′ 4″ (or 64 inches) should have a waist size no larger than 32 inches; a man who’s 5′ 9″ (or 69 inches) should have a waist no larger than 34.5 inches.

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Cancers of the colon, breast (after menopause), endometrium (the lining of the uterus), kidney, and esophagus are linked to obesity. Some studies have also reported links between obesity and cancers of the gallbladder, ovaries, and pancreas.
In the long term, a child with obesity is more likely to have obesity as an adult.24An adult with obesity has a higher risk of developing heart disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer.25
A slew of start-ups are trying to find ways of producing fresh, local, unprocessed meals quickly and at lower cost. But could this food eventually be sold as cheaply, conveniently, and ubiquitously as today’s junky fast food? Not even according to Bittman, who explored the question in a recent New York Times Magazine article. Even if wholesome food caught on with the public at large, including the obese population, and even if poor and working-class people were willing to pay a premium for it, how long would it take to scale up from a handful of shops to the tens of thousands required to begin making a dent in the obesity crisis? How long would it take to create the thousands of local farms we’d need in order to provide these shops with fresh, unprocessed ingredients, even in cities?
Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis[2] and asthma.[2][30] As a result, obesity has been found to reduce life expectancy.[2]
A team from the University of Barcelona (UB) led by Dr Juan Carlos Laguna published a study in the journal Hepatology that provides clues to the molecular mechanism through which fructose (a type of sugar) in beverages may alter lipid energy metabolism and cause fatty liver and metabolic syndrome.
In January, a meta-analysis by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention senior scientist Katherine Flegal caused a stir when she concluded that being older than 65 and overweight helps people to live longer than their skinnier peers. The findings also claimed that obesity becomes less dangerous with age, and obese adults with a grade 1 obesity BMI of 30 to 34.9 did not have a greater mortality risk than someone of a healthy weight.
The report notes that the number of Americans ages 65 and older is on course to more than double from 46 million today to over 98 million by 2060, while the 65-and-older age group’s share of the total population will rise to nearly 24 percent from 15 percent.
Losing weight is difficult at any age, but can seem overwhelming for seniors. Having a healthy diet will help in general health but also enable us to lose weight. One should eat low calorie vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery and nuts like walnuts, Indian nuts. Do not consume alcohol in any form, including beer and wine. Alcohol not only adds calories, but it inhibits the burning of fat from fat deposits. Diet Nutrition Supplements are an necessary half of any weight loss plan. Supplements help to provide to body during weight loss. These supplements are easily available in market and one can [url redacted-admin] Shop Online.
Where the Pollanites get into real trouble—where their philosophy becomes so glib and wrongheaded that it is actually immoral—is in the claim that their style of food shopping and eating is the answer to the country’s weight problem. Helping me to indulge my taste for genuinely healthy wholesome foods are the facts that I’m relatively affluent and well educated, and that I’m surrounded by people who tend to take care with what they eat. Not only am I within a few minutes’ drive of three Whole Foods and two Trader Joe’s, I’m within walking distance of two other supermarkets and more than a dozen restaurants that offer bountiful healthy-eating options.
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A retrospective chart review of 96 residents in six intermediate care facilities in the United States found an association between anorexia and poor weight status and confusion in 42 residents.8 A prospective six-month study involving 309 residents of an intermediate nursing home in suburban midwestern United States found the primary reasons for weight changes to be acute illness, dementia and changes in the mucous membranes of the mouth and gums.9
The simplest method is to first calculate your body mass index(BMI).  If your BMI score is 40 or more, you are considered morbidly obese and have a high risk of developing the obesity health problems reviewed further down the page.
Schematic of the systematic selection process to identify relevant studies (Abbreviations: BC= body composition; DXA = dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; CT= computed tomography; MRI=magnetic resonance imaging; RCT = randomised control trial)
While there are other measures of obesity, including abdominal fat and waist circumference, researchers generally define it according to body mass index, or BMI. The BMI formula divides an individual’s weight by the square of height, then multiplies the result by 703. The math is not without controversy: Some health experts charge that for people with large muscle mass, the calculations may unfairly skew them into overweight or obese categories.

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During your appointment, your doctor or other health care provider is likely to ask you a number of questions about your weight, eating, activity, mood and thoughts, and any symptoms you might have. You may be asked such questions as:
Found your 10 minute walk/rest for 10 minute plan which I use to finish my 45 min workout. As an ex college and pro football player my knees are shot and one has been replaced so far so I have to walk fast on incline. Started 3 weeks ago 5 days a week but no change yet but I know how these things take time. The holidays don’t help but New Years is tomorrow so come next Monday I plan to get real serious on a 40 lb weight loss. Any other suggestions? I’m 280 now at about 6’1 but in pretty good shape except for this guy I want to get rid of.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Lau DC, Douketis JD, Morrison KM, Hramiak IM, Sharma AM, Ur E (April 2007). “2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children summary”. CMAJ (Practice Guideline, Review). 176 (8): S1–13. doi:10.1503/cmaj.061409. PMC 1839777 . PMID 17420481.
Usually, periodic attacks of headaches on one or both sides of the head. These may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity of the eyes to light (photophobia), increased sensitivity to sound (phonophobia), dizziness, blurred vision, cognitive disturbances, and other symptoms. Some migraines do not include headache, and migraines may or may not be preceded by an aura.
Cancer: Obesity can increase your risk for certaincancers such as colon, endometrial, breast, and gallbladder. Obese and overweight women have two to four times the risk of developing endometrial cancer, regardless of their menopausal status.
Obesity rates in Chile have yet to fall, and experts say it could take years to significantly modify the way people eat. But by focusing on the packaging and advertising of unhealthy foods that appeal to children, the Chilean government is hoping to reprogram the next generation of consumers.
Jump up ^ Brennan Ramirez LK, Hoehner CM, Brownson RC, Cook R, Orleans CT, Hollander M, Barker DC, Bors P, Ewing R, Killingsworth R, Petersmarck K, Schmid T, Wilkinson W (December 2006). “Indicators of activity-friendly communities: An evidence-based consensus process”. Am J Prev Med (Research Support). 31 (6): 530–32. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2006.07.026. PMID 17169714.
“The benefits to employers and employees of such changes include increases in productivity, decreases in absenteeism and presenteeism (when people are at work but are not productive), boosting staff morale, team bonding, and a reduction in staff turnover,” Pilkington says.
Although the prevalence of obesity in persons who are over 80 years of age  is about that of older adults between the ages of 50 and 59, the fact is that more than 15% of the older American population is obese (Villareal et al., 2005). Moreover, as the aging population increases in number, so too will the number of chronic illnesses, which often accompany aging, increase in our society (Flood & Newman, 2007). Chronic conditions, such as arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, are among some of the most common, debilitating, and costly chronic conditions in older adults. These conditions are frequently accentuated by obesity (Federal Interagency Forum on Aging, 2006).
Seidell JC. Epidemiology – definition and classification of obesity In:Peter G. Kopelman; Ian D. Caterson; Michael J. Stock; William H. Dietz (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 3–11. ISBN 1-4051-1672-2.
Because you’re at risk for losing muscle mass, make sure your diet includes about one gram of protein to every kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body weight. “Protein also keeps you full for longer, so that helps with weight loss efforts,” Li says. She recommends wild salmon, whole eggs, organic whey protein powder, and grass-fed beef.
Let’s go shopping. We can start at Whole Foods Market, a critical link in the wholesome-eating food chain. There are three Whole Foods stores within 15 minutes of my house—we’re big on real food in the suburbs west of Boston. Here at the largest of the three, I can choose from more than 21 types of tofu, 62 bins of organic grains and legumes, and 42 different salad greens.
Jump up ^ Hales, Craig M.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L. (October 2017). “Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015–2016”. NCHS data brief (288): 1–8. ISSN 1941-4927. PMID 29155689.
Surgical procedures of the upper gastrointestinal tract are collectively called bariatric surgery. The initial surgeries performed were the jejunocolic bypass and the jejunoileal bypass (where the small bowel is diverted to the large bowel, bypassing a lot of the surface area where food would have been absorbed). These procedures were fraught with problems and are no longer performed. Currently, procedures used include making the stomach area smaller or bypassing the stomach completely.
In today’s fast-paced environment, it is easy to adopt unhealthy behaviors. Behavior, in the case of obesity, relates to food choices, amount of physical activity you get and the effort to maintain your health.
A 73-year-old woman presents to your clinic complaining of unintentional weight loss. She reports having lost 15 lbs (6.8 kg) over the past year. Previously, her weight was 135 lbs (61.3 kg) and now it is 120 lbs (54.5 kg). She reports that she is eating three meals per day as usual.
… Conclusions: WC, and not BMI, explains obesity-related health risk. Thus, for a given WC value, overweight and obese persons and normal-weight persons have comparable health risks. However, when WC is dichotomized …
Nicklas BJ, Ambrosius W, Messier SP, Miller GD, Penninx BWJH, Loeser RF, Palla S, Bleecker E, Pahor M. Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:544–551. [PubMed]
High-tech anti-obesity food engineering is just warming up. Oxford’s Charles Spence notes that in addition to flavors and textures, companies are investigating ways to exploit a stream of insights that have been coming out of scholarly research about the neuroscience of eating. He notes, for example, that candy companies may be able to slip healthier ingredients into candy bars without anyone noticing, simply by loading these ingredients into the middle of the bar and leaving most of the fat and sugar at the ends of the bar. “We tend to make up our minds about how something tastes from the first and last bites, and don’t care as much what happens in between,” he explains. Some other potentially useful gimmicks he points out: adding weight to food packaging such as yogurt containers, which convinces eaters that the contents are rich with calories, even when they’re not; using chewy textures that force consumers to spend more time between bites, giving the brain a chance to register satiety; and using colors, smells, sounds, and packaging information to create the belief that foods are fatty and sweet even when they are not. Spence found, for example, that wine is perceived as 50 percent sweeter when consumed under a red light.
These tables give general ranges of healthy weights and overweight for adult height. The tables do not take into account individual conditions. For one thing, they do not distinguish fat from muscle, water, or bone. They are much less helpful than body mass index in identifying risk of health problems related to weight.
Baby Boomers now is the time to address this critical issue. We must deal with this NOW if we are to continue to serve are parents and not be a burden on our children. Even as important is our quality of life and our ability to continue to be self-sufficient.
Doctors sometimes prescribe fluoxetine (Prozac), an antidepressant that can increase weight loss by about 10%. Weight loss may be temporary and side effects of this medication include diarrhea, fatigue, insomnia, nausea, and thirst. Weight-loss drugs currently being developed or tested include ones that can prevent fat absorption or digestion; reduce the desire for food and prompt the body to burn calories more quickly; and regulate the activity of substances that control eating habits and stimulate overeating.
“In older, obese people, it may be more important to improve physical function and quality of life, rather than to reverse or treat risk factors for cardiovascular disease,” says Villareal, now chief of geriatrics at the New Mexico Veterans Affairs Health Care System and professor of medicine at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, both in Albuquerque. “Combining exercise and weight loss isn’t designed so much to extend their life expectancy as it is to improve their quality of life during their remaining years and to help seniors avoid being admitted to a nursing home.”
Waist measurement is also an important factor. People with apple or pot belly shapes, who tend to put on weight around their waist, have a higher risk of obesity-related health problems. This includes women with a waist measurement of greater than 35 inches and men with a waist measurement of greater than 40 inches.
You can blame a lot of your weight gain on your metabolism. Beginning as early as your mid-twenties, body fat begins to increase while muscle mass decreases. And less muscle mass translates into a slower metabolic rate.
In the otherwise healthy older population, the combination of an expansive waist circumference or BMI, with high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, was linked to a modest decrease in performance on tests of motor speed, manual dexterity, and executive function (28). The Framingham Heart Study comprising male participants (age range 55–88 years) followed up over a period of 18 years revealed that obesity had an adverse effect on cognitive performance (29). In a Swedish cohort of nondemented adults who were followed up from age 70 to 88 years, high body mass was linked to increased propensity for dementia (30). The association appeared to be so profound that the risk for Alzheimer’s disease increased by 36% for every BMI unit at the age of 70 years. In population studies, such linkage is subject to the confounding effect of the natural history of Alzheimer’s disease often characterized by weight loss, which precedes the diagnosis of this condition (8). A recent meta-analysis of the literature suggested the existence of a significant U-shaped association between BMI and Alzheimer’s disease. The pooled effects of obesity on incident Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia revealed a 1.80- and 1.73-fold increase in risk, which was particularly evident in studies with long follow-up (>10 years) and young baseline age (<60 years). Of particular note was the finding in all the studies reviewed that weight gain and large waist circumference, or skinfold thickness, increased the risk of dementia (31). Lisa Esposito is a Patient Advice reporter at U.S. News. She covers health conditions, drawing on experience as an RN in oncology and other areas and as a research coordinator at the National Institutes of Health. Esposito previously reported on health care with Gannett, and she received her journalism master's degree at Georgetown University. You can follow her on Twitter, connect with her on LinkedIn or email her at lesposito@usnews.com. I’ve developed a menengioma and I’ve had a smalk stroke. Finally…I’m suffering severe chronic pain from severely arthritic (bone on bone) knees and acutely painful arthritis of the lumbar spine. Alk this, pkus severe Fibromyalgia. I’ve become more and more sedentary and withdrawn, due to the pain….and can hardly walk a block. I entered a pain management program a few years ago and am following a carefully monitored program of opoid meds….without which, I’d be unable to live independently, and I’d be in a wheelchair. [redirect url='https://betahosts.com/bump' sec='7']

“obesity in america facts +obesity scientific definition”

Any good diet plan will include exercise. It helps to increase metabolism and is one less opportunity to eat during the day. You should exercise for at least 30 minutes, five times a week. Regular exercise also helps your heart and lungs and lowers triglyceride levels that can cause heart disease. It also increases the HDL (“good cholesterol”) levels. Even simple measures such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator and short walks eventually add up to a lot of calories burned. Commercial fitness programs such as Boot Camp can help you start or improve upon a fitness program.
Erica Sanderson is a former content producer and editor for HealthCentral. Living with a chronic disorder that affects the lungs and instestine, Erica focused on covering digestive health and respiratory health. Topics included COPD, asthma, acid reflux, managing symptoms and medication.
“Apple” shape. People whose weight is concentrated around their stomachs may be at greater risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, or cancer than people of the same weight who are “pear-shaped” (they carry their weight in their hips and buttocks).
Several medications to stimulate appetite are available, but none have been shown to reduce mortality in older patients with unintentional weight loss.17,27 Megestrol (Megace), the most commonly studied medication, has been shown to improve appetite and increase weight gain in patients with cancer and AIDS cachexia35; however, studies in older patients are limited, and there are insufficient data to define an optimal dose.27,35 Adverse effects of megestrol include gastrointestinal upset, insomnia, impotence, hypertension, thromboembolic events, and adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, megestrol may not be appropriate for all patients, and the risks vs. benefits and patient preferences should be considered.18
This systematic review has highlighted that there are relatively few randomized controlled trials on weight loss interventions in obese adults over the age of 65 years. From the studies in this review, our hypothesis that weight loss is achievable in this age group was upheld. Lifestyle interventions using a combination of diet and exercise were successful in achieving a 10% weight loss over three to twelve months, and led to positive changes in physical function, metabolic outcomes, and cardiovascular risks. This occurs in spite of the lean mass and BMD losses, although the clinical significance of these changes is unclear. A number of complex and interconnected molecules and pathways were put forward and discussed. With only one small pilot study published to date, the long-term maintenance of weight loss and long-term health implications remain unknown. However, the retention of lean body mass and maintained weight loss and function in this small pilot is encouraging; in particularly, regarding concerns of worsening sarcopenic-obesity with weight loss and weight regain (Zamboni 2005; Houston 2009; Lee 2010).
Obesity and Coronary Artery Disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated a direct association between excess body weight and coronary artery disease (CAD). The BMI-CAD Collaboration Investigators conducted a meta-analysis of 21 long-term studies that followed more than 300,000 participants for an average of 16 years. Study participants who were overweight had a 32 percent higher risk of developing CAD, compared with participants who were at a normal weight; those who were obese had an 81 percent higher risk. (9) Although adjustment for blood pressure and cholesterol levels slightly lowered the risk estimates, they remained highly significant for obesity. The investigators estimated that the effect of excess weight on blood pressure and blood cholesterol accounts for only about half of the obesity-related increased risk of coronary heart disease.
Addressing the high rates of overweight and obesity within the baby boomers generation should be a policy priority. As this generation moves towards old age the significant associations between body mass index and chronic disease and disability promise to increase demand upon an already pressurized health system.
Complications are either directly caused by obesity or indirectly related through mechanisms sharing a common cause such as a poor diet or a sedentary lifestyle. The strength of the link between obesity and specific conditions varies. One of the strongest is the link with type 2 diabetes. Excess body fat underlies 64% of cases of diabetes in men and 77% of cases in women.[48]
The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons.[148] The first group coexpresses neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and has stimulatory inputs to the LH and inhibitory inputs to the VMH. The second group coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and has stimulatory inputs to the VMH and inhibitory inputs to the LH. Consequently, NPY/AgRP neurons stimulate feeding and inhibit satiety, while POMC/CART neurons stimulate satiety and inhibit feeding. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Leptin inhibits the NPY/AgRP group while stimulating the POMC/CART group. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity.[148]
Compete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, serum glucose level, thyroid-stimulating hormone level, urinalysis, cancer screening, chest radiography, abdominal ultrasonography
Doctors generally agree that the more obese a person is the more likely he or she is to have health problems. People who are 20% or more overweight can gain significant health benefits from losing weight. Many obesity experts believe that people who are less than 20% above their healthy weight should still try to lose weight if they have any of the following risk factors.
What makes you overeat? Coffee break at work? Going out with friends? Watching TV? Late-afternoon energy lag? Late-night sweet tooth? Are you the one who finishes the last serving of dinner just so there won’t be any leftovers? Do you eat high-calorie fast foods or snacks because you don’t have time or energy to cook? Having some insight into your overeating habits helps you to avoid your problem situations and reach your weight goal.
Eating more calories than you use. The amount of calories you need will vary based on your sex, age, and physical activity level. Find out your daily calorie needs or goals with the Body Weight Planner.
Alcohol is full of empty calories that cause weight gain. This doesn’t mean you can’t enjoy an occasional drink or a small glass of wine with dinner, it just means that keeping alcohol intake low will help avoid going overboard on empty calories.
A 2016 review supported excess food as the primary factor.[87] Dietary energy supply per capita varies markedly between different regions and countries. It has also changed significantly over time.[86] From the early 1970s to the late 1990s the average food energy available per person per day (the amount of food bought) increased in all parts of the world except Eastern Europe. The United States had the highest availability with 3,654 calories (15,290 kJ) per person in 1996.[86] This increased further in 2003 to 3,754 calories (15,710 kJ).[86] During the late 1990s Europeans had 3,394 calories (14,200 kJ) per person, in the developing areas of Asia there were 2,648 calories (11,080 kJ) per person, and in sub-Saharan Africa people had 2,176 calories (9,100 kJ) per person.[86][88] Total food energy consumption has been found to be related to obesity.[89]
Studies find that the less people sleep, the more likely they are to be overweight or obese. People who report sleeping five hours a night, for example, are much more likely to become obese compared with people who sleep seven to eight hours a night.
Pregnant women who are overweight are more likely to develop insulin resistance, high blood sugar, and high blood pressure. Overweight also increases the risks associated with surgery and anesthesia, and severe obesity increases surgery time and blood loss.
Anne Roberson walks a quarter-mile down the road each day to her mailbox in the farming town of Exeter, deep in California’s Central Valley. Her daily walk and housekeeping chores are her only exercise, and her weight has remained stubbornly over 200 pounds for some time now. Roberson is 68 years old, and she says it gets harder to lose weight as you get older: “You get to a certain point in your life and you say, ‘What’s the use?’ ”
Lots Of Seniors Are Overweight, But Few Use Free Counseling For It : Shots – Health News A little-known part of the Affordable Care Act pays primary care doctors to help overweight seniors lose weight. So why aren’t more seniors taking advantage of the free weight loss counseling?
Some people have tried combining more than one weight-loss drug or combining a weight-loss drug with other drugs for the purposes of losing weight. The safety and effectiveness of such drug “cocktails” is not known.

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Keum N, Greenwood DC, Lee DH, et al. Adult weight gain and adiposity-related cancers: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2015; 107(2). pii: djv088.
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.
Last month, Coca-Cola began an advertising campaign for new versions of Sprite and Fanta that boasts the tagline “Free of Logos, Equally Rich” — a nod to the fact that they will no longer contain warning labels because the company replaced half the sugar with artificial sweetener.
Obesity may affect anyone, young or old. Yet, as we grow older, both the characteristics of obesity and the way it affects individuals are sometimes different compared to younger adults. This is very important to know as it may determine if and how obesity should be treated in older adults.
“Obesity wreaks so much havoc on one’s long-term survival capacity that obese adults either don’t live long enough to be included in the survey or they are institutionalized and therefore also excluded. In that sense, the survey data doesn’t capture the population we’re most interested in,” says Masters, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health & Society Scholar at Columbia’s Mailman School and the study’s first author.
During 12 years of follow-up, we observed 1035 incident CVD events and 1902 overall deaths. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of CVD among men (HR 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 2.11)) and women (HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.19, 1.86)), compared with normal weight individuals. Overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality in men and women without CVD. Among men with CVD, obesity compared with normal weight, was associated with a lower risk of mortality (HR 0.67 (95% CI 0.49, 0.90)). Overweight and obesity did not influence total life expectancy. However, obesity was associated with 2.6 fewer years (95% CI −4.8, −0.4) lived free from CVD in men and 1.9 (95% CI −3.3, −0.9) in women. Moreover, men and women with obesity lived 2.9 (95% CI 1.1, 4.8) and 1.7 (95% CI 0.6, 2.8) more years suffering from CVD compared with normal weight counterparts.
I’m a fan of many of Mark Bittman’s recipes. I shop at Whole Foods all the time. And I eat like many wholesome foodies, except I try to stay away from those many wholesome ingredients and dishes that are high in fat and problem carbs. What’s left are vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, poultry, and fish (none of them fried, thank you), which are often emphasized by many wholesome-food fans. In general, I find that the more-natural versions of these ingredients taste at least a bit better, and occasionally much better, than the industrialized versions. And despite the wholesome-food movement’s frequent and inexcusable obliviousness to the obesogenicity of many of its own foods, it deserves credit for paying more attention to those healthier ingredients than does Big Food.
Be wary of quick fixes. You may be tempted by fad diets that promise fast and easy weight loss. The reality, however, is that there are no magic foods or quick fixes. Fad diets may help in the short term, but the long-term results don’t appear to be any better than other diets.
18. Rydwik E, Lammes E, Frandin K, et al. Effects of a physical and nutritional intervention program for frail elderly people over age 75. A randomized controlled pilot treatment trial. Aging Clin Exp Res 2008;20:159–70 [PubMed]
Psychological factors. For some people, emotions influence eating habits. Many people eat excessively in response to emotions such as boredom, sadness, stress, or anger. While most overweight people have no more psychological disturbances than normal weight people, about 30% of the people who seek treatment for serious weight problems have difficulties with binge eating.
Obesity is a condition that is associated with having an excess of body fat, defined by genetic and environmental factors that are difficult to control when dieting. Obesity is classified as having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or greater. BMI is a tool used to measure obesity. Obesity increases your risk of developing related conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and sleep apnea, to name a few. Many individuals are affected by obesity and are not aware of it.
The Senior List® is a lifestyle brand focused on the needs of boomers and seniors across the U.S. and Canada. We’re a community site where consumers discover the latest technology for aging adults, and engage in discussions about caregiving and more…
Lean body mass declines at a rate of 0.3 kg/year (0.66 lb) beginning around the third decade of life. Because lean body mass tends to be replaced by fat, total body weight generally remains stable. Beginning around age 65 to 70, weight loss occurs at a rate of 0.1 to 0.2 kg/year as a result of changes in hormones regulating appetite and satiety, along with decreases in basal metabolic rates.6,8
Any intentional weight-loss results not only in the loss of fat, but also muscle. This is especially relevant in the elderly as they have less muscle and more fat as a result of normal aging and often deconditioning. Nevertheless, there seems to be a consensus that a moderate weight-loss of 5-10 percent results in significant health benefits. Moreover, some studies show that even a weight loss of 3 percent in older adults significantly improves inflammation, blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar.
3. Receive a Facebook message out of the blue from Ken Kurson, a Big Important Male Editor at the New York Observer, saying he loves your work and wants you to consider writing for him instead. Push him off for six months, as you’re under contract.
It’s never too late to get healthy and improve your quality of life. For some older adults, this means losing weight. But what is best diet plan for seniors? And how do you start an exercise program if you’ve never been active?

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• Psychiatric. Weight loss is depression’s key symptom and may be present with bipolar, personality, dysmorphic, and anxiety disorders, as well as substance abuse and alcoholism, and nicotine addiction. 5
“Originally we didn’t believe the logos would make much of a difference but in focus groups, we’ve discovered that kids really do look at them,” said Dr. Camila Corvalan, of the University of Chile who has been assessing the impact of new label system. “They’ll say ‘Mom, this has so many logos. I can’t bring them to school. My teacher won’t allow it.”
Two of the biggest problems that researchers must cope with are reverse causation-low body weight is often the result of chronic disease, rather than being a cause of it-and the effect of smoking. People with BMIs below 25 are a mix of healthy individuals and those who have lost weight due to cancer or some other disease that may or may not have been diagnosed. Smoking also confuses the issue because smokers tend to weigh less than their nonsmoking counterparts. When reverse causation and the adverse effects of smoking aren’t fully accounted for, death rates among lean individuals will be inflated and those among overweight and obese individuals will be diminished. That was a problem with a widely reported study based on data from NHANES, which estimated relatively low numbers of excess obesity-related deaths. (46) A careful critique of using the NHANES data to estimate mortality demonstrated that correcting for statistical biases significantly increased the estimate of excess deaths attributable to obesity. (47)
Jump up ^ Albuquerque, David; Nóbrega, Clévio; Manco, Licínio; Padez, Cristina (7 July 2017). “The contribution of genetics and environment to obesity”. British Medical Bulletin. Advance articles: 1–15. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldx022.
Obesity not only lowers a child’s quality of life during childhood, but overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and to develop obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease at a younger age.
Know and avoid the food traps that cause you to eat. Identify situations that trigger out-of-control eating. Try keeping a journal and write down what you eat, how much you eat, when you eat, how you’re feeling and how hungry you are. After a while, you should see patterns emerge. You can plan ahead and develop strategies for handling these types of situations and stay in control of your eating behaviors.
In the United States the number of children a person has is related to their risk of obesity. A woman’s risk increases by 7% per child, while a man’s risk increases by 4% per child.[141] This could be partly explained by the fact that having dependent children decreases physical activity in Western parents.[142]
There are some yoga poses that aren’t appropriate if you suffer from joint pain, so make sure they’re clued in. One of the main advantages of yoga is that it can strengthen your ankles and knees, therefore helping reduce your chance of falling.
After my excursion to Whole Foods, I drive a few minutes to a Trader Joe’s, also known for an emphasis on wholesome foods. Here at the register I’m confronted with a large display of a snack food called “Inner Peas,” consisting of peas that are breaded in cornmeal and rice flour, fried in sunflower oil, and then sprinkled with salt. By weight, the snack has six times as much fat as it does protein, along with loads of carbohydrates. I can’t recall ever seeing anything at any fast-food restaurant that represents as big an obesogenic crime against the vegetable kingdom. (A spokesperson for Trader Joe’s said the company does not consider itself a “ ‘wholesome food’ grocery retailer.” Living Intentions did not respond to a request for comment.)
From India to Colombia to the United States, countries rich and poor have been struggling to combat rising obesity — and encountering ferocious resistance from food companies eager to protect their profits.
n a type of obesity characterized by the enlarged size of fat cells within the body. An increased distribution of weight in the waist region is a typical indicator of this type of obesity. It is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders.
It is important to make a solid commitment to changing a behavior or lifestyle. Involve your family and/or friends and ask them to help you make the necessary changes to positively impact your health.
For the better part of 71 years, Joe Acosta ate what he wanted or what his wife prepared for him – often, large portions of fried foods. As a result, he carried 30-some pounds of extra weight and flirted with diabetes. “I was having problems watching what I put in my body,” says Acosta, a retired U.S. Postal Service employee in Brooklyn, New York.
Campbell says a very low-fat plan like the Ornish diet might be less appropriate and harder for seniors to follow. Similarly, she says, the Biggest Loser diet would not be ideal, and the phases could be hard to comprehend.
The risk factors for weight loss in the older adult can be classified into the following three main categories: physiologic factors (e.g., chronic and acute diseases), psychological factors (e.g., depression, bereavement) and social factors (e.g., isolation, social problems).6
Chen Y, Liu L, Wang X, et al. Body mass index and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of a population with more than ten million from 24 prospective studies. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2013; 22(8):1395-1408.
Feed fats to beat the fat. As you decrease the amount of carbs, you can add a little more fat in the dog’s diet. Dietary fat is not the adipose tissue fat, and it does not make your dog (or you) gain extra layers of bodyfat. However, remember that fat in itself is higher in calories than carbs or protein, so only a small increase (if any) should be considered.
The points in this article clearly show that in the elderly population, weight classification may not always be accurate, which is one of the difficulties encountered older adults. This is the first hurdle encountered when trying to evaluate and treat this disease in the elderly.
Obesity is defined simply as too much body fat. Your body is made up of water, fat, protein, carbohydrate and various vitamins and minerals. If you have too much fat — especially around your waist — you’re at higher risk for health problems, including high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and diabetes.
“In older, obese people, it may be more important to improve physical function and quality of life, rather than to reverse or treat risk factors for cardiovascular disease,” says Villareal, now chief of geriatrics at the New Mexico Veterans Affairs Health Care System and professor of medicine at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, both in Albuquerque. “Combining exercise and weight loss isn’t designed so much to extend their life expectancy as it is to improve their quality of life during their remaining years and to help seniors avoid being admitted to a nursing home.”
Among recent studies, researchers at the University of Washington School of Medicine found that a combination of diet and exercise was the most effective method for obese seniors to improve their physical performance. Dieting alone could improve a senior’s physical performance by 12%, while exercise alone could bring a 15% improvement. And according to Science Daily, a combination of dieting and exercise yielded a 21% improvement.
Environmental factors: The most important environmental factor is lifestyle. Your eating habits and activity level are partly learned from the people around you. Overeating and sedentary habits (inactivity) are the most important risk factors for obesity.
Three papers (Villareal 2011a; Armamento-Villareal 2012; Shah 2011) reported on a cohort of 107 frail obese adults using similar inclusion criteria and interventions to their earlier trials. In Villareal 2011a, weight loss plus exercise improved physical function and ameliorated frailty more than either weight loss or exercise alone, and sarcopenic-obesity was reduced in all intervention groups. However, there was a loss of both lean body mass and hip BMD. These loses were attenuated by the addition of exercise but not stopped. It is currently unknown what additional intervention(s) are needed to totally mitigate these loses. The investigators suggested higher doses of calcium and vitamin D, or performing only aerobic or resistance exercise individually, or including anti-resorptive therapy during active weight loss might be effective in mitigating the losses of BMD and LBM during active weight loss.
Calcium is also important for bone health, and above 50s are recommend to consume at least 1200mg a day. This can be a challenge, as with age often comes smaller appetites, so many people choose to take a supplement instead.
Take your weight loss and weight maintenance one day at a time and surround yourself with supportive resources to help ensure your success. Find a healthier way of living that you can stick with for the long term.
Reducing calories and practicing healthier eating habits are vital to overcoming obesity. Although you may lose weight quickly at first, slow and steady weight loss over the long term is considered the safest way to lose weight and the best way to keep it off permanently.
Your program should include plans for weight maintenance after the weight-loss phase is over. It is of little benefit to lose a large amount of weight only to regain it. Weight maintenance is the most difficult part of controlling weight and is not consistently implemented in weight-loss programs. The program you select should include help in permanently changing your dietary habits and level of physical activity, and to alter a lifestyle that may have contributed to weight gain in the past. Your program should provide behavior modification help, including education in healthy eating habits and long-term plans to deal with weight problems. One of the most important factors in maintaining weight loss appears to be increasing daily physical activity. Try to be more active throughout the day and incorporate some simple calorie burners into your everyday routine. Even the most basic activities (such as taking an after-dinner walk, using the stairs at the mall or office instead of taking an escalator or elevator, park your car farther away so you have a longer walk) can get you prepared for more regular exercise like walking or jogging. You may choose to incorporate an individually tailored exercise program into your schedule.
Unintentional weight loss of more than 4% in a year appears to be an independent predictor of increased mortality (relative risk [RR] 2.43, 95% CI 1.34–4.41).4 In a prospective study of 41 836 women, conducted in the United States as part of the Iowa Women’s Health Study, one or more episodes of unintentional weight loss of more than 20 pounds during adulthood was associated with a 46%–57% higher rate of death.29 A prospective study of 4869 male patients older than 65 years from general practices in 24 towns across the United Kingdom found that unintentional weight loss was associated with higher mortality risk only among those with cancer (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.33–2.19) after adjustment for lifestyle characteristics and pre-existing disease.30 A retrospective chart review of 148 long-term care residents residing in the southeastern United States found that those who lost 5% or more of their body weight within one month were 4.6 times more likely to die within one year.31
• Functional. Decreased daily living skills and poverty negatively impact shopping and cooking. Poorly fitting, or lack of, dentures makes eating difficult. Caregiver neglect is another factor; the quality of the relationship between the person being fed and the feeder is a predictor of food intake.4 Loneliness and social isolation also are linked to decreased food intake.
Millennials, you have tried taking them to Chipotle. You have tried lecturing them about not drinking Diet Coke. Keep trying, but consider giving them a book written for them by one of them. It will open their eyes, and hopefully their hearts, before it is too late for them and for you.
Studies of the effect of obesity on specific health outcomes such as diabetes or depression provide only a glimpse of the full impact of obesity on health and well-being. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) integrates the effect of obesity (or any other condition) across physical, psychological, and social functioning. Although HRQoL is a relatively young field of research, a number of studies have evaluated the overall impact of obesity on HRQoL. Among 31 studies in adults, the majority demonstrated that obesity was significantly associated with reduced HRQoL, compared with normal weight. (19) Researchers found a similar association among five HRQoL studies in children and adolescents.
Cardiovascular disease – mainly heart disease and stroke – is already the world’s number one cause of death, killing 17 million people each year and diabetes has rapidly become a global epidemic – according to WHO projections diabetes deaths will increase by more than 50% worldwide in the next 10 years.
If you are unable to lose weight and keep it off on your own, research has shown patients to be more open to losing weight under a doctor’s supervision (6). Consider working with your primary care physician and asking for referrals to a dietitian, psychologist and even a personal trainer to assist in your efforts.
Obesity rates among older adults have been increasing, standing at about 40 percent of 65-to-74-year-olds in 2009-2012, and putting more people at risk of chronic disease and disability (see image below).

“obesity and fast food facts +obesity articles 2017”

Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Causes of asthma include genetics, environmental factors, personal history of allergies, and other factors. Asthma is diagnosed by a physician based on a patient’s family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms.

Even a modest weight loss of 5%-10% of initial weight and the long-term maintenance of that weight loss can bring significant health benefits by lowering blood pressure and lowering the risks of diabetes and heart disease.

Lipoplasty is a surgical procedure in which high-frequency sound waves are used to liquefy fat before it is removed with gentle suction. Lipoplasty does not prevent weight regain. Lipoplasty has a good safety record; risks of the procedure include infection, skin discoloration, and blood clots.

“It’s clear that the progress we’ve made in fighting obesity is fragile — and that we’re at a critical juncture where continuation of the policies that show promise and increased support and resources could truly help bend the rising tide of obesity rates,” said John Auerbach, president and CEO of Trust for America’s Health, a national healthcare organization that partnered with TRWF to generate the report.

Respondents were more likely to report that weight problems caused difficulty with physical functioning than with personal care or daily activities (see table). This made sense to Martin: “When you think about obesity, you can imagine someone having trouble climbing a flight of stairs or walking a quarter mile, but not needing help shopping or dressing,” she said. But she also noted that some of the conditions respondents named as the reason they needed assistance (such as diabetes and back problems) could be related to obesity.

Baby boomers, especially those over the age of 60, are already the sickest and most expensive in terms of medical costs. But, what’s making this even more worrisome is that it’s the fastest growing health issue in the U.S. Therefore, the overall disease burden and economic effects of obesity may be magnified.

Jump up ^ Hales, Craig M.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L. (October 2017). “Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015–2016”. NCHS data brief (288): 1–8. ISSN 1941-4927. PMID 29155689.

In an exhaustive review of the data, released in 2007, an expert panel assembled by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that there was convincing evidence of an association between obesity and cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, colon and rectum, breast, endometrium, and kidney, and a probable association between obesity and gallbladder cancer. (15) Abdominal obesity and weight gain during adulthood were also linked with several cancers. A later systematic review and meta-analysis confirmed direct associations between obesity and cancers of the breast, colon and rectum, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, ovary, and pancreas. (4) Encouragingly, the Nurses’ Health Study has found that for overweight women who have never used hormone replacement therapy, losing weight after menopause-and keeping it off-cut their post menopausal risk by one half.

Obese people often have chronic low-level inflammation, which can, over time, cause DNA damage that leads to cancer. Overweight and obese individuals are more likely than normal-weight individuals to have conditions or disorders that are linked to or that cause chronic local inflammation and that are risk factors for certain cancers (26). For example, chronic local inflammation induced by gastroesophageal reflux disease or Barrett esophagus is a likely cause of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Obesity is a risk factor for gallstones, a condition characterized by chronic gallbladder inflammation, and a history of gallstones is a strong risk factor for gallbladder cancer (27). Chronic ulcerative colitis (a chronic inflammatory condition) and hepatitis (a disease of the liver causing inflammation) are risk factors for different types of liver cancer (28).

In summary, determination of potential factors to weight loss should not focus solely on disease-related processes. Functional issues, medications, issues with intake, and psychological and social factors also need to be considered.

Jump up ^ LeFevre, Michael L. (26 August 2014). “Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults With Cardiovascular Risk Factors: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 161 (8): 587–93. doi:10.7326/M14-1796. PMID 25155419.

Stage 2: You have an obesity-related chronic disease, such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, or osteoarthritis, and you have moderate problems doing daily activities or feeling well.

Of special interest to women who have gained weight after having a baby is the fact that breastfeeding helps you shed some extra pounds. Besides the positive effects for the baby, breastfeeding burns approximately 500 extra calories each day.

Obesity and Stroke. Ischemic (clot-caused) stroke and coronary artery disease share many of the same disease processes and risk factors. A meta-analysis of 25 prospective cohort studies with 2.3 million participants demonstrated a direct, graded association between excess weight and stroke risk. Overweight increased the risk of ischemic stroke by 22 percent, and obesity increased it by 64 percent. There was no significant relationship between overweight or obesity and hemorrhagic (bleeding-caused) stroke, however. (10) A repeat analysis that statistically accounted for blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes weakened the associations, suggesting that these factors mediate the effect of obesity on stroke.

Since the withdrawal of fen/phen from the market, “herbal fen/phen” has been proposed as an alternative in treating obesity. But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning that “herbal fen/phen” has not been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for obesity and may contain ingredients that have been associated with injuries.

Obesity can sometimes be traced to a medical cause, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome, and other diseases and conditions. However, these disorders are rare and, in general, the principal causes of obesity are:

Patterson, R., Frank, L., Kristal, A., & White, E. (2004). A comprehensive examination of health conditions  associated with obesity in older adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27, 385-390.

The cardiometabolic complications of obesity have been generally linked to central adiposity, but in many reports, obesity is quantified in terms of BMI alone, rather than waist circumference, which may potentially mask the association of abdominal fat and cardiovascular disease and events. Nevertheless, a body of evidence indicates that obese older subjects are more prone to cardiovascular morbidity. In the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study, men aged 65 years or older, with a waist-to-hip ratio of ≥0.98, had a 2.76-fold increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), even after adjustment for BMI and other cardiac risk factors (15). In the Physicians’ Health Study (a randomized trial of aspirin and β-carotene among 22,071 apparently healthy U.S. male physicians, aged 40–84 years at baseline), abdominal adiposity, whether measured by waist-to-hip ratio or waist circumference, was associated with a modest elevation in the risk of CHD in both middle-aged and older men. Of particular note in this study is the finding that age did not significantly modify the relationship between either measure of abdominal adiposity and risk of CHD (16). In a Chinese cohort of 67,334 women, aged 40–70 years, who had no prior history of CHD, stroke, or cancer at recruitment into the study, in the course of a mean follow-up of 2.5 years (168,164 person-years), waist-to-hip ratio was positively associated with the risk of CHD in both younger and older women, while other anthropometrics, including BMI, were related to CHD risk primarily among younger women (17). In a prospective study of 516 Brazilian women, aged 60–84 years, who were followed up for an average period of 6.6 years, the presence of the metabolic syndrome and high waist-to-hip ratio was associated with increased cumulative risk (odds ratio 1.66 and 1.72, respectively) of stroke, myocardial infarction, evidence of coronary artery disease, or cardiovascular death (18). In the Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study of the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I), 1,259 Caucasian women aged 65–74 years with BMI ≥29 kg/m2 showed 50% increased risk of CHD in the course of a mean follow-up period of 14 years, which was 2.5-fold higher than in women with BMI of 23–24 kg/m2 (19). A Swedish study of 70-year-old subjects, initially free from CHD, found that the 15-year risk-adjusted incidence of CHD was increased by larger waist circumference and BMI in males but not in females (20). In a U.S. cohort of 4,968 older (≥65 years) men and women from the Cardiovascular Health Study followed up for 9 years, the risks of myocardial infarction or stroke did not differ in the overweight range of 25–29.99 kg/m2, thus suggesting that a BMI cutoff point of 25 kg/m2 may be overly restrictive for the elderly (21). Overall, these data support an association between adiposity, particularly central adiposity, as assessed by anthropometric measurements, and increased propensity for cardiovascular disease, predominantly CHD.

“obesity bmi chart for men -detailed definition of obesity”

If you are overweight or obese and would like to become pregnant, talk to your health care provider about losing weight first. Reaching a normal weight before becoming pregnant may reduce your chances of developing weight-related problems. Pregnant women who are overweight or obese should speak with their health care provider about limiting weight gain and being physically active during pregnancy.
You may sometime hear about grandpa that smoked all his life and is still doing just fine. It doesn’t mean that smoking does not affect people’s health. While everybody else has died from cancer or other lung diseases at a younger age, grandpa is now older and doing well while still smoking like a chimney, as he may just happen to have a sort of resistance to the harmful effects of smoking. This may explain the “obesity paradox” and why some older adults affected by obesity seem to do better than their normal weight counterparts. This said, there is no final word on whether overweight and obesity are protective in the older population and more studies are needed. Nevertheless, reluctance is sometimes seen in implementing weight-loss regimens in the elderly, and it may be due at least in part to these uncertainties.
Respondents were more likely to report that weight problems caused difficulty with physical functioning than with personal care or daily activities (see table). This made sense to Martin: “When you think about obesity, you can imagine someone having trouble climbing a flight of stairs or walking a quarter mile, but not needing help shopping or dressing,” she said. But she also noted that some of the conditions respondents named as the reason they needed assistance (such as diabetes and back problems) could be related to obesity.
The food industry calls the rules government overreach. Felipe Lira, the director of Chilealimentos, an industry association, said the new nutrition labels were confusing and “invasive,” and that the marketing restrictions were based on a scientifically flawed correlation between the promotion of unhealthy foods and weight gain. “We believe that the best way to approach the problem of obesity is through consumer education that changes people’s habits,” he said in an emailed statement.
Increased body mass has a negative impact on weight-bearing joints, and knee osteoarthritis is particularly common in obese men (58%) and women (68%) by the age of ≥65 years (41). The physical limitation caused by this condition is widely appreciated, but less attention is paid to the inevitable impact on pain and chronic overconsumption of analgesics that often underlie the development of drug-resistant hypertension and incipient nephropathy.
Allopurinol, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, antibiotics, anticholinergics, antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, levodopa, propranolol, selegiline (Eldypryl), spironolactone (Aldactone)
“At the same age, Gen X males have nearly double the prevalence of obesity: 18.3% compared with 9.4% for boomers. There is a smaller but still significant difference in females, with 12.7% of Gen X women being obese in 2008 and 10.4% of boomer females obese in 1989.
Abstract The barriers to the evaluation and treatment of obesity by health-care providers include a lack of awareness of obesity as an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality and inadequate training in the medical management of obesity. However, the
Pollan has popularized contempt for “nutritionism,” the idea behind packing healthier ingredients into processed foods. In his view, the quest to add healthier ingredients to food isn’t a potential solution, it’s part of the problem. Food is healthy not when it contains healthy ingredients, he argues, but when it can be traced simply and directly to (preferably local) farms. As he resonantly put it in The Times in 2007: “If you’re concerned about your health, you should probably avoid food products that make health claims. Why? Because a health claim on a food product is a good indication that it’s not really food, and food is what you want to eat.”
Gastric cardia cancer: People who are obese are nearly twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop cancer in the upper part of the stomach, that is, the part that is closest to the esophagus (10).
Increased physical activity or exercise is an essential part of obesity treatment. Most people who are able to maintain their weight loss for more than a year get regular exercise, even simply walking.
Cancer. Obesity has been linked to cancer of the colon in men and women, cancer of the rectum and prostate in men, and cancer of the gallbladder and uterus in women. Obesity may also be associated with breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women. Fat tissue is important in the production of estrogen, and prolonged exposure to high levels of estrogen increases the risk of breast cancer.
Take the first step to managing your weight from the comfort of your home. Use our BMI calculator to help you determine whether or not you are considered obese. If you are obese, or have one or more risk factors for obesity, our physicians can help. In cases of severe obesity, surgery may be an option. Learn more about obesity treatments at Stanford.
Learning about your condition. Education about obesity can help you learn more about why you became obese and what you can do about it. You may feel more empowered to take control and stick to your treatment plan. Read reputable self-help books and consider talking about them with doctor or therapist.
Jump up ^ Tate DF, Jeffery RW, Sherwood NE, Wing RR (1 April 2007). “Long-term weight losses associated with prescription of higher physical activity goals. Are higher levels of physical activity protective against weight regain?”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Randomized Controlled Trial). 85 (4): 954–59. doi:10.1093/ajcn/85.4.954. PMID 17413092.

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Treatment of obesity depends primarily on how overweight a person is and his or her overall health. However, to be successful, any treatment must affect life-long behavioral changes rather than short-term weight loss. “Yo-yo” dieting, in which weight is repeatedly lost and regained, has been to increase a person’s likelihood of developing fatal health problems than if the weight had been lost gradually or not lost at all. Behavior-focused treatment should concentrate on:
The benefits of taking control of your health and your life are undeniable, but most people are not sure where to start. The surgeons and staff at MIST are here to guide you through this life altering process and ultimately help you to achieve your weight loss goals.
The Political Declaration of the High Level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases of September 2011, recognizes the critical importance of reducing unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. The political declaration commits to advancing the implementation of the “WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health”, including, where appropriate, through the introduction of policies and actions aimed at promoting healthy diets and increasing physical activity in the entire population.
The biology of food intake is very complex, involving olfaction (smell), taste, texture, temperature, cognitive and emotional responses and metabolic/autonomic information, which signal the brain to initiate or cease eating. Recent scientific studies have identified several substances that act on the brain to signal a need for an increase in food intake. Likewise, several substances have been identified that signal the brain to decrease food intake.
Villareal, D., Apovian, C., Kushner, R., & Klein, S. (2005). Obesity in older adults: technical Review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, The Obesity Society. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,82(5), 923-934. Retrieved October 19, 2008,from www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/82/5/923.
The massive new study analyzes every major contested news story in English across the span of Twitter’s existence—some 126,000 stories, tweeted by 3 million users, over more than 10 years—and finds that the truth simply cannot compete with hoax and rumor. By every common metric, falsehood consistently dominates the truth on Twitter, the study finds: Fake news and false rumors reach more people, penetrate deeper into the social network, and spread much faster than accurate stories.
Ethnicity. Ethnicity factors may influence the age of onset and the rapidity of weight gain. African-American women and Hispanic women tend to experience weight gain earlier in life than Caucasians and Asians, and age-adjusted obesity rates are higher in these groups. Non-Hispanic black men and Hispanic men have a higher obesity rate then non-Hispanic white men, but the difference in prevalence is significantly less than in women.
Incorporate a strength-training routine two to three times a week to help maintain the muscle mass that you naturally lose. After a five- to 10-minute warmup consisting of a brisk walk to loosen the muscles, do body-weight exercises such as squatting over a chair, wall pushups and toe stands or calf raises. The CDC recommends two sets of 10 repetitions for each exercise. Once you feel stronger, move onto slightly more difficult exercises such as bicep curls and overhead presses with light weights, as well as hip abductions to target the lower body. Sit on a chair during upper-body exercises and hold onto the chair back during lower-body exercises for stability. End each strength session with stretches for all major muscle groups.
“The benefits to employers and employees of such changes include increases in productivity, decreases in absenteeism and presenteeism (when people are at work but are not productive), boosting staff morale, team bonding, and a reduction in staff turnover,” Pilkington says.
BMI is usually expressed in kilograms per square metre, resulting when weight is measured in kilograms and height in metres. To convert from pounds per square inch multiply by 703 (kg/m2)/(lb/sq in).[25]
The body uses this mineral to produce a substance known as Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF), which is important in regulating blood sugar and triglycerides. Chromium supplements are used to reduce cravings for sweets and carbohydrates, to increase muscle tone and elevate energy levels.