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The baby-boomer weight crisis is rapidly moving past their burden of buying plus-size clothing. Modern medicine will keep them alive longer than previous generations even with their increased need for care due to their weight gain. Their increased health care cost will push America into a debt crisis. One driver will be paying for extended medical care to medicate the life choices made by the boomer generation. The second driver will be the increased gross amounts the boomer generation will be paid from Social Security by living longer.
A follow-up study was recently released in the American Journal of Public Health, in which Masters and his colleagues found that obesity accounts for 18 percent of deaths in people ages 40 to 85. This estimate is more than four times higher than researchers previously thought. Due to environmental factors—more sedentary lifestyle, processed foods—the study says each generation is obese for a longer period than the former, a factor not considered in previous estimates.
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.
Jump up ^ Peeters A, Barendregt JJ, Willekens F, Mackenbach JP, Al Mamun A, Bonneux L (January 2003). “Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: A life-table analysis”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 138 (1): 24–32. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-138-1-200301070-00008. PMID 12513041.
Fiber is another essential component of a good diet for seniors, says Moreno. Fiber helps to regulate digestion, prevents constipation, and may help with weight loss. Good sources of fiber include raw fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and legumes.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma: People who are overweight or obese are about twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop a type of esophageal cancer called esophageal adenocarcinoma, and people who are extremely obese are more than four times as likely (9).
Madeira Beach is looking beautiful, the weather is great, and things have returned almost completely to normal. We thank everyone for their concern and prayers, and also thank the authorities and utility folks who have done such a great job!
Lisa Esposito is a Patient Advice reporter at U.S. News. She covers health conditions, drawing on experience as an RN in oncology and other areas and as a research coordinator at the National Institutes of Health. Esposito previously reported on health care with Gannett, and she received her journalism master’s degree at Georgetown University. You can follow her on Twitter, connect with her on LinkedIn or email her at lesposito@usnews.com.
The short references to websites included in the table are not necessarily links: Copy and paste them into a browser for more information about these health risks of obesity from other sources. Also, these are just a few examples. Find more sources of information, studies, reports and papers by entering the name of the condition (e.g. diabetes) or body part (e.g. liver) into a search box or search engine together with the keyword “obesity”, e.g. [obesity liver].
Losing weight is difficult, and interventions that work in younger adults cannot be assumed to translate to older populations with co-morbidities, low muscle mass and frailty (Villareal 2004). The appropriate treatment approach for obesity remains highly contentious due to the lack of evidenced-based data demonstrating that long-term weight loss is net beneficial or harmful in this age group. There is evidence that successful weight loss is possible in adults 65 years and older (Villareal 2006a; Villareal 2006b; Villareal 2008; Frimel 2008; Lambert 2008; Shah 2009; Villareal 2011a; Armamento-Villareal 2012; Shah 2011; Kelly 2011). However, weight-loss trials have reported losses of lean body mass and bone mineral density, in addition to fat mass (Villareal 2006a; Villareal 2006b; Villareal 2008; Frimel 2008; Lambert 2008; Shah 2009; Villareal 2011a; Armamento-Villareal 2012; Shah 2011; Kelly 2011; Bales 2008). These negative outcomes discourage many geriatricians from advising weight loss to their obese older patients (Heiat 2001; Rossner 2001; Sorensen 2003; Villareal 2005; Zamboni 2005; Rolland 2006; Morley 2010), despite improvements in body composition, physical function, metabolic and cardiovascular parameters that accompany weight loss (Forsythe 2008; Anandacoomarasamy 2009; Cheung 2012; Erteck 2012). Given these positive functional and metabolic outcomes, it is somewhat surprising that advising weight loss in obese older adults is still shunned in the medical community (Houston 2009; Sommers 2011). Compounding the confusion surrounding risks versus benefits from intentional weight loss is the lack of human studies to elucidate the mechanisms associated with the loss of muscle and bone. Also lacking are trials with adequate follow-up to assess the behaviors associated with long-term maintenance of weight loss and health outcomes related to sustained weight loss.
Well, it depends. Weight-loss that is not planned is not uncommon. The elderly are often sicker and need longer periods of time to recover from illness than younger adults. This often results in weight-loss. This type of weight-loss is not healthy. A significant portion of weight lost during illness is muscle loss.
The study adds to evidence that while Americans are living longer these days, they may be living sicker. The 2012 America’s Health Rankings reported upticks in risk factors that drive chronic diseases, such as obesity and inactivity.
Diabetes – Obesity is the major cause of type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes usually begins in adulthood but, is now actually occurring in children. Obesity can cause resistance to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar. When obesity causes insulin resistance, the blood sugar becomes elevated. Even moderate obesity dramatically increases the risk of diabetes.
For starters, it’s even more important than ever to actually follow the advice to talk to your doc before beginning any new exercise regimen. “Medical problems, such as heart disease and metabolic disease, become more common after age 60, so it becomes much more important to have a medical checkup before attempting a fat loss plan,” says Huizenga. Then there’s the fact that over the age of 60, your oxygen intake may be reduced by as much as one-third of what it was when you were 25, causing you to have a tougher time taking deep breaths when you’re exercising at a moderate to high intensity, and making it crucial to ease in to a new plan. Finally, this is the decade when your hips, knees, and other key joints are more likely to develop arthritis, which means that your old go-to running or aerobics workouts may need to be swapped for swimming and/or gentle walking plans.
Pregnant women who are overweight are more likely to develop insulin resistance, high blood sugar, and high blood pressure. Overweight also increases the risks associated with surgery and anesthesia, and severe obesity increases surgery time and blood loss.
Although strength training programs have been shown to reduce body weight significantly (and increase muscle mass), convincing overweight clients to eat properly is even more important in helping them lose fat. Consult a registered dietician and use the information in chapter 10 that discusses food selection and substitutions for heart-healthy eating to help your overweight clients attain a more desirable bodyweight. Also, encourage them to drink lots of water before, during, and after workouts, especially in hot and humid weather or in training areas without ideal air circulation. Suggest that they wear loose clothing to decrease chafing and dress in layers so that they can remove articles to avoid overheating (Flood and Constance 2002).
Many explanations have been put forth for associations between BMI and social class. It is thought that in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness. In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns.[134] Attitudes toward body weight held by people in one’s life may also play a role in obesity. A correlation in BMI changes over time has been found among friends, siblings, and spouses.[136] Stress and perceived low social status appear to increase risk of obesity.[135][137][138]
Lack of physical activity due to high amounts of TV, computer, videogame or other screen usage has been associated with a high body mass index . Healthy lifestyle changes, such as being physically active and reducing screen time, can help you aim for a healthy weight.
A disease that results from an overload of uric acid in the body. This overload of uric acid leads to the formation of tiny crystals of urate that deposit in tissues of the body, especially the joints. When crystals form in the joints it causes recurring attacks of joint inflammation (arthritis). Chronic gout can also lead to deposits of hard lumps of uric acid in and around the joints and may cause joint destruction, decreased kidney function, and kidney stones.

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Some obesity diagnoses justify physical or occupational therapy and some insurance will cover it. If applicable, this is an excellent option. There’s nothing better than doing targeted exercises with a trained professional.
If you have osteoarthritis, losing weight may help improve your symptoms. Research also shows that exercise is one of the best treatments for osteoarthritis. Exercise can improve mood, decrease pain, and increase flexibility.
Senior exercisers speak with Dennis T. Villareal, MD, while participating in a study to find effective ways to boost physical function and reduce frailty in the elderly. Both were obese when the study began but lost weight through a combination of diet and exercise.
It’s important for your senior to maintain body weight once they are advanced in age, experiencing frailty, or undergoing treatments for cancer. Weight loss for seniors who are advanced in age is typically not recommended, and rapid weight loss in older adults can indicate a medical problem, malnourishment, or an issue with ease of eating or dental problems.
The less you move around the fewer calories you burn. However, this is not only a question of calories. Physical activity has an effect on how your hormones work, and hormones have an effect on how your body deals with food. Several studies have shown that physical activity has a beneficial effect on your insulin levels – keeping them stable. Unstable insulin levels are closely associated with weight gain.
Obesity is one of the top health problems facing Americans today. More than two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese and carrying around this extra weight contributes to more than 300,000 deaths every year.
This is because the boomer generation continues to be large in numbers with behaviors that are still too unsustainable. The reality is that sustainability for our economy, human health and environment cannot be achieved without boomer generation engagement. What every millennial must do is engage the boomer generation to help them adopt sustainable life choices.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) (1998). Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults (PDF). International Medical Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1-58808-002-1.
Just as genetics plays a role in obesity, so does the environment. The environment includes the world around us; it influences access to healthy food and safe places to walk. What we eat, our level of physical activity, and our lifestyle behaviors are influenced by our environment. Our environment can prevent us from eating healthy foods and/or getting adequate exercise in a number of ways. Examples include the trend toward ‘eating out’ rather than preparing food in the home; high-fat, high-calorie foods in our workplace vending machines; neighborhoods that often lack sidewalks; and a deficit of readily accessible recreation areas.
But it also takes physical activity to shed pounds. That’s especially important as people start to age and dieting alone could cost them precious muscle in addition to fat, says Dr. Jack Rejeski a professor in exercise and aging at Wake Forest University. Muscles become flabbier over time until people find themselves on the verge of disability, like a canoe that floats peacefully until it gets too near a waterfall to pull back, he says.
Throughout our evolutionary history, the microscopic denizens of our intestines have helped us break down tough plant fibers in exchange for the privilege of living in such a nutritious broth. Yet their roles appear to extend beyond digestion. New evidence indicates that gut bacteria alter the way we store fat, how we balance levels of glucose in the blood, and how we respond to hormones that make us feel hungry or full. The wrong mix of microbes, it seems, can help set the stage for obesity and diabetes from the moment of birth.
“Sometimes it’s easy, like if a dog is wearing glasses and talking like a person, but sometimes it’s not,” said Dr. Lorena Rodriguez, the ministry’s head of nutrition. “We fight and fight and fight until we have consensus.”
Adapted permission from The clinical and cost-effectiveness of medical nutrition therapies: evidence and estimates of potential medical savings from the use of selected nutritional intervention. June 1996. Summary report prepared for the Nutrition Screening Initiative, a project of the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Dietetic Association, and the National Council on Aging, Inc.
Ephedra: This natural substance is essentially an herbal phen-fen. It is the active ingredient in MaHuang and is used as a stimulant and appetite suppressant. Ephedra resembles the amphetamines — the popular “diet drugs” that were banned in the 1970s — in that it is highly addictive. Ephedra is often combined with caffeine and aspirin (“the Stack”), which increases the thermogenic (fat-burning) effect of ephedra. Ephedra increases the risk of high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, insomnia, seizures, heart attack, stroke, and death. The FDA has recently banned ephedra because it has been linked to more than 100 deaths.
Schmitz KH, Neuhouser ML, Agurs-Collins T, et al. Impact of obesity on cancer survivorship and the potential relevance of race and ethnicity. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2013; 105(18):1344-1354.
In Sacramento and across the nation, the number of baby boomers who are overweight or obese continues to climb, and as a group, they have hit middle age much heavier than the previous generation. Almost three of four people ages 49 to 67 – the baby boom generation – are overweight or obese in the four-county Sacramento region, according to a new survey from the UCLA Center of Health Policy Research.
Eating more calories than you use. The amount of calories you need will vary based on your sex, age, and physical activity level. Find out your daily calorie needs or goals with the Body Weight Planner.
Villareal DT, Chode S, Parimi N, Sinacore DR, Hilton T, Armamento-Villareal R, Napoli N, Qualls C, Shah K. Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults. N Engl J Med. 2011a;364:1218–1229. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
“The best way to improve functional status and reverse frailty in older adults with obesity is by means of diet and regular exercise using a combination of resistance and aerobic exercise training,” said study leader Dr. Dennis Villareal. He’s a professor of medicine at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.
The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery.[6] The types of procedures include laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, vertical-sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion.[173] Surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss, improvement in obesity related conditions,[177] and decreased overall mortality. One study found a weight loss of between 14% and 25% (depending on the type of procedure performed) at 10 years, and a 29% reduction in all cause mortality when compared to standard weight loss measures.[178] Complications occur in about 17% of cases and reoperation is needed in 7% of cases.[177] Due to its cost and risks, researchers are searching for other effective yet less invasive treatments including devices that occupy space in the stomach.[179]
With every decade, people generally need about 100 fewer calories a day to maintain their weight. But most of the time, “people continue to eat the same way when they’re in their 30s, 40s, 50s and 60s, not even noticing they’re not as active and they’ve lost muscle mass,” says Angela Ginn-Meadow, a registered dietitian in Baltimore. Portion-control tricks can help. Try trimming your ice cream habit from two scoops to one, eating off smaller plates or ordering steamed vegetables instead of fries, Ginn-Meadow says. “These small changes can cut back 100 calories or more, and then they see, ‘I’m losing weight and I didn’t even know it.'”

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Cutting calories. The key to weight loss is reducing how many calories you take in. You and your health care providers can review your typical eating and drinking habits to see how many calories you normally consume and where you can cut back. You and your doctor can decide how many calories you need to take in each day to lose weight, but a typical amount is 1,200 to 1,500 calories for women and 1,500 to 1,800 for men.

Researchers know that our brains can become patterned so that we feel pleasure or reward from eating. This can make us unconsciously crave food so our bodies feel that sense of pleasure. It can also make it hard to change our eating patterns, lose weight, or maintain a healthy weight. Researchers are studying whether cognitive behavioral therapies can be an effective treatment for overweight and obesity by retraining the brain to not associate pleasure with food and the act of eating.

While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally.[132] Though it is accepted that energy consumption in excess of energy expenditure leads to obesity on an individual basis, the cause of the shifts in these two factors on the societal scale is much debated. There are a number of theories as to the cause but most believe it is a combination of various factors.

“About half of people 20 years ago said they exercised regularly, which meant three times a week, and that rate now is only about 18 percent,” King told NPR. “That’s an astonishing change in just one generation.”

In one blinded randomized control trial (five publications), megestrol acetate was used in the treatment of unexplained weight loss.23–27 Sixty-nine patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or megestrol 800 mg/d for 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, there were no significant differences in weight gain between treatment groups, although patients treated with megestrol reported significantly greater improvements in appetite, enjoyment of life and well-being. There was no difference in survival between the groups at four years.

Your caloric needs decrease as you age; therefore, for example, a woman over age 50 should cut back to between 1,600 and 2,000 calories a day, depending on her level of physical activity, according to the National Institute on Aging. If a lack of mobility is a hindrance to preparing healthy foods at home, don’t resort to calling for takeout. Instead, look into a grocery delivery service that allows you to place an order on the Internet and have it delivered to your doorstep. Eating enough food to keep with the calories needed for movement is important, too — according to WebMD, seniors often grapple with preparing fresh, healthy foods at home due to difficulty chewing due to tooth pain or dentures, problems with indigestion and a declining sense of taste. Emotional problems such as depression or loneliness can play a role in both eating too little and eating too many of the wrong comfort foods. Visit a medical professional to determine a healthy diet for your physical and mental needs.

Jump up ^ Aune, Dagfinn; Sen, Abhijit; Norat, Teresa; Janszky, Imre; Romundstad, Pål; Tonstad, Serena; Vatten, Lars J. (16 February 2016). “Body Mass Index, Abdominal Fatness, and Heart Failure Incidence and MortalityCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE”. Circulation. 133 (7): 639–49. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.016801.

Obesity is defined simply as too much body fat. Your body is made up of water, fat, protein, carbohydrate and various vitamins and minerals. If you have too much fat — especially around your waist — you’re at higher risk for health problems, including high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and diabetes.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC’s accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.’s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch).

^ Jump up to: a b Kanazawa, M; Yoshiike, N; Osaka, T; Numba, Y; Zimmet, P; Inoue, S (2005). “Criteria and classification of obesity in Japan and Asia-Oceania”. World review of nutrition and dietetics. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. 94: 1–12. doi:10.1159/000088200. ISBN 3-8055-7944-6. PMID 16145245.

I’m running in the NYC Marathon in November to celebrate my 55th birthday and raise money for the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, in memory of a friend who succumbed to the disease last year. Here’s an update on my training schedule for this week:

Results from this carefully designed study show the “diet-exercise group” preserved more lean muscle and bone density when compared to the other groups. They also gained significantly better physical function and were less frail than other groups, outperforming in all measured parameters. (See Figure A: Results of Physical Performance Test (PPT).)

Seidell JC. Epidemiology – definition and classification of obesity In:Peter G. Kopelman; Ian D. Caterson; Michael J. Stock; William H. Dietz (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 3–11. ISBN 1-4051-1672-2.

By placing wholesome eating directly at odds with healthier processed foods, the Pollanites threaten to derail the reformation of fast food just as it’s starting to gain traction. At McDonald’s, “Chef Dan”—that is, Dan Coudreaut, the executive chef and director of culinary innovation—told me of the dilemma the movement has caused him as he has tried to make the menu healthier. “Some want us to have healthier food, but others want us to have minimally processed ingredients, which can mean more fat,” he explained. “It’s becoming a balancing act for us.” That the chef with arguably the most influence in the world over the diet of the obese would even consider adding fat to his menu to placate wholesome foodies is a pretty good sign that something has gone terribly wrong with our approach to the obesity crisis.

In 2016, an estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight or obese. Once considered a high-income country problem, overweight and obesity are now on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. In Africa, the number of overweight children under 5 has increased by nearly 50 per cent since 2000. Nearly half of the children under 5 who were overweight or obese in 2016 lived in Asia.

Diabetes does not occur without any warning signs. Before someone’s blood sugar raises to a diabetic level, they will first develop prediabetes, a condition where blood sugar is elevated, but not yet high enough to be considered diabetes. 86 million adults, or 37 percent of the adult population, have prediabetes. Prediabetes is largely influenced by weight and age, which, as described above, are both on the rise.

Genetics. Your genes may affect the amount of body fat you store, and where that fat is distributed. Genetics may also play a role in how efficiently your body converts food into energy and how your body burns calories during exercise.

This study is looking at whether fish oil supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids improve asthma in teens and young adults who are obese. It also will see how having a certain gene affects how well the fish oil controls asthma in these participants. Visit Obesity and Asthma: Nutrigenetic Response to Omega-3 Fatty Acids for more information and to learn how to participate in this study.

Generally speaking, obesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than her or she burns. While we need food to provide us with sustenance to live and to provide us with the energy to remain active, when the balance between what we ingest and the amount of energy we expend is disrupted and we are taking in much more calories than we use, weight gain occurs. This can be especially difficult for older adults because they may not be able to get enough physical activity. Also, many adults age 65 and older experience hormonal changes, such as decreased growth hormone secretions and reduced responsiveness to thyroid hormone, which may cause the accumulation of fat. Other factors that may play a role in the development of obesity also include genetics, environmental influences, and other risk factors, which are listed below:

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) conducts and supports a broad range of basic and clinical obesity research. More information about obesity research is available at http://www.obesityresearch.nih.gov.

Boomers Will Have More Diabetes And Obesity As They Age : Shots – Health News The seniors of tomorrow will have much higher rates of diabetes and obesity than the seniors of today, according to a data analysis. That means higher medical bills for them — and for taxpayers, too.

Resistance training is essential to preserve lean muscle and bone density or even regain lost muscle. Seniors should perform resistance-training exercises two to three times weekly. The trainings should consist of 8 to 10 different strength exercises with 8 to 12 repetitions each. Again, it’s best to start out slow, with lighter weights and fewer repetitions.

Reexamination of the impact of obesity on health in older individuals disclosed two potential benefits of weight excess: decreased osteoporosis and better survival of obese subjects with certain health hazards, known as the “obesity paradox.” Obesity, linked to increased bone mineral density, is thus far uncontested, as is the fact that this also translates into a lower rate of hip fractures in elderly obese subjects (10). The latter may reflect not only greater bone resilience, but also improved cushioning by adipose tissue during falls. An important emerging exception to this general protective effect of obesity on bone is the recent finding that although men and women with the metabolic syndrome do indeed enjoy better total hip and femoral neck bone mineral density in a cross-sectional analysis, these associations do not translate to improved clinical outcome. In fact, incident clinical fractures were 2.6 times more likely to occur in subjects with the metabolic syndrome compared with participants without the metabolic syndrome after an average follow-up of 2 years (11).

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Both the characteristics of obesity and the way it affects seniors can be different when compared to how obesity impacts younger adults. This is very important to know, as it may determine if and how obesity should be analyzed and treated in seniors.
I’m running in the NYC Marathon in November to celebrate my 55th birthday and raise money for the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, in memory of a friend who succumbed to the disease last year. Here’s an update on my training schedule for this week:
In addition to this study, research published in the journal Nature Communications in 2015 suggests that weight loss is harder when we carry more fat. The scientists suggest that the more fat we carry, the more our bodies appear to produce a protein that blocks our ability to burn fat.
Studies find that the less people sleep, the more likely they are to be overweight or obese. People who report sleeping five hours a night, for example, are much more likely to become obese compared with people who sleep seven to eight hours a night.
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A prospective trial in four long-term care facilities examined the role of megestrol acetate and optimal feeding assistance.21 For 63 days, megestrol (400 mg/d) was given to 17 residents who were eating less than 75% of most meals. They received either usual care or optimal feeding assistance. Results suggest that megestrol in combination with optimal mealtime feeding assistance significantly increased oral intake in frail long-term care residents but was not effective under usual care conditions.
(January 2016) The current growth of the population ages 65 and older is one of the most significant demographic trends in the history of the United States. Baby boomers—those born between 1946 and 1964—have brought both challenges and opportunities to the economy, infrastructure, and institutions as they have passed through each major stage of life. Although U.S. policymakers and others have had many decades to plan for the inevitable aging of the baby boom cohort, it is not clear that sufficient preparations have been made to meet baby boomers’ anticipated needs in old age.
Type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with the degree and duration of obesity. Type 2 diabetes is associated with central obesity; a person with central obesity has excess fat around his/her waist, so that the body is shaped like an apple.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Services, Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering (SBU); Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social. “Dietary treatment of obesity”. www.sbu.se. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
Taking a walk everyday is good for the body and the mind. Walking outside is a quiet time for the mind to relax and unwind, while giving your body low impact exercise. Walking just a mile every day keeps your muscles and joints engaged so that they maintain and improve their strength.
Participating in a non-clinical program or commercially operated program is another form of treatment for obesity. Some programs may be commercially operated, such as a privately owned weight-loss chain. books, Web sites or support groups are all ways you can be involved in a non-clinical weight-loss program.
If your knee or elbow or ankle is swollen, painful and warm to the touch DON’T exercise, see a doctor. forget the “no pain no gain” slogan. Your father does not want to do permanent damage at this stage.
23. The clinical and cost-effectiveness of medical nutrition therapies: evidence and estimates of potential medical savings from the use of selected nutritional intervention. June 1996. Summary report prepared for the Nutrition Screening Initiative.
Obesity is not just a cosmetic consideration; it is harmful to one’s health. In the United States, roughly 112,000 deaths per year are directly related to obesity, and most of these deaths are in patients with a BMI over 30. For patients with a BMI over 40, life expectancy is reduced significantly. Obesity also increases the risk of developing a number of chronic diseases, including the following:
Kiosks in Santiago’s city center feature products with black nutritional warnings on the labels of items high in sugar, salt, calories or saturated fat. Credit Victor Ruiz Caballero for The New York Times

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Lisa Esposito is a Patient Advice reporter at U.S. News. She covers health conditions, drawing on experience as an RN in oncology and other areas and as a research coordinator at the National Institutes of Health. Esposito previously reported on health care with Gannett, and received her journalism master’s degree at Georgetown University. You can follow her on Twitter, connect with her on LinkedIn or email her at lesposito@usnews.com.
PRB observes that baby boomers are living longer than previous generations. They also have, on average, higher levels of education and more work experience, which bode well for their economic security in old age.
Glass, Rasmussen, and Schwartz (2006) did investigate whether neighborhood psychosocial hazards, defined as “stable and visible features of neighborhood environments that give rise to a heightened state of vigilance, alarm, or fear in residents” (p. 4), independent of individual risk factors, were associated with the increased odds of obesity in older adults. After analyzing data from a cohort study of 1140 randomly selected community dwelling men and women who were 50 to 70 years of age, they found that 38% were obese. Residents living in the more hazardous neighborhoods were more than twice as likely to be obese as those living in the least-hazardous neighborhoods, even after controlling for behavioral and socioeconomic individual-level risk factors. The authors concluded that this significant finding demonstrates that neighborhood conditions can alter patterns of obesity. Community-level interventions that might lead to a reduction in environmental and sociological hazards include increasing educational attainment, increasing public safety, reducing crime rates, and eliminating vacant housing.  
Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width.[213] In 2000, the extra weight of obese passengers cost airlines US$275 million.[214] The healthcare industry has had to invest in special facilities for handling severely obese patients, including special lifting equipment and bariatric ambulances.[215] Costs for restaurants are increased by litigation accusing them of causing obesity.[216] In 2005 the US Congress discussed legislation to prevent civil lawsuits against the food industry in relation to obesity; however, it did not become law.[216]
“We think it’s the perfect storm of several factors,” says Dr. Scott Kahan, an obesity medicine specialist at George Washington University. Kahan says obese patients and doctors aren’t aware of the benefit, and doctors who want to intervene are often reluctant to do so.
26. Yeh SS, Wu SY, Lee TP, et al. Improvement in quality-of-life measures and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate oral suspension in geriatric cachexia: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:485–92 [PubMed]
The “obesity paradox” refers to the unexpected findings that obese subjects seem to fare better than, or at least as well as, their normal- or low-weight counterparts in terms of mortality rates in the context of conditions, such as coronary artery disease in hypertensive subjects, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, postcoronary revascularization, and some instances of non-ST segment elevation in myocardial infarction (12,13). Currently, it is unclear whether or not all these different situations that share some common, yet unidentified, underlying mechanism are related to obesity itself, or rather reflect nutritional status or reserve, and/or possibly coexisting medical therapy. It remains uncertain how older age interacts with these protective effects of excess adiposity. Additionally, obesity is not a general “savior” in acute medical conditions. Hence, this interesting and potentially critical phenomenon remains presently enigmatic, requiring case- and age-specific in-depth examination. As an example of this effect, some 20 years ago, obesity in the elderly was actually linked to the twofold increase of postmyocardial infarction and in-hospital mortality in subjects >65 years (14). Has the obese phenotype been changed by the environment, or chronic medical therapy, or rather, have advances in the quality of critical care preferentially affected the obese?
Because they are energy-intense foods, fat and sugar and other problem carbs trip the pleasure and reward meters placed in our brains by evolution over the millions of years during which starvation was an ever-present threat. We’re born enjoying the stimulating sensations these ingredients provide, and exposure strengthens the associations, ensuring that we come to crave them and, all too often, eat more of them than we should. Processed food is not an essential part of this story: recent examinations of ancient human remains in Egypt, Peru, and elsewhere have repeatedly revealed hardened arteries, suggesting that pre-industrial diets, at least of the affluent, may not have been the epitome of healthy eating that the Pollanites make them out to be. People who want to lose weight and keep it off are almost always advised by those who run successful long-term weight-loss programs to transition to a diet high in lean protein, complex carbs such as whole grains and legumes, and the sort of fiber vegetables are loaded with. Because these ingredients provide us with the calories we need without the big, fast bursts of energy, they can be satiating without pushing the primitive reward buttons that nudge us to eat too much.
Brinton LA, Cook MB, McCormack V, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: male breast cancer pooling project results. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2014; 106(3):djt465.
Overweight and obesity are increasingly common conditions in the United States. They are caused by the increase in the size and the amount of fat cells in the body. Doctors measure body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to screen and diagnose overweight and obesity. Obesity is a serious medical condition that can cause complications such as metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, cancers and sleep disorders. Treatment depends on the cause and severity of your condition and whether you have complications. Treatments include lifestyle changes, such as heart-healthy eating and increased physical activity, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved weight-loss medicines. For some people, surgery may be a treatment option.
[3] Ogden C, Carroll MD, Lawman, HG, Fryar CD, Kruszon-Moran D, et al. Trends in obesity among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988- 1994 through 2013- 2014. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016;315(21):2292–2299. Available at http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2526638 or https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27272581.
There are many factors associated with unintentional weight loss. Assessment of unintentional weight loss should start with a comprehensive history, including questions about associated factors, and a physical examination. Investigations should be guided by the findings of the history and physical examination. Both nutritional and pharmacologic interventions have proven so far to be of only limited value. Although treatment remains a challenge, clinicians should attempt to identify and address factors that may be contributing to the weight loss.
To prevent losing too much muscle and bone mass when losing weight, older adults should focus on getting plenty of protein, calcium and vitamin D in their diets, Beavers says. One study found that adults between ages 52 and 75 built muscle best if they ate 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight daily – or double the Institute of Health’s recommended intake. For a 180-pound person, that’s about 120 grams, or about the amount of two chicken breasts, three eggs and one Greek yogurt.
Next, ask the owner about specific body systems and other clinical signs. Cats with abdominal pain may lie in an unusual position or object to being held in a way that puts pressure on the abdomen. Vomiting and diarrhea may help localize the problem to the GI tract, although these are nonspecific signs of many conditions.
The first step in addressing skin problems is to conduct a skin assessment of obese patients. The specificity and degree of skin problems will determine the intervention. Nurses are advised to initiate measures to decrease friction as soon as possible after hospital admission. Additionally, in older women, urinary incontinence from a large, heavy abdomen causing the valve on the bladder to weaken may result in the leaking of urine when coughing or sneezing. Nurses should educate patients about keeping the area dry so as to prevent skin problems. Strategies to keep the area dry include wearing absorption pads in their underwear and changing underwear as soon as possible when leakage occurs.
Consider The New York Times. Earlier this year, The Times Magazine gave its cover to a long piece based on Michael Moss’s about-to-be-best-selling book, Salt Sugar Fat: How the Food Giants Hooked Us. Hitting bookshelves at about the same time was the former Times reporter Melanie Warner’s Pandora’s Lunchbox: How Processed Food Took Over the American Meal, which addresses more or less the same theme. Two years ago The Times Magazine featured the journalist Gary Taubes’s “Is Sugar Toxic?,” a cover story on the evils of refined sugar and high-fructose corn syrup. And most significant of all has been the considerable space the magazine has devoted over the years to Michael Pollan, a journalism professor at the University of California at Berkeley, and his broad indictment of food processing as a source of society’s health problems.
In many instances, determining waist circumference seems to be a valuable measurement that may give physicians guidance in weight matters for their patients. It is, and should be, used as an additional tool although this is not always standard of care at this time.

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After an initial visit to the doctor, he recommends that his patients, possibly with assistance from family members, weigh themselves twice weekly and keep an accurate “food diary.” “Most diagnostic work occurs in your history taking,” he explains. Such a diary, says the doctor, will show an accurate picture of a patient’s caloric intake. “It’s important to see, in that history taking, how many calories they’re actually burning.” Some important questions Fabius and other practitioners ask as they’re reviewing a patient’s caloric record keeping are: Is the patient taking in enough calories? If so, is the patient still losing weight? Is there an appetite? “If a patient is meeting or exceeding their caloric needs,” says Fabius, “that’s going to make me suspect hyperthyroidism or a malabsorption syndrome.”

Gallstones and gallbladder disease are additional health risks of obesity. People who are overweight or obese are at increased risk of having gallstones, which are hard pieces of stone-like material formed in the gallbladder from cholesterol and other materials. They can cause stomach or back pain.

Plan regular physical activity with a friend. Find a fun activity that you both enjoy, such as Zumba, jogging, biking or swimming. You are more likely to stick with that activity if you and a friend have committed to it.  

Jump up ^ Nijland ML, Stam F, Seidell JC (June 2009). “Overweight in dogs, but not in cats, is related to overweight in their owners”. Public Health Nutr. 13 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1017/S136898000999022X. PMID 19545467.

Melania Lizano is a gynecologist with 20 years of experience practicing medicine, specializing in high-risk pregnancy and gynecologic diseases. She has a Masters degree in nutrition and is certified to teach Perfect Health: Ayurvedic Lifestyle and Primordial Sound Meditation . She uses her knowledge in holistic health and mind-body medicine in her medical practice, where she treats patients in a holistic, integrative way, and promotes healthy eating and lifestyle habits in women Learn more about Melania’s practice at melanializano…Read more

In the United States the number of children a person has is related to their risk of obesity. A woman’s risk increases by 7% per child, while a man’s risk increases by 4% per child.[141] This could be partly explained by the fact that having dependent children decreases physical activity in Western parents.[142]

Some people have less access to stores and supermarkets that sell healthy, affordable food such as fruits and vegetables, especially in rural, low-income neighborhoods and communities of color. Supermarket access is associated with a reduced risk for obesity. Choosing healthy foods is difficult for parents who live in areas with an overabundance of unhealthy options like convenience stores and fast food restaurants.

It’s never too late to begin a weight-control and exercise program. Along with a healthy diet, engaging in individually-appropriate physical activity—aerobics, resistance training, and flexibility exercises—can provide seniors a way toward feeling younger.

If you haven’t been active for most of your life, trying to start an exercise program in your senior years may seem overwhelming. But Moreno suggests that you focus on what you can do, not on what you can’t do. “Start simple,” he says. “Walking, for example, gives you every exercise benefit that you need.”

A type of compression neuropathy (nerve damage) caused by compression and irritation of the median nerve in the wrist. The nerve is compressed within the carpal tunnel, a bony canal in the palm side of the wrist that provides passage for the median nerve to the hand. The irritation of the median nerve is specifically due to pressure from the transverse carpal ligament.

Texas law prohibits hospitals from practicing medicine. The physicians on the Methodist Health System medical staff are independent practitioners who are not employees or agents of Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Methodist Health System, or any of its affiliated hospitals.

In a paper published in the online journal PLOS ONE, University of Adelaide researchers compared the health status of Baby Boomers (born from 1946-1965) and Generation X (1966-1980) at the same age range of 25-44 years.

The scans are anonymously labeled, so the researcher has a technician break the code to identify the individual in his family, and place his or her scan in its proper place. When he sees the results, however, Fallon immediately orders the technician to double check the code. But no mistake has been made: The brain scan that mirrors those of the psychopaths is his own.

Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309(1):71-82.

A. The main two surgical approaches for obesity treatment are gastric banding and gastric bypass. Band surgery is reversible, while bowel shortening operations (bypass) are not. Here is more information about being a candidte for surgery- http://www.5min.com/Video/Weight-Loss-Surgery-To-Be-a-Surgical-Candidate-5007

The results of this pilot study suggest that changes in weight, body composition, dietary intake, physical function, and insulin sensitivity following an intensive lifestyle therapy may be sustained long-term even without contact. However, this study was limited by the small sample size, high potential for selection bias, lack of a control group, and potential for under-reporting food intake. In addition, the participants who did not return for follow-up may have had outcomes that were different from those participating in this pilot study. Moreover, without a non-weight loss control group, it was not possible to separate the effects of weight loss from the aging process, per se on the variables of interest.

Drinking water should be obvious, but many people of all ages drink less than they should and are dehydrated on a regular basis. Older people are at an especially high risk of being hospitalized due to dehydration. Carrying a water bottle wherever you go and how many full bottles you should drink per day is a good way to start paying attention to your water intake.

Jump up ^ McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Pride C, Fawcett A, Grassi T, Jones B (May 2005). “Prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved”. Vet. Rec. 156 (22): 695–702. doi:10.1136/vr.156.22.695. PMID 15923551.

Your exercise can be done all at one time or intermittently over the day. Initial activities may be walking or swimming at a slow pace. Your regimen can be adapted to other forms of physical activity, but walking is a particularly smart choice because of its safety and accessibility. Increase activity by undertaking frequent, less strenuous exercises, such as walking up and down the stairs instead of the using the elevator. You may eventually be able to engage in more strenuous activities such as tennis or any form of group sport.

If you are Asian, your health may be at risk if you have a BMI of 27.5 or higher and you have unhealthy eating patterns and too little physical activity. Also, health problems are seen with a smaller waist size. In Asian women, a waist size of 32 in. (80 cm) or more raises the chance for disease. In Asian men, a waist size of 36 in. (90 cm) or more raises the chance for disease.2

Your Body Mass Index is a calculation designed to determine the percentage of your weight that is comprised of fat.  A BMI between 20 and 25 is generally considered normal.  This is just an estimation and body types will vary. 

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). In this procedure, your stomach is separated into two pouches with an inflatable band. Pulling the band tight, like a belt, the surgeon creates a tiny channel between the two pouches. The band keeps the opening from expanding and is generally designed to stay in place permanently.

“Obesity has become the new smoking—it’s a major driver of ill health, with coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes highest on the list of preventable illnesses. Obesity also costs billions of dollars to our economy each year. Anything we can do to mitigate the damage being done to both generations of Australians by obesity will be hugely important for the future of our nation.”

The amount of stomach acid you produce decreases with age or certain medications. This may put you at risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency and symptoms like depression and fatigue. Supplements and fortified foods, such as orange juice, milk and yogurt are usually well-absorbed by your body.

Obesity is a major public health problem and the leading nutritional disorder in the U.S. It is responsible for more than 280,000 deaths annually in this country. A widely accepted definition of obesity is body weight that is 20% or more in excess of ideal weight:height ratio according to actuarial tables. By this definition, 34% of adults in the U.S. are obese. The National Institutes of Health have defined obesity as a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more, and overweight as a BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2. By these criteria, two thirds of adults are either overweight or obese. There is strong evidence that the prevalence of obesity is increasing in both children and adults. Increases are particularly striking among African-Americans and Mexican-Americans. More than 80% of black women over the age of 40 are overweight, and 50% are obese. Among factors blamed for the steady increase in the prevalence of obesity are unhealthful eating practices (high-fat diet, overlarge portions) and the decline in physical activity associated with use of automobiles and public transportation instead of walking, labor-saving devices including computers, and passive forms of entertainment and recreation (television, computer games). Despite efforts of public health authorities to educate the public about the dangers of obesity, it is widely viewed as a cosmetic rather than a medical problem. Obesity is an independent risk factor for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, certain malignancies (cancer of the colon, rectum, and prostate in men and of the breast, cervix, endometrium, and ovary in women), obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation syndrome, osteoarthritis and other orthopedic disorders, infertility, lower extremity venous stasis disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and urinary stress incontinence. Lesser degrees of obesity can constitute a significant health hazard in the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, or their associated risk factors. Body fat distribution in central (abdominal or male pattern, with an increased waist:hip ratio) versus peripheral (gluteal or female pattern) adipose tissue depots is associated with higher risks of many of these disorders. Obese people are more liable to injury, more difficult to examine by palpation and imaging techniques, and more likely to have unsuccessful outcomes and complications from surgical operations. Not least among the adverse effects of obesity are social stigmatization, poor self-image, and psychological stress. Weight reduction is associated with improvement in most of the health risks of obesity. All treatments for obesity (other than cosmetic surgical procedures in which subcutaneous fat is mechanically removed) require creation of an energy deficit by reducing caloric intake, increasing physical exercise, or both. Basic weight reduction programs involve consumption of a restricted-calorie, low-fat diet and performance of at least 30 minutes of endurance-type physical activity of at least moderate intensity on most and preferably all days of the week. Behavior modification therapy, hypnosis, anorexiant drugs (sympathomimetic agents, sibutramine), the lipase inhibitor orlistat, and surgical procedures to reduce gastric capacity or intestinal absorption of nutrients are useful in selected cases, but the emphasis should be on establishing permanent changes in lifestyle. Weight reduction is not recommended during pregnancy or in patients with osteoporosis, cholelithiasis, severe mental illness including anorexia nervosa, or terminal illness.

The AP’s poll was conducted from June 3-12 by Knowledge Networks of Menlo Park, Calif., and involved online interviews with 1,416 adults, including 1,078 baby boomers born between 1946 and 1964. Knowledge Networks used traditional telephone and mail sampling methods to randomly recruit respondents. People selected who had no Internet access were given it free.

If your doctor says you’re overweight, that means “you’re slightly over what’s considered healthy,” says Y. Claire Wang, MD. She’s co-director of the Obesity Prevention Initiative at Columbia University.

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Finally, cumulative attrition of the most vulnerable fraction of the obese population brought about by premature mortality of those subjects who do not survive the late-midlife years leaves only the most biologically advantaged obese survivors for “nonbiased” epidemiological analysis of obesity in advanced years. If one accepts that obesity increases mortality in younger years, attempted comparison between age-matched obese and lean humans in the older age inevitably leads to the study of two highly unequal cohorts of which only one has been subjected to the Darwinian process of obesity-related boomers are currently in mid-life and over the next several decades they will swell the ranks of those aged 65 and over. Their entry into this age group will have a significant impact in a number of areas but particularly in relation to the type and extent of health services required. Obesity is a major health issue for this cohort as its members are significantly over-represented in both the overweight and obese categories compared to the rest of the population. In addition, they are significantly more likely to have multiple risk factors. This review considers how alterations to lifestyle, initiated by the rapid social changes of the last half century, might have contributed to obesity within this cohort. In providing this broad overview it focuses on how increased affluence and changes to everyday institutions have affected the cultures around food consumption. This includes a consideration of both the internal and external ways in which eating environments are now constructed. This review suggests that further research is needed to identify the factors which facilitate or constrain healthy ageing in the baby boom cohort. Research along these lines also needs to consider both macro- and micro-level changes to the social context within which these factors arise. This is essential as the high levels of obesity in this cohort may reflect both an individual and a structural lag in adapting lifestyles and policies to meet the needs of this very different social environment.
What and how much a person eats. This aspect may involve keeping a food diary and developing a better understanding of the nutritional value and fat content of foods. It may also involve changing grocery-shopping habits (e.g., buying only what is on a prepared list and only going on a certain day), timing of meals (to prevent feelings of hunger, a person may plan frequent, small meals), and actually slowing down the rate at which a person eats.
Gastric bypass surgery—helps you lose weight by changing how your stomach and small intestine handle the food you eat. After the surgery, you will not be able to eat as much as before, and your body will not absorb all the calories and other nutrients from the food you eat.
Environmental factors: The most important environmental factor is lifestyle. Your eating habits and activity level are partly learned from the people around you. Overeating and sedentary habits (inactivity) are the most important risk factors for obesity.
The diet should be safe. It should include all of the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for vitamins, minerals, and protein. The weight-loss diet should be low in calories (energy) only, not in essential foodstuffs.
As you age, your metabolism slows down. This causes weight gain in women. Fight weight gain by using a reduced-calorie diet. Diet requirements will vary by height and weight, however. MayoClinic.com offers its Healthy Pyramid Tool, allowing women to calculate daily calorie and food serving requirements. As a general rule, you need to consume fruits, vegetables and whole grain carbohydrates. Lean protein sources, like nuts and fresh water fish, are also eaten. Fats are consumed in moderation, however, should come from healthy sources, like olive oil.
Medical weight management programs and bariatric surgery may be recommended to reverse these life-altering and life-threatening health conditions and to help your adolescent get started on the path to lifelong health.
For children and adolescents (younger than 20 years of age), overweight and obesity are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) BMI-for-age growth charts, which are available at http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/clinical_charts.htm:
Lars Sjöström, M.D., Ph.D., Anna-Karin Lindroos, Ph.D., Markku Peltonen, Ph.D., Jarl Torgerson, M.D., Ph.D., Claude Bouchard, Ph.D., Björn Carlsson, M.D., Ph.D., Sven Dahlgren, M.D., Ph.D., Bo Larsson, M.D., Ph.D., Kristina Narbro, Ph.D., Carl David Sjöström, M.D., Ph.D., Marianne Sullivan, Ph.D., Hans Wedel, Ph.D.. “Lifestyle, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors 10 Years after Bariatric Surgery.” New England Journal of Medicine. Volume 351:2683-2693, December 23, 2004.
Yan, L.L, Daviglus, M.L., Liu, K., Pirzada, A., Garside, D.B., Schiffer, L., et al. (2004). Body mass index and health-related quality of life in adults 65 years and older. Obesity Research, 12, 69-76.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) (1998). Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults (PDF). International Medical Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1-58808-002-1.
Waist circumference is a less-common method used to measure obesity in an individual. This simple measurement indicates obesity and morbid obesity in adults by measuring your waist. To find your waist circumference, wrap a tape measure around the area above your hip bone and below your rib cage.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a mathematical calculation involving height and weight, irrespective of family history, gender, age or race. BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s body weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared (weight [kg] height [m]2) or by using the conversion with pounds (lbs) and inches (in) squared as shown below, This number can be  misleading, however, for very muscular people, or for pregnant or lactating women.
What makes you overeat? Coffee break at work? Going out with friends? Watching TV? Late-afternoon energy lag? Late-night sweet tooth? Are you the one who finishes the last serving of dinner just so there won’t be any leftovers? Do you eat high-calorie fast foods or snacks because you don’t have time or energy to cook? Having some insight into your overeating habits helps you to avoid your problem situations and reach your weight goal.
Exercise. People who are overweight or obese need to get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity physical activity to prevent further weight gain or to maintain the loss of a modest amount of weight. To achieve more-significant weight loss, you may need to exercise 300 minutes or more a week. You probably will need to gradually increase the amount you exercise as your endurance and fitness improve.
The study adds to evidence that while Americans are living longer these days, they may be living sicker. The 2012 America’s Health Rankings reported upticks in risk factors that drive chronic diseases, such as obesity and inactivity.
Rucker, who is obese herself, says she doesn’t expect her older patients to lose a lot of weight. “I think you’ll see weight loss of 10 to 20 pounds, but whether you’re going to see people lose 50 to 100 pounds as they’re older, I doubt it,” says Rucker.
Slightly more than one-half (52 percent) of those needing help with personal care and daily tasks were not obese. And, less than 4 percent of even the most severely obese group (body mass index of 40 or greater) reported needing help with personal care.
Also, you might’ve heard about studies that show links to air pollution, viruses, exposure to certain chemicals, or even the bacteria in a person’s gut. But they don’t prove that those things cause obesity.
NHLBI Systematic Evidence Reviews Support Development of Guidelines for Overweight and Obese Adults. We continue to perform systematic reviews of the latest science. These reviews help partner organizations update their clinical guidelines, which health professionals use to treat adults who are overweight or obese. Visit Managing Overweight and Obesity in Adults: Systematic Evidence Review from the Obesity Expert Panel for more information.
Until the late 1980s, malnutrition was widespread among poor Chileans, especially children. Today, three-quarters of adults are overweight or obese, according to the country’s health ministry. Officials have been particularly alarmed by childhood obesity rates that are among the world’s highest, with over half of 6-year-old children overweight or obese.
Let’s go shopping. We can start at Whole Foods Market, a critical link in the wholesome-eating food chain. There are three Whole Foods stores within 15 minutes of my house—we’re big on real food in the suburbs west of Boston. Here at the largest of the three, I can choose from more than 21 types of tofu, 62 bins of organic grains and legumes, and 42 different salad greens.
Among a cohort of 250 residents of a Dutch nursing home, after adjusting for age and sex, a significant relationship was seen between body weight and mobility (p < 0.0001), appetite (p < 0.001), thirst (p < 0.01) and consumption of extra food (p < 0.0001).10 In multivariate analysis, only difficulties in bringing food to the mouth and chewing were significantly associated with weight loss. Similarly, in a cross-sectional study involving 109 patients (99% male) admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit in the United States, oral problems were the strongest predictor of substantial, involuntary weight loss in the year before admission.11 In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss.[167] In the long term; however, all types of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets appear equally beneficial.[167][168] A 2014 review found that the heart disease and diabetes risks associated with different diets appear to be similar.[169] Promotion of the Mediterranean diets among the obese may lower the risk of heart disease.[167] Decreased intake of sweet drinks is also related to weight-loss.[167] Success rates of long-term weight loss maintenance with lifestyle changes are low, ranging from 2–20%.[170] Dietary and lifestyle changes are effective in limiting excessive weight gain in pregnancy and improve outcomes for both the mother and the child.[171] Intensive behavioral counseling is recommended in those who are both obese and have other risk factors for heart disease.[172] Stick to water. Skip high-calorie beverages, such as soda, fruit smoothies, and fancy coffee drinks. There are approximately nine packages of sugar and close to 150 calories in one 12-oz can of soda or juice. Smoothies and coffee drinks are often 250 -500 calories, excluding the whipped cream. Instead, choose low- or no-calorie drinks, such as green tea or fruit-infused water. The body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to determine whether someone is affected by excess weight or obesity. This is a measurement that is calculated using a person’s weight and height. As the BMI increases, the likelihood of being affected by obesity increases as well. Physicians are required to calculate and record this number in their patient’s chart. As a screening tool, it helps them identify weight issues that need to be addressed. Nevertheless, there are instances where this marker is not completely accurate. This can happen in the young and old alike but for different reasons. As it doesn’t differentiate between the type of excess body weight, it cannot determine if the excess weight consists of muscle or fat. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Researchers are also trying to understand why the association between obesity and the risks of some cancers vary among racial/ethnic groups. For example, obesity has been found to be more strongly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer among African American men than among white men (49). This observation might reflect a difference in the biological effects of obesity between these two groups, such as a difference in the effects of obesity on inflammation or insulin secretion. Gallstones are more common in people who are significantly overweight, and especially in those who have been obese for a long period of time. In many cases the "gallstones" themselves are mainly "cholesterol stones". Adds Chodzko-Zajko: "If an older adult is somewhat overweight but not obese, and they have a reasonable lifestyle and they can minimize risk factors for cardiovascular disease and hypertension and they're functional, that's not so bad." In January, a meta-analysis by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention senior scientist Katherine Flegal caused a stir when she concluded that being older than 65 and overweight helps people to live longer than their skinnier peers. The findings also claimed that obesity becomes less dangerous with age, and obese adults with a grade 1 obesity BMI of 30 to 34.9 did not have a greater mortality risk than someone of a healthy weight. Quick weight-loss methods do not lead to lasting results. Relying on diet aids like drinks, prepackaged foods or pills don't work over the long term. No matter how much weight you wish to lose, modest goals and a slow pace will increase your chances of losing the weight and keeping it off. [redirect url='https://betahosts.com/bump' sec='7']

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In 2016, an estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight or obese. Once considered a high-income country problem, overweight and obesity are now on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. In Africa, the number of overweight children under 5 has increased by nearly 50 per cent since 2000. Nearly half of the children under 5 who were overweight or obese in 2016 lived in Asia.

Another prospective trial randomized 29 dieticians to the provision of usual nutritional care or a new medical nutritional therapy protocol for prevention and treatment of unexplained weight loss among long-term care residents.19 The new protocol emphasized assessment; intervention (including weighing frequency); communication with staff, medical doctor, family and resident; and reassessment. Fourteen out of 364 residents (4%) admitted with significant pre-existing weight loss were successfully treated within 90 days after admission. Dieticians in both groups were equally successful at treating pre-existing weight loss when it was identified. Differences were found in nutritional care activities. Dieticians providing the new protocol reported more nutritional assessment activities, whereas dieticians providing usual care reported more interventional activities.

While baby boomers are living longer than any previous generation, they also have the dubious distinction of having the highest rates of obesity for their age bracket than any other generation. In 1994, 31 percent of those between the ages of 55 and 64 were obese; by 2002, the rate had climbed to 39 percent [source: Trust for America’s Health].

In addition to suffering from poor physical health, overweight and obese children can often be targets of early social discrimination. The psychological stress of social stigmatization can cause low self-esteem which, in turn, can hinder academic and social functioning, and persist into adulthood. While research is still being conducted, there have been some studies showing that obese children are not learning as well as those who are not obese. Further, physical fitness has been shown to be associated with higher achievement.

Collaboration NCDRF. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants. Lancet 2016; 387: 1377–1396.

Making healthier choices. To make your overall diet healthier, eat more plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables and whole-grain carbohydrates. Also emphasize lean sources of protein — such as beans, lentils and soy — and lean meats. If you like fish, try to include fish twice a week. Limit salt and added sugar. Stick with low-fat dairy products. Eat small amounts of fats, and make sure they come from heart-healthy sources, such as olive, canola and nut oils.

More recently, investigators conducted a systematic review of 89 studies on weight-related diseases and then did a statistical summary, or meta-analysis, of the data. Of the 18 weight-related diseases they studied, diabetes was at the top of the risk list: Compared with men and women in the normal weight range (BMI lower than 25), men with BMIs of 30 or higher had a sevenfold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and women with BMIs of 30 or higher had a 12-fold higher risk. (4)

If you have too much body fat, you are obese, just like over 70 million other Americans. It happens because you eat more calories than you use, and your body converts the excess to fat. There are lots of reasons that this can happ…

Sadly, Wilhelm’s father’s condition wasn’t treatable, and he passed away a few months after being diagnosed with terminal cancer; but not before Wilhelm spent her weekends being his caregiver. “Taking care of my father was not easy on my new marriage, or myself,” she says, “but I would not change a thing. I did what would make my father the happiest. We have to make sacrifices for family.”

The first step must be to evaluate each diet to confirm whether it is actually good for your health. There is little point in undertaking a diet which will allow you to eat all your favorite foods but will not make you any healthier. Once you have removed the diets which are not actually healthy your list will be much shorter.

May qualify for Gastric Balloon. This BMI range may also qualify for other procedures if the patient has poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, or suffers from another weight-related health issue.

People who are overweight or obese often have health problems that may increase the risk for heart disease. These health problems include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and high blood sugar. In addition, excess weight may cause changes to your heart that make it work harder to send blood to all the cells in your body.

It’s not your imagination — as the years have passed, your body has become softer and less muscular. From age 25 to age 75, body fat typically doubles, according to University of Rochester Medical Center, and your lean muscle mass decreases. This decrease in muscle mass means your body needs fewer calories to maintain your weight, but if you keep eating like you did as a younger adult, your weight will go up. If you plan to skip the gym and focus solely on controlling your food intake for your weight-loss efforts, think again. Obese seniors age 65 to 85 had the most weight-loss success when they both dieted and exercised, according to a study published in 2011 in “The New England Journal of Medicine.”

Significant regulation of junk food may not go far, but we have other tools at our disposal to prod Big Food to intensify and speed up its efforts to cut fat and problem carbs in its offerings, particularly if we’re smart about it. Lenard Lesser points out that government and advocacy groups could start singling out particular restaurants and food products for praise or shaming—a more official version of “eat this, not that”—rather than sticking to a steady drumbeat of “processed food must go away.” Academia could do a much better job of producing and highlighting solid into less obesogenic, high-mass-appeal foods, and could curtail its evidence-light anti-food-processing bias, so that the next generation of social and policy entrepreneurs might work to narrow the gap between the poor obese and the well-resourced healthy instead of inadvertently widening it. We can keep pushing our health-care system to provide more incentives and support to the obese for losing weight by making small, painless, but helpful changes in their behavior, such as switching from Whoppers to turkey burgers, from Egg McMuffins to Egg White Delights, or from blueberry crisp to fruit-and-yogurt parfaits.

A new federally funded national study has been designed to answer this sort of question, according to Freedman. The National Health and Aging Trends Study led by Johns Hopkins University researchers, is following more than 8,000 older Americans annually, to explore how their daily lives change as they age. Rather than relying exclusively on reports from participants, researchers are also giving short performance tests to measure physical and cognitive function.

As societies become increasingly reliant on energy-dense, big-portions, and fast-food meals, the association between fast-food consumption and obesity becomes more concerning.[100] In the United States consumption of fast-food meals tripled and food energy intake from these meals quadrupled between 1977 and 1995.[101]

These physical effects are not the only health risks of obesity. Health also includes mental health and social and emotional well-being, all of which can also be adversely affected by obesity. It is easier to measure, record and compare physical conditions but other effects such as depression, guilt, self-blame, embarrassment (e.g. to go swimming or participate in other sports), social isolation, and in some cases even the effects of bullying or harassment, should not be ignored.

Taking a walk everyday is good for the body and the mind. Walking outside is a quiet time for the mind to relax and unwind, while giving your body low impact exercise. Walking just a mile every day keeps your muscles and joints engaged so that they maintain and improve their strength.

It’s been proven that obesity puts severe strain on your dog’s body and will contribute to bone and joint problems like arthritis and hip dysplasia. Senior obese dogs are also more prone to skin and urinary tract problems. There are quite a few other diseases that are caused by being overweight, thus it’s important for you to address this problem right away and keep an eye on your dog’s weight to prevent other illnesses.

Moreno also suggests that seniors be especially careful to achieve a diet that is nutritionally balanced but provides plenty of protein. For most adults, this means including a source of lean protein at every meal. Sources of protein might include eggs, egg whites, fish, chicken, turkey, and lean cuts of meat.

When a panel of health and nutrition experts ranked 35 diets for Best Diets 2015, they considered not only weight loss, but also whether diets were heart healthy, good for controlling diabetes and easy to follow. Now, two panel members discuss which U.S. News-ranked diets make the most sense for seniors.

You may be able to make progress in weight loss for seniors and achieving your ideal weight by consuming the ideal number of calories. According to health.gov, the total number of calories a person needs per day varies depending on age, sex, height, weight and physical activity. Due to a decrease in basal metabolic rates that happen as someone ages, caloric needs also generally decrease for adults as they age.

Surgery to correct obesity (known as bariatric surgery) is a solution for some obese people who cannot lose weight on their own or have severe obesity-related medical problems. Generally, surgery is recommended only for morbidly obese people (body mass index 40 or greater). This means men who are at least 100 pounds overweight and women who are at least 80 pounds overweight.

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3. Park YW, Zhu S, Palaniappan L, Heshka S, Carnethon MR, Heymsfield SB: The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 427– 436 [PMC free article] [PubMed]

The next consideration is how do you actually lost the weight? Here we rely on the same tried and true method – eating less and exercising more to burn more calories. Unfortunately, this requires lifestyle changes. It takes a lot of patience, support and perseverance to make permanent changes.

^ Jump up to: a b c Colquitt, JL; Pickett, K; Loveman, E; Frampton, GK (Aug 8, 2014). “Surgery for weight loss in adults”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Meta-analysis, Review). 8 (8): CD003641. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003641.pub4. PMID 25105982.

Doctors sometimes prescribe fluoxetine (Prozac), an antidepressant that can increase weight loss by about 10%. Weight loss may be temporary and side effects of this medication include diarrhea, fatigue, insomnia, nausea, and thirst. Weight-loss drugs currently being developed or tested include ones that can prevent fat absorption or digestion; reduce the desire for food and prompt the body to burn calories more quickly; and regulate the activity of substances that control eating habits and stimulate overeating.

The aging of the baby boom generation could fuel a 75 percent increase in the number of Americans ages 65 and older requiring nursing home care, to about 2.3 million in 2030 from 1.3 million in 2010, the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) projects in a new report.

The prevalence of obesity in the United States (US) is increasing in all age groups. During the past 30 years, the proportion of older adults who are obese has doubled (Patterson, Frank, Kristal, & White 2004). The increased number of obese older adults is seen both as an increase in the total number of older obese persons in our population and as an increase in the percentage of the population that is obese (Villareal, Apovian, Kushner, & Klein, 2005). In spite of the increase in obesity among older adults, it is important to note that the majority of older adults are not obese and continue to lead active and healthy lives. The goal of this article is to raise nurses’ awareness of the challenges of obesity in older adults. This article will describe the prevalence and causes of obesity among older adults, as well as the consequences of obesity in older adults. Recommendations for interventions to address obesity will be provided. Differences between two groups of older persons, those 50 to 65 years of age, and those over 65 years of age, will be addressed.

Psychosocial effects – In a culture where often the ideal of physical attractiveness is to be overly thin, people who are overweight or obese frequently suffer disadvantages. Overweight and obese persons are often blamed for their condition and may be considered to be lazy or weak-willed. It is not uncommon for overweight or obese conditions to result in persons having lower incomes or having fewer or no romantic relationships. Disapproval of overweight persons expressed by some individuals may progress to bias, discrimination, and even torment.

Social and economic issues. Research has linked social and economic factors to obesity. Avoiding obesity is difficult if you don’t have safe areas to exercise. Similarly, you may not have been taught healthy ways of cooking, or you may not have money to buy healthier foods. In addition, the people you spend time with may influence your weight — you’re more likely to become obese if you have obese friends or relatives.

The convenience of home-delivered meals makes them a great option to help people stay in their own home, for a longer period of time. When you are spending less time preparing meals, this allows seniors to stay socially engaged and more active on a daily basis. Senior nutrition is vital to increase quality of life and maintain health in older adults.

Diet and exercise, as always, remain the best ways to treat obesity. Diets should be loaded with fresh vegetables and fruits to help stop weight gain. Remember, as we age we tend towards less physical activity, which decreases our calorie needs. Seniors should eat portions based on their personal caloric needs, but ensure they maintain appropriate nutritional levels -regardless of portion size. One of the best ways to reduce calories is to eliminate fatty, sugary snacks and replace them with healthy nuts and fruits.Getting regular exercise – even light activities like walking – is important to maintaining a healthy weight and lifestyle.

Medical experts report that obesity raises the risk of developing some cancers, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, diabetes and coronary heart disease.  Obese Medicare beneficiaries are estimated to cost 34% more than their non-obese/overweight peers. According to the Poll, approximately 77 million US baby boomers may be eligible for Medicare coverage.

Jump up ^ Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C (January 2012). “The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach”. Journal of Health Economics. 31 (1): 219–30. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.10.003. PMID 22094013.

The National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health, recommends four types of exercises that older Americans should include in their workout: endurance activities, such as walking, biking, or swimming; strength training, such as light weightlifting, to reduce age-related muscle loss; stretching, to maintain flexibility; and balance exercises, to reduce the likelihood of falls.

Smoking has a significant effect on an individual’s weight. Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4.4 kilograms (9.7 lb) for men and 5.0 kilograms (11.0 lb) for women over ten years.[139] However, changing rates of smoking have had little effect on the overall rates of obesity.[140]

^ Jump up to: a b c d Poulain M, Doucet M, Major GC, Drapeau V, Sériès F, Boulet LP, Tremblay A, Maltais F (April 2006). “The effect of obesity on chronic respiratory diseases: pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies”. CMAJ. 174 (9): 1293–99. doi:10.1503/cmaj.051299. PMC 1435949 . PMID 16636330.

Your waist circumference (which you can find by placing a measuring snugly around your waist) is a good indicator of your abdominal fat. This is another predictor of developing risk for heart disease and other illnesses. This risk increases with a waist measurement of over 40 inches in men and over 35 inches in women.

JoAnn Manson, MD, chief of preventive medicine at Harvard University’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and her Harvard colleagues took a look at last year’s CDC findings soon after they were published. They excluded smokers and people who might have already been ill when enrolled in the trial.

Although there is no specific treatment for fatty liver disease, patients are generally advised to lose weight, eat a healthy diet, increase physical activity, and avoid drinking alcohol. If you have fatty liver disease, lowering your body weight to a healthy range may improve liver tests and reverse the disease to some extent.

Oct. 12, 2017 — Research into the effects of brain stimulation on athletes’ performance has demonstrated that it is an effective way to improve endurance. The findings are expected to advance understanding of … read more

American Obesity Association: This group itself is not for profit, but it is made up of several types of sponsors, including professional groups such as the American College of Nutrition as well as health-insurance interests, for-profit companies such as drug and biotechnology companies, and weight-loss interests such as Jenny Craig, Inc., and Weight Watchers, Inc. The group’s purpose is to change the way obesity is perceived and to end discrimination against obese people, as well as to find more effective strategies for preventing and “curing” obesity. It uses lobbying, advocacy, and education to achieve these goals.

Nicki Howell started her professional writing career in 2002, specializing in areas such as health, fitness and personal finance. She has been published at health care websites, such as HealthTree, and is a ghostwriter for a variety of small health care organizations. She earned a Bachelor of Science in business administration from Portland State University.

Treatment focuses on underlying etiology. Depression and nonmalignant GI diseases are common reversible causes.8 Interventions used to reverse or minimize further weight loss include nonpharmacologic (Table 1) and pharmacologic (Table 2), the former being first-line. Follow-up weekly weight checks are recommended.

The treatment plan for weight loss involves eating fewer calories than your body needs, getting aerobic exercise for 30 minutes most days of the week and learning the skills to change unhealthy behaviors.

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[4] Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 1960–1962 through 2011–2014. National Center for Health Statistics Data, Health E-Stats, July 2016. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_adult_13_14/obesity_adult_13_14.htm. Accessed July 25, 2017.
Keep moving. Even though regular aerobic exercise is the most efficient way to burn calories and shed excess weight, any extra movement helps burn calories. Making simple changes throughout your day can add up to big benefits. Park farther from store entrances, rev up your household chores, garden, get up and move around periodically, and wear a pedometer to track how many steps you actually take over the course of a day.
Davidson says people with high cholesterol do better with low-saturated fat diets that call for low-fat dairy sources, lean red meats and fish. It’s important for seniors with high cholesterol to avoid sweet baked goods with trans fats, he says: “We now recognize that trans fats as especially bad among all the fats we can consume.”
It may be beneficial to involve a social worker and/or a dietitian depending on the specific circumstances. This is particularly true if no identifiable health conditions are contributing to malnutrition or if the senior is living in poverty. Sedentary seniors should be encouraged to become more active, as exercise is a powerful appetite stimulant.
The prevalence of renal failure increases with age, and obesity is a significant risk factor for end-stage renal disease (46). Compiled data from 57 prospective studies clearly links obesity to mortality of kidney disease, such that death of renal disease increased progressively with BMI (47). Although age-specific trends were not provided, hazard ratio in this analysis was based on subjects up to the age of 79 years. A recent report indicated that increased waist-to-hip ratio was a significant and independent predictor of chronic renal disease in elderly Taiwanese (48). In a cross-sectional study in African Americans, increasing age and waist circumference were associated with increased chronic kidney disease (49). Collectively, this information suggests that obesity, particularly abdominal adiposity, imparts a negative effect on renal disease in the older population.
If you’ve got phrases like “Gaining weight is part of the aging process” or “Everybody my age is overweight” on repeat, it’s time for new mantras, says Cooper. “It’s important to avoid slipping into a mindset that will prevent you from losing weight,” he says. Find a crowd of like-minded peers who want to get fit and stay that way so that you surround yourself with as much support as possible. Perhaps you can find (or form!) a walking group (here are 5 easy ways to start your own walking group), or talk a few friends into joining you for water aerobics at the local pool. “Too often, what limits us from achieving our weight loss goals is all psychological.”
Millennials, you have tried taking them to Chipotle. You have tried lecturing them about not drinking Diet Coke. Keep trying, but consider giving them a book written for them by one of them. It will open their eyes, and hopefully their hearts, before it is too late for them and for you.
Physician-supervised weight-loss programs provide treatment in a clinical setting with a licensed healthcare professional, such as a medical doctor, nurse, registered dietitian and/or psychologist. These programs typically offer services such as nutrition education, pharmacotherapy, physical activity and behavioral therapy.
Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way.[182] Hippocrates wrote that “Corpulence is not only a disease itself, but the harbinger of others”.[2] The Indian surgeon Sushruta (6th century BCE) related obesity to diabetes and heart disorders.[191] He recommended physical work to help cure it and its side effects.[191] For most of human history mankind struggled with food scarcity.[192] Obesity has thus historically been viewed as a sign of wealth and prosperity. It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance[190] as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations.[193] In the 17th century, English medical author Tobias Venner is credited with being one of the first to refer to the term as a societal disease in a published English language book.[182][194]
And a study in a recent issue of the journal Demography–synthesizing the results of five national surveys—found increasing disability among those ages 55 to 64 between 2000 and 2008 (a group that included the oldest baby boomers).3 By contrast, disability levels continued to decline among the oldest Americans (ages 85 and older) and held steady among the elderly ages 65 to 84 during the same period, reported Vicki Freedman, a University of Michigan demographer and lead author.
Jump up ^ Weng HH, Bastian LA, Taylor DH, Moser BK, Ostbye T (2004). “Number of children associated with obesity in middle-aged women and men: results from the health and retirement study”. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) (Comparative Study). 13 (1): 85–91. doi:10.1089/154099904322836492. PMID 15006281.
While policy guidelines suggest all adults get their heart rates up at least 150 minutes each week and strengthen their muscles twice a week, less than 8 percent of adults over age 70 do that, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But exercise – and particularly resistance training – is especially important among older adults to keep muscles and bones healthy. Fortunately, many programs at community centers, in gyms and even online can help older adults learn to move in ways that benefit their quality of life, experts say. Joe Acosta, for one, finds doing body weight exercises like pushups every other day at home helps ward off back pain. Other people his age looking to lose weight, he says, “have to make up their minds that they’re going to be active.”
Your whole body feels it, from your joints to your heart, blood pressure, blood sugar, and other systems. The extra fat cells produce inflammation and various hormones, which boosts your odds of chronic medical conditions.
Treatment for overweight and obesity depends on the cause and severity of your condition. Possible treatments include healthy lifestyle changes, behavioral weight-loss treatment programs, medicines, and possibly surgery. You may need treatments for any complications that you have.
Waist circumference is another widely used measurement to determine abdominal fat content. An excess of abdominal fat, when out of proportion to total body fat, is considered a predictor of risk factors related to obesity. Men with a waist measurement exceeding 40 inches are considered at risk. Women are at risk with a waist measurement of 35 inches or greater.
For example, fat “cushions” the release of various flavors on the tongue, unveiling them gradually and allowing them to linger. When fat is removed, flavors tend to immediately inundate the tongue and then quickly flee, which we register as a much less satisfying experience. Fona’s experts can reproduce the “temporal profile” of the flavors in fattier foods by adding edible compounds derived from plants that slow the release of flavor molecules; by replacing the flavors with similarly flavored compounds that come on and leave more slowly; or by enlisting “phantom aromas” that create the sensation of certain tastes even when those tastes are not present on the tongue. (For example, the smell of vanilla can essentially mask reductions in sugar of up to 25 percent.) One triumph of this sort of engineering is the modern protein drink, a staple of many successful weight-loss programs and a favorite of those trying to build muscle. “Seven years ago they were unpalatable,” Sobel said. “Today we can mask the astringent flavors and eggy aromas by adding natural ingredients.”
Lee JS, Visser M, Tylavsky FA, Kritchevshy SB, Schwartz AV, Sahyoun N, Harris TB, Newman AB. Weight loss and regain and effects on body composition: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:78–83. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
The most common malabsorptive surgery is the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in which the stomach is stapled to create a small pouch, and then part of the intestine is attached to this pouch to decrease food absorption.
There is some debate, however, about whether it’s good for elderly people to lose weight, even if they are obese. Some studies have found an association between weight loss in seniors and mortality risk, but Villareal says many of those studies did not distinguish between voluntary weight loss and involuntary weight loss that may be related to illness.
Jump up ^ Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna (15 February 2016). “Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior”. Current Neuropharmacology. 14 (2): 118–42. doi:10.2174/1570159X14666151109103147. PMC 4825944 . PMID 26549651.
Prediabetes is reversible, and with the right treatment, many prediabetics will never develop diabetes. But with current treatment, 25 percent of prediabetics will develop diabetes within 3-5 years, while up to an incredible 70 percent will develop diabetes long-term. What’s even more shocking, is that a mere 6.8 percent of people diagnosed with diabetes in 2011 or 2012 were given diabetes self-management training, according to the CDC.
Behavior modification is a fancy name for changing your attitude toward food and exercise. These changes promote new habits and attitudes that help you lose weight. Many people find they cannot lose weight or keep it off unless they change these attitudes. Behavior-modification techniques are easy to learn and practice. Most involve increasing your awareness of situations in which you overeat so that you can stop overeating.
The initial goal of weight-loss therapy should be to reduce body weight by about 10 percent from baseline. For the first six months, weight loss should be approximately one to two pounds per week. If necessary, the patient can continue to lose more weight.
Plan regular physical activity with a friend. Find a fun activity that you both enjoy, such as Zumba, jogging, biking or swimming. You are more likely to stick with that activity if you and a friend have committed to it.  
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The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery.[6] The types of procedures include laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, vertical-sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion.[173] Surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss, improvement in obesity related conditions,[177] and decreased overall mortality. One study found a weight loss of between 14% and 25% (depending on the type of procedure performed) at 10 years, and a 29% reduction in all cause mortality when compared to standard weight loss measures.[178] Complications occur in about 17% of cases and reoperation is needed in 7% of cases.[177] Due to its cost and risks, researchers are searching for other effective yet less invasive treatments including devices that occupy space in the stomach.[179]
Campbell says a very low-fat plan like the Ornish diet might less appropriate and harder for seniors to follow. Similarly, she says, the Biggest Loser diet would not be ideal, and the phases could be hard to comprehend.
Unhealthy diet and eating habits. Weight gain is inevitable if you regularly eat more calories than you burn. And most Americans’ diets are too high in calories and are full of fast food and high-calorie beverages.
A total of 2,309 prospective articles were initially identified. After removing duplicates and irrelevant studies, 90 articles were retained. Of these 90 articles, 83 were excluded for not meeting the inclusion criteria outlined previously. Three articles were manually added. The selection of articles was agreed upon by two authors (DLW and DTV). The final analysis yielded a total of ten articles meeting all established criteria (Figure 1). These articles are listed in Table 1. They are not ordered chronologically, but instead grouped by similarities between study design and intervention, for ease of discussion. Only one small pilot study was found under the category feasibility/maintenance of long-term weight loss in older adults that satisfied our study selection criteria. This study is not included in Table 1, but is discussed under the subheading 3.2 Feasibility and Long-term Maintenance of Weight Loss, in the Discussion of the Systematic Review section.
Visscher TL, Seidell JC, Molarius A, van der Kuip D, Hofman A, Witteman JC. A comparison of body mass index, waist-hip ratio and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly: the Rotterdam study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25: 1730–1735.
These changes often result in appetite reduction, increased satiety and a decline in the natural appreciation of food. Collectively, these conditions contribute to a condition referred to as the “anorexia of aging.” To further exacerbate the problem, older adults show a reduced ability to adapt to periods of under- or overeating. They gain or lose weight quickly, and do not easily return to their original weight following such periods. This makes the elderly population much more susceptible to unintended (and lasting) changes in weight.
Approximately one in every three baby boomers is actively doing something about the effects of aging, which may include efforts on physical health and mental abilities. Of those, only eight percent are making major moves to improve their looks.   The majority are sure they will live longer than their parents did.